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      v[IT] lose color, brightness, strength etc gradually, or make sth do this ¶ disappear gradually
      No matter how soft the light is, it still fades carpets and curtains in the room.
      Flowers soon fade when cut.
      Over the years Helen's beauty had faded a little.
      All memory of her childhood had faded from her mind.
      Hopes of a peace settlement were fading fast; all else seemed to fade into insignificance.
      The smile faded from Karl's face.
      The laughter faded when they saw his face.
      He slid a control to fade out the music.
      To fade in is to appear slowly or become louder, or to make a picture or sound do this.
      If someone fades away, they become very weak or sick and then die.
      v[IT] make a legal claim against sb
      You slipped on ice at their house last month. Can we sue them?
      "Phoebe, there's a dog sitting on my couch!" "Tell her, I'm allergic, and I will sue!"
      She sued the paper for damages after they wrongly described her as a sex worker.
      She is being sued for divorce by her husband.
      If a country or army sues for peace, they ask for peace.
      The rebels were forced to sue for peace.
      Someone who is litigious often makes formal complaints about people to a civil court of law.
      n[C] a building or part of a hospital where people go to see doctors ¶ a period of time during which doctors give treatment or advice ¶ an occasion when medical students learn by watching ¶ an occasion when an expert gives advice
      Gregory House, Doctor of Medicine, heads a team of diagnosticians at the Princeton-Plainsboro Teaching Hospital in New Jersey; he is required to treat patients in the facility's walk-in clinic.
      During clinic duty, House confounds patients with unwelcome observations into their personal lives, eccentric prescriptions, and unorthodox treatments.
      'What were you modeling for?' 'You know those posters for the city free clinic?'
      You have to go to a sleep clinic!
      He is being treated at a special diabetic clinic.
      She is attending the prenatal clinic.
      She attended an antenatal clinic every Monday morning.
      There was a free clinic on bathing babies.
      A weekly baby clinic was held on Tuesday afternoons.
      She was thankful to the doctors who volunteered at the clinic.
      Federer Holds Clinic for Young Players; Roger Federer plays tennis with young Chinese players during an interactive coaching session at the Shanghai International Tennis Center on Saturday, October 9, 2010.
      v[T] interrupt, upset, or worry ¶ change a normal situation in a way that causes problems ¶ make sth move
      Exam in Progress Do Not Disturb
      I hope I'm not disturbing you.
      Sorry to disturb you, but I have an urgent message.
      Don't disturb the papers on my desk.
      I promise not to disturb anything.
      What disturbs you most about this latest development?
      No sound disturbed the silence of the evening.
      What could possibly disturb such tranquility?
      If you find a bird's nest, never disturb the eggs.
      My hormone balance is disturbed by my pregnancy.
      A soft breeze gently disturbed the surface of the pool.
      Phone calls are the biggest disturbance at work.
      Residents are fed up with the disturbance caused by the nightclub.
      v[I] smile showing your teeth
      n[C] a wide smile
      She grinned at Susan, her eyes sparkling.
      Her smile broadened to a mischievous grin.
      She grinned to herself at the thought.
      If you grin and bear it, you accept a difficult or unpleasant situation without complaining because you know there is nothing you can do to make things better.
      With a nasty grin on his face he took out a knife.
      He patted his weapon and gave a wolfish grin.
      Just enough of the twilight left for me to see his grin.
      He laughed and exposed a toothless grin.
      Tell him how much it'll cost - that should wipe the grin off his face.
      n[C] a building or buildings built in order to defend an area against attack ¶ a place where an army lives or trains
      The fort was under attack for three days.
      The fort finally fell after a week of intense fighting.
      The remains of the Roman fort are well preserved.
      Chandler and Joey's and Ross's, Chandler is entering and when he closes the door Joey pops his head out of the fort like before, but this time he's wearing a cowboy hat.
      A fortress is a castle, large fort, or town strengthened against attack.
      Fortifications are strong buildings, walls, towers, etc. built around a place in order to defend it.
      To hold the fort means to have the responsibility or care of someone or something in the absence of others.
      Why don't you have a day off? I'll hold the fort for you.
      adj basic, simple ¶ of or in the beginning stages of a course of study
      I only have an elementary knowledge of physics.
      But the questions were so elementary that he easily passed the test.
      You've made some very elementary mistakes.
      I'm only familiar with the subject at an elementary level.
      An elementary school is a school where children are taught for the first six or sometimes eight years of their education.
      A primary school is a school for children between the ages of 5 and 11 in England and Wales.
      Rudimentary things are very basic or simple and are therefore unsatisfactory.
      Rudimentary knowledge includes only the simplest and most basic facts.
      n[Us] when very different people or things exist within a group or place ¶ a range of different people, things, or ideas
      Colleges seek an equal diversity in its applicants by looking at background, experience, and previous scholastic achievement.
      The curriculum will take account of the ethnic diversity of the population.
      Variations happen all the time and accumulate as diversity.
      If you look at the artists, diversity exists.
      Biological diversity or biodiversity is the existence of a wide variety of plant and animal species living in their natural environment.
      Without mutations, biological diversity would be non-existent.
      adj living in or happening in the ocean ¶ relating to ships or the navy
      n[C] a soldier who is trained to serve on land or at sea
      The oil slick seriously threatens marine life around the islands.
      Some marine life was saved by teams of workers removing the heavy oil and cleaning them.
      The change could have catastrophic consequences for marine life.
      Make sure you visit the marine museum if you're interested in anything to do with ships or seafaring.
      A Marine is a soldier who serves on a ship, especially a member of the Royal Marines or the US Marine Corps.
      The acronym NMCI means Navy and Marine Corps Intranet.
      adj important in history ¶ having taken place or existed in the past ¶ of a period during which history was recorded
      Historic and historical have different usages, though their senses overlap.
      Historic refers to what is important in history; it is also used of what is famous or interesting because of its association with persons or events in history.
      Historical refers to whatever existed in the past, whether regarded as important or not.
      Historical also refers to anything concerned with history or the study of the past.
      While these distinctions are useful, historic and historical are often used interchangeably, as in historic times or historical times.
      The Great Wall of China is a famous historic building.
      "It is a historic moment," he told journalists.
      This is a historic occasion; it will be regarded as a significant event in history.
      It's unlikely that the share price will exceed historic levels.
      Extinct volcanoes are those that have not erupted in historic times.
      Painting originated in prehistoric times.
      v[T] give sth to sb as a share of work to be done or of things to be used ¶ appoint ¶ name or fix a time, place, reason, etc for sth ¶ transfer
      Last week, I was assigned the task of looking after my 6-year-old cousin, Jake, for the day.
      He's been assigned to the Bureau of Public Affairs.
      For example, a Senate bill dealing with health care facilities would first be assigned to the Senate Health and Human Services Committee for policy review.
      This man had been a professional chemist but was assigned to work in a brick works in the countryside.
      She said she was assigned to work in the fitting room and was never offered training for other positions.
      Secret Santa is a Christmas tradition in which members of a group are randomly assigned a person to whom they anonymously give a gift.
      Howard assigned Bernadette her own ringtone.
      There is no assigned seats, Sheldon. Just sit anywhere. Make yourself comfortable.
      This is not your office. It hasn't been assigned yet.
      Offices are assigned by seniority. I arrived at the university first.
      Maybe they reassigned it because you never use it.
      How much time have you assigned for the meeting?
      They assigned me a small room.
      The teacher assigned a different task to each of the children.
      The teacher assigned each of the children a different task.
      Monica's grandmother has assigned the lease to her.
      His property was assigned to his grandchildren.
      The United States Congress assigned money to this plot.
      Can we assign the March records to climate change?
      Detectives have been unable to assign a motive for the murder.
      Stock analysts at Morningstar assign "moat ratings" to stocks.
      Also, limit the number of DHCP addresses that your router can assign.
      We should recruit, train, and then assign police.
      Compare allocate, allot, appoint, and assign.
      v[IT] cause to/become cold but not freeze
      n[C] a feeling of coldness/fear ¶ a minor illness which causes a slight fever, headache, and shivering
      adj very cold ¶ making you feel nervous or frightened
      The bathroom gets a bit chilly in late autumn.
      I felt chilly so I turned on the bathroom heater.
      "I'm a smart heater. Don't go out with wet hair, you might catch a chill. Uh-oh, power failure," it said.
      I drank a bottle of Scotch to take the chill off my body.
      'There is a fly in this glass of chilled white wine!' 'Hold it, just chill for a second, won't you?'
      Dude, chill! Take a chill pill.
      If you chill (out), you relax and stop being angry or nervous.
      Okay, we've been out here for two hours and we haven't seen any stupid comets. Can we go now? I mean, Chandler's getting chilly.
      They were chilled by the icy wind.
      Let's go home; I'm chilled to the bone.
      Chilled food is prepared food that is stored at refrigeration temperatures.
      Excuse me, where is the chilled food aisle?
      The longer this salad chills, the better the flavor.
      "I meet this girl in the subway and we fall in love in a day. And then she disappears. But I find out where she lives and when I get there, this old lady answers the door and I say, 'Where's Betsy?' And she says, 'Betsy's been dead for 10 years." "Ohh, chilling!"
      There's a chill in the air this morning.
      Helen turned on the heater in the hall to take the chill off the house.
      The anger in his face chilled her.
      There was something in his tone that sent a chill down her spine.
      Helen sat in the evening chill, staring out over the house below.
      She was glad to escape the chill atmosphere of the house.
      She shivered slightly in the chill February air.
      The wind blew across her body, chilling her skin.
      "Let's get these wet clothes off you before you catch a chill," said Susan.
      v[IT] make/become well/healthy again ¶ (bad situation, painful emotion etc) ends or improves, or make sb/sth do this
      Within six weeks the bruising had gone, but it was six months before it all healed.
      The wounds were gradually healing up.
      The wound healed up very nicely.
      If a wound or an area of broken skin heals over, new skin grows over it and it becomes healthy again.
      Vitamin K is needed by the body for healing cuts and bruises.
      The plaster cast helps to heal the broken bone.
      The rift between Rachel and Charlie never healed.
      A broken heart takes a long time to heal.
      Time heals all sorrows.
      Time is not always a great healer.
      Joey, the new chair will be here in an hour. Maybe we should actually move Rosita out of here. You know, start the healing process?
      n[CU] giving up of certain demands by each side in a dispute, so that an agreement may be reached ¶ settlement reached in this way
      also a verb
      Compromise is an inevitable part of marriage.
      Everyone has to be prepared to make compromises.
      Can they reach a compromise?
      To stop the fight they decided on a compromise.
      We are not prepared to compromise on safety standards.
      They came to a compromise over the exact amount to be paid.
      They debated whether to compromise with the opposition parties.
      If someone compromises themselves or compromises their beliefs, principles, standards, integrity etc, they do something which is against their principles and which therefore seems dishonest or shameful.
      Traditional supporters are accusing the party of compromising its principles.
      If we back down on this issue, our reputation will be compromised.
      If you describe information or a situation as compromising, you mean that it reveals an embarrassing or guilty secret about someone.
      Photographs were published of her in a compromising situation with her bodyguard.
      v[T] force sb to have sex
      also a noun
      If a woman is ravished by a man, she is raped by him.
      A rapist is a person who has raped someone.
      Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration perpetrated against a person without that person's consent.
      Marital rape (also known as spousal rape and rape in marriage) is non-consensual sex (i.e., rape) in which the perpetrator is the victim's spouse. It is a form of partner rape, of domestic violence and of sexual abuse.
      Date rape is a form of acquaintance rape. The two phrases are often used interchangeably, but date rape specifically refers to a rape in which there has been some sort of romantic or potentially sexual relationship between the two parties.
      Gang rape occurs when a group of people participate in the rape of a single victim.
      In some common law jurisdictions, statutory rape is sexual activity in which at least one person is below the age required to legally consent to the behavior.
      Rapeseed, also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rappi, rapaseed, is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), (油菜: Mandarin Pinyin yóucài) consumed in China and Southern Africa as a vegetable.
      n[C] a spirit who is believed to be a messenger or servant of God ¶ sb who is very kind, very good, or very beautiful
      Christians inherited Jewish understandings of angels, which in turn may have been partly inherited from the Egyptians.
      By the late 4th century, the Church Fathers agreed that there were different categories of angels, with appropriate missions and activities assigned to them.
      The angels are represented throughout the Christian Bible as a body of spiritual beings intermediate between God and men.
      Many Christians regard angels as asexual and not belonging to either gender.
      A guardian angel is a spirit who is believed to protect and guide a particular person.
      An angel investor or angel (also known as a business angel or informal investor or angel funder) is an affluent individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usually in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity.
      Angels typically invest their own funds, unlike venture capitalists who manage the pooled money of others in a professionally-managed fund.
      Be an angel and help me with this, will you?
      Thanks for mailing those letters, you're an angel.
      Tom is no angel (often behaves badly).
      v[T] (water) cover sb/sth completely ¶ exist in such great amounts that sb/sth cannot deal with them ¶ defeat sb completely ¶ affect sb's emotions in a very powerful way
      Officials worried the downpour would overwhelm the city's flood-prone bayous.
      I drove through the rain of a Donegal winter's morning at a speed that wasn't wise. The cascade of water overwhelmed the wipers on the Volkswagen Jetta. I couldn't slow down as there was, maybe, a life depending on my prompt arrival at a Garda station in very rural West Donegal.
      Can China pull the "population control" plug at any time and overwhelm the world with people power?
      We were overwhelmed by paperwork.
      Too many orders may overwhelm your child.
      In 1532 the Spaniards finally overwhelmed the armies of Peru.
      We were overwhelmed by the sacrifices he had made.
      I'm trying not to let sorrow overwhelm me.
      Deal with stress fast whenever it threatens to overwhelm you.
      n[CU] a particular taste that a food or drink has ¶ a particular quality or character ¶ an idea or quick experience of sth
      v[T] give sth a particular ~
      My steak was delicious but Susan's fish had almost no flavor.
      A pinch of herbs will add flavor to any dish.
      Add a little salt to bring out the flavor of the herbs.
      Bay leaves should be broken to release their flavor.
      Adding salt to food improves the flavor.
      This wine has a delicate, fruity flavor.
      The cheese has a crumbly texture with a strong flavor.
      "We have six different flavors of ice-cream. Which flavor do you want?" "Chocolate." "Vanilla."
      This apple drink contains no artificial flavorings.
      His book gives you a flavor of life in the 15th century.
      Flavor of the month is somebody or something that is very popular at a particular time.
      This sauce is flavored with garlic.
      v[T] appear and need to be dealt with ¶ deal with a difficult situation ¶ face sb ¶ accuse sb of doing sth by showing them the proof
      The problems confronting the new government were enormous.
      The government found itself confronted by massive opposition.
      It takes courage to confront your fears.
      Chandler is confronting his boss about the butt smacking thing.
      I haven't confronted her about it yet.
      Rachel is confronting Joanna about her interview.
      I confronted her with my suspicions, and she admitted everything.
      "You're the boss! Why don't you just yell at them? Or, fire them?" "I would love to, but I can't! I mean I just can't, you know that I'm not good at confrontation."
      v[I] eat dinner ¶ give a dinner for sb
      Carol and Susan dined by candlelight.
      They dined on smoked salmon and caviar.
      If you dine/eat out, you eat dinner in a restaurant or sb else's home.
      If you dine out on something, you tell other people about it that has happened to you, in order to entertain people at meals.
      To wine and dine someone is to entertain someone well with a meal, wine etc.
      He often had to do a lot of hosting, wining and dining of clients, etc.
      Too much wining and dining is making him fat.
      Sodoma offers many opportunities for wining and dining.
      v[IT] dare to do, go, or say
      n[C] a business activity that involves taking risks
      She rarely ventured outside, except when she went to stock up on groceries at the corner shop.
      She would not have dared venture here alone.
      Some of the men ventured further out to sea.
      "Would you care to venture one?" "Would you care to venture one?" "Are you just repeating what I'm saying?" "Are you just repeating what I'm saying?" "All right, let's move on." "Okay then."
      Nothing ventured, nothing gained.
      Some businesspersons venture in real estate and the stock market as possible ways of getting a lucrative return on their investments.
      Venture capital (VC) is financial capital provided to early-stage, high-potential, growth startup companies.
      A venture capitalist is someone who makes money by investing in high risk projects.
      Venture management is a business management discipline. The discipline is focused on the skills and practices required to manage the rapid growth of new business in highly dynamic environments.
      A joint venture (JV) is a business agreement in which the parties agree to develop, for a finite time, a new entity and new assets by contributing equity.
      In European law, the term 'joint venture' (or joint undertaking) is an elusive legal concept, better defined under the rules of company law.
      ə'tribju:t 'ætribju:t
      v[T] regard sth as belonging to, caused by, or produced by sb/sth
      n[C] a quality or feature, esp a good one
      Women tend to attribute their success to external causes such as luck.
      This saying is usually attributed to Confucius.
      The committee refused to attribute blame without further information.
      The fall in the number of deaths from heart disease is generally attributed to improvements in diet.
      His teachers attributed his learning difficulties to laziness.
      What attributes should a good manager possess?
      Organizational ability is an essential attribute for a good manager.
      The job requires you to have personal attributes such as the ability to work as a team member.
      The scepter is an attribute of kingly power.
      v[T] spend a lot of time or effort doing sth ¶ use sth for a specific purpose
      Lee left medicine to devote himself fulltime to his new-found passion.
      This gave him more time to devote to astronomy.
      He decided to devote his life to the religion.
      They devote their lifes to work or to save money.
      He devoted himself full-time to his growing business.
      The president will devote much of his speech to the economy.
      All the proceeds from the taxes should be devoted to healthcare.
      The website has begun devoting more review space to children's books.
      n[C] one of the things from which sth (esp food) is made ¶ a quality you need to achieve sth ¶ one of the things that give sth its character or make it effective
      All food products should carry a list of ingredients on the packet.
      Our products contain only natural ingredients.
      Lin Dan has all the ingredients of a great player.
      Avalanches are formed by a combination of three things that together are known as the "Avalanche Triangle." These three ingredients may be present in one location but absent 10 feet away. The three legs of the triangle are snowpack, terrain, and weather.
      Tolerance is an essential ingredient for a happy marriage.
      Acetic acid is the chief active ingredient in vinegar.
      n[C] a small green or black oval fruit that is eaten or used to produce oil ¶ the tree ¶ a yellowish-green color
      The olive's fruit, also called the olive, is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil.
      Olive oil is a fat obtained from the olive, a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
      The oil is produced by pressing whole olives and is commonly used in cooking, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps, and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.
      All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste by crushing or pressing.
      The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as:
      Virgin means the olive oil was produced by the use of mechanical means only, with no chemical treatment.
      Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods that do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure.
      An olive-branch is an emblem of peace.
      If you offer an olive branch to someone, you say or do something in order to show that you want to end a disagreement or quarrel.
      If someone has olive skin, the color of their skin is light brown, which is typical of people from countries such as Greece, Italy, or Turkey.
      Sunless tanning (also known as UV-free tanning, self tanning, spray tanning (when applied topically), or fake tanning) refers to the application of chemicals to the skin to produce an effect similar in appearance to a suntan.
      Spinach makes Popeye strong, so Olive eventually left Ham Gravy to become Popeye's girlfriend.