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      sanc`tion
      'sæŋkʃən
      v[T] approve or permit
      n[UC] approval or permission ¶ penalty
      -
      Sanction is a contronym. A contronym is a word with two meanings. These two meanings are the opposites of each other.
      An auto-antonym (sometimes spelled autantonym), or contronym (also spelled contranym), is a word with a homograph (another word of the same spelling) which is also an antonym (a word with the opposite meaning).
      For example, "to dust" can mean to remove dust (cleaning a house) or to add dust (e.g. to dust a cake with powdered sugar), "to rent" can mean "to borrow from" or "to lend to", and "to replace" can mean "to place back where it was" or "substitute with something else".
      No decision can be taken without the sanction of the complete committee.
      Employers imposed heavy sanctions for union activity.
      War was declared without the sanction of parliament.
      Only the medical council can apply a sanction against Dr. House.
      We don't have an effective sanction against the killing of whales.
      The UN Security Council may impose economic sanctions.
      Any talk about lifting sanctions is premature.
      It features all seven rodeo events sanctioned by the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association.
      Likewise, Ohio State University were also sanctioned by the NCAA this season for similar incidents involving some of its football players.
      There are several types of sanctions: diplomatic sanctions, economic sanctions, military sanctions, and sport sanctions.
      Sanctions, in law and legal definition, are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regulations.
      Trade sanctions are trade penalties imposed by a country or group of countries on another country or group of countries. Typically the sanctions take the form of import tariffs (duties), licensing or other administrative regulations.
      Economic sanctions are domestic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another country (or group of countries).
      Economic sanctions may include various forms of trade barriers and restrictions on financial transactions.
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      di`a`logue
      'daiəlɔg
      n[UC] a conversation in a book, play, or movie ¶ a discussion between two groups, countries etc
      -
      Students were asked to read simple dialogs out loud.
      Most plays are written in dialogue.
      The two sides have at last begun to engage in a constructive dialog.
      A dialog window will appear on the screen.
      If the user cancels the dialog, the attributes will not reflect any changes made by the user.
      Click on the Next button to display the dialog shown below.
      This time I don't even get a login dialog.
      "I just got a call about an audition, I need to have a monologue prepared," said Joey.
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      tour`na`ment
      'tənəmənt
      n[C] a series of games in which the winner of each game plays in the next game until there is one winner
      -
      Several top teams had agreed to play in the tournament.
      The loser would be out of the tournament.
      I was defeated in the first round of the tournament.
      I retired from tournament badminton last year.
      The Middle Ages were a time of passionate warfare, chivalrous gallantry, and intense social entertainment.
      Tournaments in the Middle Ages were hosted and held on grand scales as displays of power, prowess, and skill.
      Typically, tournaments would be hosted by wealthy nobles who sought the prestige of backing such affairs.
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      flex`i`ble
      'fleksibəl
      adj able to bend or move easily ¶ able to change to suit new conditions or situations
      -
      Dancers and gymnasts need to be very flexible above all else.
      Stretching exercises will help your flexibility.
      To maintain flexibility, stretching must be performed at least every 36 hours.
      I always wear shoes with flexible rubber soles.
      Employees expect flexibility in the workplace.
      They want to make the working day more flexible.
      The advantage of this system is its flexibility; we can be flexible about the number of nodes.
      My schedule is quite flexible - I could arrange to meet with you any day next year.
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      cloth`ing
      'kləuðiŋ
      n[U] the clothes that people wear
      -
      The refugees didn't have enough money to afford the most basic necessities of life such as food and clothing.
      Some locals offered food and clothing to them.
      Lab workers must wear protective clothing.
      You can only take three items of clothing into the changing room.
      A wolf in sheep's clothing is someone who seems to be friendly or harmless but is in fact dangerous, dishonest etc.
      Both "clothing" and "clothes" refer to the things that people wear to cover their bodies.
      "Clothing" tends to be used when discussing a particular type of clothes or talking about clothes in general (a shop that sells vintage clothing; clothing as a basic human need).
      "Clothes" is usually used when you are talking about the garments that someone is wearing. (to wash my dirty clothes; a host wearing fancy clothes)
      "Clothing" is somewhat more formal than "clothes" and is not used in speech as often as "clothes."
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      drill
      dril
      v[IT] make a hole in sth using a tool or machine ¶ teach by repeating ¶ train soldiers
      n[CU] a tool or machine ¶ training
      -
      BP has been licensed to drill for oil off the Irish coast.
      The soldiers were being drilled outside the barracks.
      New recruits had twenty three hours of drill a day.
      The platoon was well-drilled and organized.
      Joey is drilling a hole in the wall and the drill comes out the other side really close to Chandler's head.
      "Oh, sorry. Did I get you?" "No, you didn't get me! It's an electric drill, you get me, you kill me!"
      When there is a fire drill in a building, the people who work or live there practice what to do if there is a fire.
      A drill bit is the sharp part of the drill which cuts the hole.
      A pneumatic drill, or a jackhammer, is a large powerful tool, worked by air pressure, used especially for breaking up road surfaces.
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      el`e`vate
      'eliveit
      v[T] raise, lift up ¶ promote ¶ improve
      -
      It is important that the injured leg should be elevated.
      Both emotional stress and smoking can elevate blood pressure.
      He has been elevated to deputy director.
      These factors helped to elevate the town into the list of the ten most attractive in the country.
      The song never failed to elevate our spirits.
      His successes helped elevate the position of Jews in 18th and 19th century English society.
      Atmospheric pressure varies with elevation and temperature.
      An elevated railway (also known in Europe as overhead railway) is a rapid transit railway with the tracks above street level.
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      sac`ri`fice
      'sækrifais
      v[T] kill an animal or person and offer them to a god in a religious ceremony ¶ give up sth valuable to help sb else
      n[CU] the act ¶ the animal or person
      -
      Sacrifice was a religious activity in Maya culture, involving either the killing of animals or the bloodletting by members of the community, in rituals superintended by priests.
      If the blood sacrifice for sin in the Bible was goats, rams and bulls, why is Jesus called the Lamb of God?
      Soldiers who died for their country had made the supreme sacrifice.
      She sacrificed a promising career to look after her kids.
      Her parents made many sacrifices so that she could go to a preschool.
      She brought three children up single-handedly, often at great personal sacrifice.
      The workforce was willing to make sacrifices in order to preserve jobs.
      The car's designers have sacrificed comfort to economy.
      Comfort has been sacrificed for the sake of improved performance.
      He sacrificed a bishop in order to win his opponent's queen.
      The job requires a lot of enthusiasm, dedication and self-sacrifice.
      A scapegoat is a person who is blamed for something that someone else has done.
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      glow
      gləu
      v[I] shine with a soft light ¶ have a bright, warm, usu reddish color ¶ look happy or healthy
      n[s] a soft light ¶ the pink color in the skin that sb has when they are healthy, have been doing exercise, or are excited ¶ a strong pleasant feeling
      -
      The sunset threw an orange glow on the cliffs.
      The whole village was bathed in the glow of the setting sun.
      The lamplight gave a cozy glow to the room.
      The fire cast a warm glow on the walls.
      Susan's faces were glowing with excitement.
      She had a healthy glow in her cheeks.
      We now feel a warm glow of affection towards each other.
      Rachel, Rachel, look how you glow.
      A glow-worm, firefly, or lightning bug is an insect of which the wingless female gives out a green light at its tail.
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      ge`net`ic
      dʒi'netik
      adj relating to genes and the study of them
      -
      Genetic engineering is the science or activity of changing the genetic structure of an animal, plant, or other organism to make it stronger or more suitable for a particular purpose.
      A genetic disorder is an illness caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is congenital (present from birth).
      It's an incurable immune system illness, probably genetic in origin and mainly suffered by females.
      Genetic fingerprinting is a method of identifying people using the genetic material in their bodies.
      In an era of commercialized medicine, direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing has been on a steady rise.
      Genetic testing in the workplace is illegal in Norway.
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      grave
      greiv
      n[C] the place where a dead body is buried in a deep hole
      adj looking or sounding quiet and serious ¶ very great/bad
      -
      We visited his grave.
      At the head of the grave there was a small wooden cross.
      He took that secret to the grave.
      The way Ross plays that piece would have Mozart turning in his grave.
      He looked grave; is there anything wrong?
      I have grave doubts that he'll ever become a doctor.
      The police have expressed grave concern about the missing flight's safety.
      He said that the situation in Ukraine was becoming very grave.
      His life was in grave danger.
      A graveyard is an area of land, sometimes near a church, where dead people are buried.
      A graveyard is a place where things or people that are not wanted are sent or left.
      If someone works the graveyard shift, they work during the night.
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      tel`e`scope
      'teliskəup
      n[C] a piece of equipment shaped like a tube that you look through to make distant objects look closer and larger
      v[IT] make/become shorter by reducing the length of the parts ¶ make a process or set of events happen in a shorter time
      -
      These are images from the Hubble space telescope.
      I set up my telescope on the balcony.
      A radio telescope is an instrument that receives radio waves from space and finds the position of stars and other objects in space.
      The front of the car telescoped when it hit the wall.
      The whole legal process was telescoped into a few weeks.
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      por`trait
      'pɔ:trit
      n[C] a painting, drawing, or photograph of sb ¶ a detailed description/representation of sth
      -
      A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant.
      I usually don't let others take my portrait.
      Raphael was hired to paint the pope's portrait.
      The Mona Lisa is a half-length portrait of a woman by the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci, a time traveler.
      Ancient family portraits hung on the walls of the staircase.
      Her latest novel paints a very vivid portrait of the aristocracy in the 1920s.
      Compare landscape, portrait and townscape.
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      tes`ti`mo`ny
      'testiməuni
      n[UC] a formal statement saying that sth is true, esp one a witness makes in a court of law ¶ evidence in support of sth
      -
      In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter.
      The group cited testimony from witnesses, including doctors.
      His testimony is crucial to the prosecution's case.
      The witness was called to give oral testimony about the incident at the crossing.
      If you say that one thing is testimony to another, you mean that it shows clearly that the second thing has a particular quality.
      The pyramids are a testimony to the Ancient Egyptians' engineering skills.
      In a way, the heat complaints are a testimony to Apple's ability to create products that consumers can't put down.
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      a`li`en
      'eiliən
      adj strange ¶ foreign, relating to creatures from another planet
      n[C] a foreigner ¶ a creature from a different world
      -
      Surely our world obeys rules still alien to our imaginations.
      People came to stare at this odd, alien beast.
      In the alien environment of the city, he was her only security.
      Under the program, alien workers can enter the U.S.
      The colonel said the troops were opposed to the presence of alien forces in the region.
      Calling an illegal alien an 'undocumented immigrant' is like calling a burglar an uninvited house guest.
      Alien is a US horror film about a creature that kills people by living in their bodies.
      E.T. is a 1982 science fiction film that tells the story that a boy makes friends with an alien.
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      di`verse
      di'və:s dai'və:s
      adj very different from each other
      -
      My interests are very diverse.
      The newspaper aims to cover a diverse range of issues.
      New York is a very culturally diverse city.
      "You be Mr. Gonzalez, and I'll be uh, Mr. Wong." "Diverse."
      The school serves an ethnically diverse community of nearly 1,200 students.
      Over 250 languages are spoken in the city, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.
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      up`date
      ʌp'deit
      v[T] add the most recent information to sth ¶ make sth more modern
      also a noun
      -
      The files need updating.
      The files are continuously updated with new information.
      The latest edition has been completely revised and updated.
      It's about time we updated our web browsers.
      The report gives an update on the currency crisis.
      Maps need regular updates.
      If you update someone on a situation, you tell them the latest developments in that situation.
      Dr. Cooper can update us on the latest developments.
      "Could you update me on how the work is progressing? I'll need regular updates on your progress," said Chandler.
      We'll update you on this news story throughout the day.
      Compare update, upgrade, and up-to-date.
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      blend
      blend
      v[TI] mix/combine together ¶ form a mixture/combination
      n[C] mixture/combination
      -
      Melt the butter and then blend in the flour.
      Blend the butter with the sugar and beat until light and creamy.
      Oil does not blend with water.
      Oil and water do not blend.
      You could paint the walls and ceilings the same color so they blend together.
      Those cottages blend perfectly with the landscape.
      The sea and the sky seemed to blend into each another.
      The public areas offer a subtle blend of traditional charm with modern amenities.
      The new office block doesn't blend in with its surroundings.
      Which blend of coffee would you like?
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      fic`tion
      'fikʃən
      n[U] books and stories about imaginary people and events
      n[C] a report, story, or explanation that is not true
      -
      Fiction is content, primarily in a narrative form, that is derived from imagination, in addition to, or rather than, from history or fact.
      The term "fiction" most usually refers to certain major forms of literature, including novel, novella, short story, and narrative poetry.
      Dona is a writer of historical fiction.
      The book is a work of fiction and not intended as a historical account.
      Science fiction consists of stories in books, magazines, and films about events that take place in the future or in other parts of the universe.
      Paul tried to preserve the fiction of his happy childhood.
      At work he kept up the fiction that he had a university degree.
      He still tries to maintain the fiction that he is happily married.
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      me`mo`ri`al
      mə'mɔriəl
      adj done or made in order to remind people of sb who has died
      n[C] a structure built to remind people of a famous person or event ¶ sth remind people of sb/sth
      -
      "I'm sure that if you had a funeral or a memorial service, tons of people would come," said Chandler.
      You're having a memorial service for yourself?
      In the United States, Memorial Day is a public holiday when people honor the memory of Americans who have died in wars.
      The Monument to the People's Heroes stands in the center of Tiananmen Square, north of the Memorial Hall of Chairman Mao.
      The prime minister today unveiled a memorial to those who died in the disaster.
      It was created in 1967 by a group of energetic women from North Carolina, whose initial interest was to build a lasting memorial for rural physicians.
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      car`bon
      'ka:bən
      n[U] a chemical element that diamonds and coal are made up of
      -
      Carbon (from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
      Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas that is produced especially by the engines of vehicles.
      Carbon dioxide is a gas that is produced by animals and people breathing out, and by chemical reactions.
      Carbon paper is thin paper with a dark substance on one side. You use it to make copies of letters, bills, and other papers.
      A carbon copy is a copy of a piece of writing that is made using carbon paper.
      "Blind carbon copy" is used in an email to show that you are sending someone a copy of a message that you have also sent to someone else, and that this person does not know that other people will also receive the message.
      If you say that one person or thing is a carbon copy of another, you mean that they look or behave exactly like them.
      Carbon dating is a system of calculating the age of a very old object by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon it contains.
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      e`mis`sion
      i'miʃən
      n[U] the act of sending out light, heat, gas etc
      n[C] thing that is sent out or given off
      -
      The Green Party has called for a substantial reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases by the UK.
      The Carbon tax is a by design a penalty on the emission of carbon.
      The EU is open to US suggestions to reduce the emission of harmful greenhouse gases outside the UN climate convention (UNFCCC).
      The emission of radiation can not be explained in a logically consistent manner by the acceleration of charged particles.
      A nocturnal emission or wet dream is a type of spontaneous orgasm, involving either erection and/or ejaculation during sleep for a male, or lubrication of the vagina for a female.
      Nocturnal emissions are most common during adolescence and early young adult years, but they may happen any time after puberty.
      The kettle emitted a shrill whistle.
      The alarm emits infra-red rays which are used to detect any intruder.
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      scout
      skaut
      n[C] sb sent out by an army to get information about the enemy
      v[IT] look for sth in a particular area ¶ search/examine a place or area in order to get information about it ¶ look for sb who has a lot of ability, esp for work in sports or entertainment
      -
      The captain sent three scouts ahead to take a look at the bridge.
      The Scouts is an organization for children and young people which teaches them to be practical, sensible, and helpful.
      A Scout is a member of the Scouts.
      The Boy Scouts is an organization for boys which teaches them discipline and practical skills.
      A Boy Scout (also boy scout) is a boy who is a member of the Boy Scouts.
      Owen is wearing his scout uniform and is looking through a box when Chandler walks up to him.
      I'm Chandler. Hey, I was in the Scouts too.
      In the United States, the Girl Scouts is an organization similar to the Guides; a Girl Scout is a girl who is a member of the Girl Scouts.
      The Brownies is a branch of the Scout Association for girls between the ages of seven and ten or eleven.
      Oh, Boy Scouts could've camped under Paulo's pants!
      I've been scouting around town for a cheaper apartment.
      I had a quick scout around the apartment to check everything was okay.
      A talent scout is someone whose job is to look for good sports players, musicians etc in order to employ them.
      At the age of 16, he was spotted by a scout from Puebla, and travelled to Mexico to turn professional.
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      dawn
      dɔ:n
      n[UC] the time of day when light first appears ¶ the time when sth began or first appeared
      v[I] begin ¶ become obvious or easy to understand
      -
      Coming up next we've got Monica singing "Delta Dawn".
      I was up at the crack of dawn to get the boat.
      When dawn broke, we were still 50 miles from there.
      We travelled from dawn to dusk.
      A false dawn is something that seems positive or hopeful but really is not.
      There was talk of share prices recovering, but that was just a false dawn.
      As 1990 dawned, few people could have predicted the dramatic changes that were to take place in Eastern Europe during that year.
      If a fact dawns on you, you realize it for the first time.
      It finally dawned on him that she had been lying.
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      bull
      bul
      n[C] male cow/animal ¶ sb who buys shares, hoping to sell them afterwards at a higher price
      -
      An ox is a large cow or bull, or a bull whose sex organs have been removed, often used on farms for pulling or carrying things.
      To take the bull by the horns is to bravely or confidently deal with a difficult, dangerous, or unpleasant problem.
      Rachel decided to take the bull by the horns and raise Emma alone.
      A bull in a china shop is a person who is careless, or who moves or acts in a rough or awkward way, in a place or situation where skill and care are needed.
      Joey stormed in like a bull in a china shop.
      If you describe something that someone tells you as a cock-and-bull story, you mean that you do not believe it is true.
      Bull, or bullshit, is something that is stupid and completely untrue.
      "If you do not receive this letter, please write and tell me." What a bull!
      If you move somewhere like a bull at a gate, you move there very fast, ignoring everything in your way.
      The center of a target that you are shooting at is called a bull's-eye or a bull.
      A reticule is a net of fine lines or fibers in the eyepiece of a sighting device, such as a telescope, a telescopic sight, a microscope, or the screen of an oscilloscope.
      There are many variations of reticules, for example, fine crosshair, duplex crosshair, target dot, and circle.
      On some motor vehicles, bull bars are metal bars fixed to the front that are designed to protect it if it crashes.
      A bull market is a situation on the stock market when people are buying a lot of shares because they expect that the shares will increase in value and that they will be able to make a profit by selling them again.
      Someone who is bull-headed is determined to get what they want without really thinking enough about it.
      She is rather bull-headed, stupid and stubborn.
      John Bull is a national personification of Great Britain in general and England in particular, especially in political cartoons and similar graphic works.
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