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      v[T] cut sth into pieces with an sharp tool
      n[C] the act ¶ a thick slice of meat with a bone still in it
      If you chop something, you cut it into pieces with strong downward movements of a knife or an axe.
      If you chop something up, you chop it into small pieces.
      Can you chop up some cucumber for me?
      Chop the carrots into small cubes.
      Washington chopped a branch off the cherry tree.
      Bus services in this area have been chopped.
      When people chop and change, they keep changing their minds about what to do or how to act.
      Chop suey is a dish consisting of meat (often chicken, fish, beef, prawns, or pork) and eggs, cooked quickly with vegetables such as bean sprouts, cabbage, and celery and bound in a starch-thickened sauce.
      If someone is for the chop, they are going to lose their job or position.
      If you get the chop, your job is taken away from you.
      Four more staff got the chop last week; I was worried that I might be for the chop.
      I'm worried the project might get the chop.
      v[T] mention sth as a reason or an example ¶ quote ¶ summon sb to appear in a court of law, or name sb officially in a legal case ¶ mention sb because they deserve praise
      The judge cited earlier cases which have asserted that competent adults have an "absolute" right to refuse treatment, for any reason or none.
      Another Spectrem poll, from a month earlier, has been cited by CNN Money as evidence that millionaires do not support the Buffett Rule.
      Under the headline, "He Loved His Squab," another correspondent cited a passage from a cookbook that had been written by a European chef.
      The first was in July, when he was cited for driving over the speed limit, allegedly to escape paparazzi.
      It wasn't just Facebook that was cited in divorce cases though - Twitter appeared in 20 petitions as part of behaviour allegations.
      She was cited for bravery in the Gulf War.
      v[T] give sb the enthusiasm to do or create sth ¶ give people a particular feeling ¶ give sb the idea for sth
      Jordan inspired many young people to take up the sport.
      Through its achievements, NASA has inspired generations of Americans to study science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, leading to careers that drive our country's technological and economic engines.
      Inspired by Nicola Adam's gold-medal-winning performance, and equally appalled that this was the first Olympics ever to feature women's boxing, I felt inspired to do something with my existing love of fitness.
      I hope her success will inspire you to greater efforts.
      Our first sight of the dingy little hotel did not inspire us with much confidence.
      Like TiVo, this degree of control, once experienced, inspires great loyalty; the praise of iPod users echoes that of TiVo owners, both of whom often remark on how they can't believe they ever lived without the devices.
      This story was inspired by Charles Dickens' Christmas Carol and focuses on Scrooge.
      adv only with great difficulty or effort ¶ almost not ¶ only a very short time before ¶ only
      Ross and Chandler had barely finished their coffee when the bullies returned.
      The village had barely 100 inhabitants.
      The roads were barely wide enough for two cars to pass.
      Mary had barely enough money to live on.
      She could barely understand English.
      She was very old and barely able to walk.
      She had barely enough to pay the rent this month.
      She was so dizzy she could barely stand.
      John was in the coffee house; it was 39 ºC and the air conditioning barely cooled the room.
      John had barely finished his coffee when Mary entered.
      She was barely aware of his presence.
      "Mary, it is me." "John?" her voice was barely audible.
      He was barely 12 years old when he left the village.
      n[UC] a medical operation to end a pregnancy at an early stage
      Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by the removal or forcing out from the womb of a fetus or embryo before it is able to survive on its own.
      An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is often called a miscarriage.
      It can also be purposely caused in which case it is known as an induced abortion.
      The term abortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy.
      The similar procedure after the fetus may be able to survive on its own is medically known as a "late termination of pregnancy".
      Modern medicine uses medications or surgical methods for induced abortion.
      When she got pregnant at 16 she decided to have an abortion.
      Her mom is an anti-abortion campaigner.
      The doctor didn't carry out an abortion on her.
      The number of abortions performed each year is dropping.
      n[C] shallow place in a river or stream where one can walk or drive across
      v[T] walk or drive across a river or stream across a shallow part
      A ford is a shallow place with good footing where a river or stream may be crossed by wading or inside a vehicle.
      A ford is mostly a natural phenomenon, in contrast to a low water crossing, which is an artificial bridge that allows crossing a river or stream when water is low.
      The church of St John the Baptist stands close to the site of an ancient ford over the river.
      The enemy was guarding the bridge, so we forded the river.
      The surname Ford has several origins. In some cases it originated as a name for someone who lived in near a ford.
      Henry Ford was a US businessman and engineer, who started making cars in 1896 and established the Ford Motor Company. He developed the idea of the assembly line.
      Harrison Ford was a US actor who was famous for appearing in films about exciting adventures, such as Star Wars, and for appearing as the character Indiana Jones in a series of films.
      n[C] sb who does not belong to the military or the police
      Attacks against the civilian population or civilians by way of reprisals are prohibited.
      One reason for the large numbers of civilian casualties, of course, is the fact that Gazan weapons production and infrastructures are located within the confines of one of the world's most densely populated ghettos.
      As an increasing number of our servicemembers return home and transition to civilian life, it is especially critical that charitable organizations supporting them act as good stewards of the American people's goodwill and generosity towards our veterans.
      Despite the range of options in terms of the civilian government, there is always the looming possibility of a military takeover.
      One of Bin Laden's driving propaganda tools was the raw memory of civilian deaths inflicted onto populations by western forces.
      There is no easy way back to civilian rule if the current army rulers were to lose control.
      And we had a trip out to Niagara Falls and there was me in civilian clothes and the other girls were in their uniforms, very proud. However, I did finally get my uniform.
      The UN defines peacekeeping as "the deployment of international military and civilian personnel to a conflict area with the consent of the parties to the conflict in order to: stop or contain hostilities or supervise the carrying out of a peace agreement."
      n[U] beautiful movement/look ¶ polite and pleasant behavior ¶ love/kindness God gives ¶ prayer of thanks ¶ extra time to so sth
      n[pl] the skills needed to behave in a way that is considered polite and socially acceptable
      v[T] make sth more attractive, pleasing, or interesting
      Helen moved with the grace of a dancer.
      Joey smiled and accepted his defeat with good grace.
      Payment is due today, but I gave her a week's grace (an extra week) to pay.
      It was only by the grace of God that no one died.
      Shelly, will you say grace?
      I got a few days' grace to finish my essay.
      Communication skills, as well as basic social graces have been replaced by tweeting and texting.
      The Graces in Greek myth are three beautiful sister goddesses who gave beauty, charm and happiness to humans.
      Her face has graced the covers of magazines across the world.
      To grace someone or something with your presence is to bring honor to an occasion or group of people by coming to something.
      The occasion was graced by the presence of the Queen.
      n[UC] prison
      v[T] put sb in prison
      He'd gone to jail for fraud.
      He was jailed for eight years.
      He was serving an 8-year jail sentence.
      How long has he been in jail?
      He'd been in jail for three months already.
      With good behavior, he could be out of jail in seven years.
      He was released from jail last week.
      n[CU] large bird reared to be eaten, esp at Christmas or Thanksgiving ¶ meat from a ~ ¶ failure ¶ a silly person
      "Plus it smells really bad in here." "Well, of course it smells really bad. You have your head inside a turkey's ass!"
      Phoebe quickly pushes his head down onto the table to make it look like the turkey is just sitting on a platter and not stuck on Joey's head.
      My sister makes these amazing turkey sandwiches. Her secret is: she puts an extra slice of gravy soaked bread in the middle; I call it the Moist Maker.
      Cold turkey is the unpleasant physical reaction that people experience when they suddenly stop taking a drug that they have become addicted to.
      To talk turkey is to talk seriously about details, especially in business.
      Turkey is a country which is mainly in west Asia but partly in southeast Europe.
      Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria, Greece, Georgia, Armenia, Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan, Iraq and Syria. The Mediterranean Sea is to the south; the Aegean Sea is to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north.
      Until the early 20th century, Turkey was the center of the Ottoman Empire, whose capital city was Istanbul, Turkey's largest city.
      n[C] a doctor who practices general medicine
      Remember to tell your physician about drugs prescribed by other specialists.
      In 1919, many physicians in Ecuador began to receive training in foreign countries.
      Why do we have far fewer occupational physicians than our European neighbors?
      Several famous physicians had consulted over Ross' case without being able to give a name to the affection from which he suffered.
      adj connected with the human spirit ¶ religious
      n[C] a type of religious song
      The President was asked about his spiritual life last night on Nightline.
      I have hobbies and friends. I need time and personal space to fulfill my spiritual world.
      Health is the means of both natural and spiritual growth.
      As you grow on the spiritual path you will come to realize that pain is inevitable but misery is optional.
      Music provides an immensely satisfying spiritual experience for many people.
      The Pope is the spiritual leader of many Christians.
      Your spiritual home is a place where you feel you belong because you share the ideas and attitudes of that society.
      Spirituals (or Negro spirituals) are religious (generally Christian) songs that were created by enslaved African people in the United States.
      Spirituals were originally an oral tradition that imparted Christian values while also describing the hardships of slavery.
      Although spirituals were originally unaccompanied monophonic (unison) songs, they are best known today in harmonized choral arrangements.
      This historic group of uniquely American songs is now recognized as a distinct genre of music.
      v[T] make goods in large quantities ¶ produce a substance ¶ make up an untrue story, fabricate
      also a noun
      He works for a company that manufactures car parts.
      Diabetics don't manufacture enough insulin.
      Vitamins cannot be manufactured by our bodies.
      Because green plants can manufacture their own food, plants are called self-nourishing.
      She manufactured a false story to hide the facts.
      Oil is used in the manufacture of a number of fabrics.
      The date of manufacture of the jewelry has not been authenticated.
      In the next three to four years China's exports of labor-intensive manufactures is projected to decline.
      General Motors and the other big US car manufactures spent most of the last 20 years responding to short-term imperatives such as the quarterly share price and executives bonuses at the expense of the health of the business and the long term-wealth of their stockholders.
      v[IT] tell sth to a lot of people ¶ send out radio or TV programs
      also a noun
      I'm leaving but please don't broadcast the fact.
      This was due to the use of satellites to broadcast live television worldwide in 1964, and the introduction of color television in 1968.
      The interview will be broadcast on Prairie Pulse Nov. 23 at 7:30 p.m. with a rebroadcast on Nov. 24 at 5 p.m.
      The journalists from the major wire services and newspapers gave up watching the live broadcast and huddled in the press room debating what to do.
      Ross Miller and David Pierce will be hosting the broadcast live from our studio in New York.
      I was watching the broadcast of the Academy Awards on my hotel room television.
      Outside broadcasting (OB) is the electronic field production (EFP) of television or radio programmes (typically to cover television news and sports television events) from a mobile remote broadcast television studio.
      Professional video camera and microphone signals come into the production truck for processing, recording and possibly transmission.
      v[IT] encourage, promote ¶ take care of a child as part of your family for a period of time
      also an adjective/noun
      Hunters, traders, miners, and cattle ranchers, all of whom moved to the frontier areas of the United States in the 1800's, did little to foster the birth of civilization in those areas.
      He said that developed countries had a responsibility to foster global economic growth to help new democracies.
      She tried to foster an interest in classical music in her children.
      She has since gone on to find happiness by fostering more than 100 children.
      She was taken into care by the local council and placed with a foster family.
      It was sometimes difficult to find suitable foster parents.
      If you are considering applying to foster or adopt a child, you will need to be aware of the major differences between the two before you proceed.
      The major difference between foster and adoption is that adoptive children become your children permanently, while foster children are only temporarily in your care.
      v[IT] make sth known generally or in public, esp to sell it
      We no longer advertise alcohol at sporting events.
      We no longer advertise cigarettes on TV or in newspaper.
      We have found that it pays to advertise.
      I see that they're advertising for a new product manager.
      Don't advertise the fact that you're looking for another job.
      v[I] stare
      n[s] a long steady look
      Try to gaze at things far away so you work different muscles of the eye.
      The citizens of Little Rock gathered on September 3 to gaze upon the incredible spectacle of an empty school building surrounded by 250 National Guard troops.
      As I gazed at him, I grew less and less certain that he was the boy who collected baseball cards with me.
      Skiing in winter, walking or biking in summer, gazing at the fabulous scenery at any time, most visitors to the French Alps come to appreciate the mountains.
      "Yeah, over there." I followed their gaze and stared dumbly up. Nothing.
      The next moment the master faced the school. Every eye sank under his gaze.
      To some degree the rich have always secluded themselves from the gaze of the common herd; their habit for centuries has been to send their offspring to private schools.
      v[IT] show
      n[C] sth that is shown to the public ¶ a large-scale public showing, as of art objects etc ¶ an item used as evidence in a trial
      Helen's paintings have been exhibited all over the world.
      She's beginning to exhibit symptoms of stress.
      The museum has some interesting new exhibits from Greece.
      The museum is staging an exhibit of Helen's work.
      The first exhibit was a hammer which the prosecution claimed was the murder weapon.
      n[C] a description of events in a story
      n[U] the process, methods, or skills of telling a story
      A narrative (or story) is any report of connected events, actual or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, and/or in a sequence of (moving) pictures.
      Narrative can be organized in a number of thematic and/or formal, stylistic categories: non-fiction (e.g. New Journalism, creative non-fiction, biography, and historiography); fictionalized accounts of historical events (e.g. anecdote, myth, and legend); and fiction proper (i.e. literature in prose, such as short stories and novels, and sometimes in poetry and drama, although in drama the events are primarily being shown instead of told).
      Narrative can also be found in oral storytelling processes, as seen in many Indigenous American communities.
      Narrative storytelling is used to guide children on proper behavior, cultural history, formation of a communal identity, and values.
      The word story may be used as a synonym of "narrative". It can also be used to refer to the sequence of events described in a narrative.
      The book is written in the style of first-person narrative.
      The novel contains more narrative than dialog.
      That's the basic gist of the narrative.
      Susan began her narrative with the day of the wedding.
      adv,prep in addition to ¶ used when adding another reason
      No one writes to me besides you.
      There are two girls besides Monica in the room.
      Do you play any other sports besides badminton and cycling?
      I've been through all the above, and lots more besides, so I know how you feel.
      What do they need to grow their business, besides money? Good entrepreneurs are also ardent about their ideas, and they're peaceful to accept advice.
      "Do you want to go shopping on Monday?" "I've got no money. Besides, we're having an exam on Tuesday."
      n[C] amount by which sth, esp a sum of money, is too small ¶ excess of debts over income, or amount of this excess ¶ inadequacy, insufficiency
      We raised $2 million, and we need $3 million: that's a deficit of $1 million.
      The deficit in 2015, for example, would drop to about $300 billion from $1.2 trillion.
      Greece has a current account deficit of nearly ten percent of GDP.
      If the government didn't run such huge deficits, the country would not have financial problems.
      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a condition where people, especially children, are extremely active and unable to concentrate on anything for very long.
      adj against ¶ opposite or very different
      I'm opposed to religious education in schools.
      Are you opposed to the death penalty?
      In 1987, renewed proposals for constructing a fixed link in the form of a bridge or tunnel came forward from the federal government and private developers.
      January 1988 saw a plebiscite held on the question by the provincial government of Premier Joe GHIZ. In this controversial vote, 59% voted in favour, and 41% were opposed to the idea of a fixed link to the mainland.
      The interests of buyers and sellers are diametrically (completely, entirely) opposed to each other.
      "The European Union that will emerge from this process will be diametrically opposed to the idea of a European Union that is the embodiment of an open society," he writes.
      The terms poetry and prose are incorrectly opposed to each other.
      I did notice cherries were going for $3/lb, as opposed to $5.99/lb at chain grocery stores.
      I would like to know how to limit the amount of data transfer per unit time (e.g. 5GB per day) as opposed to the number of file downloads.
      n[CU] a small change, improvement, or addition that is made to a law or document, or the process
      She insisted that the book did not need amendment.
      I've made a few last-minute amendments to the article.
      Presidential power was reduced by a constitutional amendment in 1991.
      He moved an amendment limiting capital punishment to certain very serious crimes.
      The new clause was accepted without amendment.
      On a free vote, the amendment was carried by 296 votes to 112.
      Parliament accepted the amendment and the bill was passed.
      n[C] a young person who is developing from a child into an adult
      also an adjective
      Middle school students' reading behavior is a timely issue given the recent interest in the education of young adolescents.
      Young adolescents are happiest with small groups of close friends.
      Nevertheless, most adolescents will not go on to be drug users.
      Older adolescents are usually responsible enough to manage alone for limited periods of time.
      Teenage children are aged between thirteen and nineteen years old.
      Adolescence (from Latin adolescere, meaning "to grow up") is a transitional stage of physical and psychological human development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood (age of majority).