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      n[CU] a clear, deep and sometimes sudden understanding of a complicated problem or situation ¶ the ability
      The book was interesting, full of fascinating insights into human relationships.
      With a flash of insight, he found the solution to the problem.
      The author is a man of great insight.
      Rachel and I were just discussing it and she actually had some very interesting insights.
      Sheldon, without your insight and leadership, this enterprise will surely fail.
      Would you rather I offer my personal insight?
      An epiphany is a moment of sudden insight or understanding.
      Sheldon thought Ramona was smart and insightful.
      n[C] a situation that could possibly happen ¶ a description of possible actions or events in the future
      Under a likely scenario, world population will double by 2050.
      Imagine a scenario where only 25% of people have enough food.
      It's a nightmare scenario.
      The possible scenario is that there will be an outbreak of war.
      I enjoyed playing out the various scenarios in my own mind.
      You say that now, but consider the following scenario.
      "You'll have to devise a scenario that plausibly explains my absence, keeping in mind, that the key to a good lie, lies in the details," said Sheldon.
      Consider this unlikely but very plausible scenario. A young woman alone in the big city. Her ridiculous dream of becoming an actress lies shattered about her.
      v[T] impress/surprise/shock sb very much ¶ make sb unconscious for a short time
      News of the disaster stunned people throughout the country.
      A mugger stunned him with a brick and stole his wallet.
      Joshua's parents were stunned into silence seeing Rachel in her lace nightdress.
      Charlie! My God, you look absolutely stunning!
      Monica's hair's not brushed. She's got dark circles under her eyes, chocolate on her face, and she is still stunning.
      n[C] a substance that consists of two or more elements ¶ sth that consists of two or more substances ¶ an area that contains a group of buildings and is surrounded by a fence or wall
      also an adjective/verb
      Common salt is a compound of sodium and chlorine.
      This is an old herbal compound used for treating headaches.
      A compound eye is a single eye that is made up of two or more parts.
      A compound fracture is a fracture in which the broken bone sticks through the skin.
      Compound interest is interest that is calculated both on an original sum of money and on interest which has previously been added to the sum. (compare to simple interest)
      A compound is an enclosed area where a particular group of people live or where people such as soldiers and prisoners can exercise.
      Police fired on them as they fled into the embassy compound.
      If something is a compound of different things, it consists of those things.
      A compound noun or adjective is one that is made up of two or more words, for example "fire alarm" and "start-up".
      A compound verb simply means there is more than one verb in the sentence, for example "She laughed and cried during the film."
      A compound sentence is one that is made up of two or more main clauses (a group of words that includes a verb and a subject and is a sentence).
      To compound a problem, difficulty, or mistake means to make it worse by adding to it.
      He compounded the offence by calling his opponents liars.
      n[UC] a formal religious practice or custom ¶ sth you do regularly and always in the same way
      also an adjective
      Rituals of various kinds are a feature of almost all known human societies, past or present.
      The Incas used to sacrifice people in an elaborate ritual to please the Gods.
      There are seven sacraments or rituals (such as baptism or communion) in the Catholic Church.
      Rituals are characterized by formalism, traditionalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism and performance.
      It was a ritual that we always had to open our Christmas presents after the Queens speech.
      No ritual or routine to get things done is effective unless it's effective for you.
      Coffee and whole wheat toast are part of my morning ritual.
      As part of my morning ritual I always take a shower.
      I go through the ritual of lighting a cigarette.
      Ross played Rachel one of his songs, "Interplanetary Courtship Ritual".
      Phoebe says that if you wanna break the bad boyfriend cycle, you can do a cleansing ritual.
      n[C] a skilled cook
      Originally, Monica was a poorly paid chef at a restaurant called Iridium.
      Pete Becker used his money to open a restaurant and appoint Monica as head chef.
      Monica was eventually hired as head chef at a local restaurant, Alessandro's.
      She left Alessandro's when Chandler's firm required him to relocate to Tulsa.
      However, when she contacted a job-hunter about Tulsa restaurant openings, she got a job as head chef at Javu, an upscale restaurant in Manhattan.
      She isn't one of the top chefs in New York.
      Chef's salad is a salad consisting of hard-boiled eggs, one or more varieties of meat, such as ham, turkey, chicken, or roast beef, tomatoes, cucumbers, and cheese, all placed upon a bed of tossed lettuce or other leaf vegetables.
      n[CU] an important social or religious event ¶ formal behavior
      Throwing rice in the air or over the bride and groom as they leave the wedding ceremony has been a long-standing American tradition.
      A valedictorian is the student who has received the best marks all the way through school, and usually makes a speech at the graduation ceremony.
      A bar mitzvah is a ceremony that takes place on the thirteenth birthday of a Jewish boy, after which he is regarded as an adult.
      Come on, Sheldon, you can face a simple award ceremony.
      The awards ceremony is being held in L.A. on Thursday 1 October 2006.
      Her Majesty the Queen has been invited to perform an official opening ceremony in the summer.
      The opening ceremony of the Olympic Games was fabulous.
      The king wasn't crowned with due ceremony.
      He handed me his letter of resignation without ceremony (in a very informal way, without politeness).
      v[T] hurt, harm
      Ross injured his leg playing rugby yesterday.
      Four people died and 44 were injured in the accident.
      She was told to stay in bed to rest her injured waist.
      This incident could seriously injure her reputation.
      If you are mauled by an animal, you are violently attacked by it and badly injured.
      n[U] attractiveness
      n[C] a small object worn on a piece of jewelry ¶ act, words, or objects believed to have magic power
      v[T] attract, please, or interest ¶ use magic to influence or control
      Prince Charming is a stock character who appears in a number of fairy tales.
      In Shrek, Prince Charming is the son of the Fairy Godmother.
      He turned on the charm to everyone he met.
      It had worked like a charm.
      Many women were charmed by him.
      He kept a fox's paw as a lucky charm.
      If someone seduces another person, they use their charm to persuade that person to have sex with them.
      "Third time's the charm" means: The third time you try to do something, it will work.
      adj ≠guilty ¶ not intended to harm or upset anyone ¶ naive
      n[C] sb who does not have much experience of the bad things in life
      The accused person should always be presumed innocent until proved guilty.
      I'm startled by her angry reaction to my innocent remark.
      Don't be so innocent as to believe everything the politicians tell you.
      She has such an innocent face that I find it hard to believe anything bad of her.
      Innocent victims are people who get hurt or killed in a war or crime although they are not directly involved in it.
      Many innocent civilians are among the casualties.
      All those wounded were innocent bystanders.
      He was a complete innocent in the cutthroat world of high finance.
      Don't play innocent with me.
      I'm telling you, that girl is a user, skating through life on her looks, taking advantage of innocent weak-willed men.
      v[IT] hold sth tightly ¶ keep sb's attention etc completely
      also a noun
      Marcel gripped Ross' finger with his tiny hand.
      Hold the microphone in a firm grip and keep it still.
      She gripped Frank's hand firmly to show her support.
      She felt her hand caught in a vice-like grip.
      His grip slackened and she tore herself away.
      I gripped the rail and tried not to look down.
      The case has gripped the public because of the celebrities involved.
      I found the book so gripping that I couldn't put it down.
      I was gripped throughout the entire two hours of the film.
      Don't loosen your grip on the rope or you'll fall.
      A grip is a special part of a handle that has a rough surface so that you can hold it firmly without it slipping.
      My racquet needs a new grip.
      By 1979 South Africa was tightening its grip on Namibia.
      I'm just trying to get a grip on what's happening.
      The church no longer has a strong grip on the population.
      If you get a grip on yourself, you make an effort to control or improve your behavior or work.
      Stop being hysterical and get a grip on yourself.
      If you lose your grip, you become less efficient and less confident, and less able to deal with things.
      Sometimes I feel I'm losing my grip.
      If you say that someone has a grip on reality, you mean they recognize the true situation and do not have mistaken ideas about it.
      v[T] press/squeeze hard ¶ break sth into small pieces/powder ¶ defeat completely ¶ make sb feel extremely upset or shocked
      n[s] a crowd of people forced to stand close together
      n[C] a strong feeling of romantic love for sb
      Several people were crushed to death in the rush.
      Add two cloves of crushed garlic.
      The army was sent in to crush the rebellion.
      The revolution was crushed within days.
      We were crushed by the news.
      To crush someone's hopes is to make them lose all hopes.
      There's always such a crush on the subway in the mornings.
      Rachel had a huge crush on her teacher.
      If you crush something such as cloth, or it crushes, it becomes covered with small messy folds.
      Monica was crushed by knowing that her dress got all crushed in Chandler's suitcase.
      Listen to criticism but don't be crushed by it.
      The Brits both crush their cans, and not to be outdone, Ross crushes his coffee cup, spilling its contents.
      Compare crash and crush.
      n[C] a male member of the US Congress, esp of the House of Representatives
      A member of the House is referred to as a "Representative", "Congressman", or "Congresswoman".
      While Senators are technically "Congressmen/Congresswomen", the two terms are generally used exclusively by Members of the House of Representatives.
      "I'm 36. I'm your congressman," said Young Ethan.
      But anyway, Congressman, thank you. I look forward you to coming back to Washington, sir.
      v[T] increase/improve
      also a noun
      The win boosted the team's confidence.
      Even for very young children, a simple story with a repetitive refrain or a simple mystery to solve gives a confidence boost.
      The new resort area has boosted tourism.
      The new ad certainly seems to have given the brand a much-needed boost.
      Boosting productivity is the only way to improve competitiveness without cutting wages.
      Boost (C++ libraries) is a set of free peer-reviewed portable C++ libraries.
      v[I] be carried along gently by the movement of air or water ¶ move casually or aimlessly ¶ move, change, or do sth without any plan/purpose
      v[T] cause sth to ~
      n[CU] pile of snow or sand that has been blown by the wind ¶ slow change, development or movement
      We switched off the motor and the boat drifted down the river.
      Thick smoke from a forest fire drifted across the town.
      Joey spent the year drifting around Spain.
      He just drifted into acting.
      The crowds drifted away from the stadium but Susan stayed.
      The talk drifted aimlessly from one subject to another.
      She was drifting in and out of consciousness.
      If people drift apart, their relationship gradually ends.
      Monica and Rachel used to be friends, but they've drifted apart over the years.
      The wind drifted the snow into a high bank, blocking the road.
      The road is blocked with a nine-foot snow drift.
      The drift of an argument, speech etc is the general point that is being made in it.
      You didn't quite get my drift, did you?
      Continental drift is the slow movement of the Earth's continents towards and away from each other.
      v[T] declare in a lawcourt that sb is guilty
      n[C] prisoner
      He was convicted on fraud charges.
      He had twice been convicted of robbery.
      In 1987 he was convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment.
      It took the jury less than five hours to convict him on all counts.
      Roger Evans was a hacker and ex-convict.
      "Rach, Ben's not an ex-con," said Ross.
      v[IT] make a statement about sth you saw, know, or experienced, usu in a court of law ¶ provide evidence that sth exists or is true
      He had agreed to testify at the trial.
      He was summoned to testify in court.
      Later, the witness who had testified against Clayton withdrew his allegation.
      Recent excavations testify to the presence of cultivated inhabitants on the hill during the Arthurian period.
      To testify is to submit testimony.
      And we'll need you and Rachel to testify before a judge.
      v[IT] let down
      I'm sorry to disappoint you, but I'm afraid I can't come after all.
      She knew that she would disappoint him.
      He was deeply disappointed at the result.
      What a disappointing result!
      n[C] a violent storm with extremely strong winds and heavy rain
      The most destructive hurricane in history, Katrina, followed by another, Rita, has wreaked havoc in the southern States.
      The last time Florida was hit by three hurricanes in a single season was in 1964.
      A hurricane hit the city yesterday at 9 p.m.
      It was devastated by the hurricane.
      Another city in the area was also destroyed by the hurricane that night.
      Many roofs were blown off in the hurricane.
      Hurricane Gloria didn't break the porch swing, Monica did!
      Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by names such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone.
      A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud. They are often referred to as twisters or cyclones.
      Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea
      v[T] put down or drop sth in a careless way ¶ get rid of sth unwanted ¶ end a romantic relationship
      n[C] a place where people are allowed to leave their garbage ¶ a very unpleasant and untidy place ¶ a place where sth is stored
      Rachel dumped her bags on the floor and flopped onto the bed.
      She dumped all the photos of her ex-boyfriend.
      Some people just dump their rubbish in the river.
      If he's so awful, why don't you just dump him?
      I need to clear out the room and take everything I don't want to the dump.
      Why are you living in a dump like this?
      An ammunition dump is a military store of ammunition.
      The garden was used as an ammunition dump and slit trenches were dug.
      In computing, a core dump, memory dump, or system dump consists of the recorded state of the working memory of a computer program at a specific time, generally when the program has terminated abnormally (crashed).
      A dump truck is a truck with a large metal container that can be raised at the front end so that the sand, stones, or other material in it falls out at the back end.
      To dump goods is to sell them in a foreign country at a much lower price.
      The effect of cheap clothing being dumped on African markets has been to devastate local clothing manufacture with thousands losing their jobs and plunged deeper into poverty.
      n[U] money that is given by the government to people who are unemployed or need financial help
      phr v ~ out - give sth such as money, food, advice etc to every person in a group
      Unemployment benefits (also, depending on the jurisdiction, called unemployment insurance, unemployment compensation or the dole) are social welfare payments made by the state or other authorized bodies to unemployed people.
      The Unemployment Insurance Act 1920 created the dole system of payments for unemployed workers.
      In Australia, as in the United Kingdom, unemployment benefits are commonly referred to as "the dole"; to receive the benefit is to "be on the dole".
      The number claiming dole went up by 1,334.
      As three factories closed today, many people joined the dole queue.
      Helen was doling out candy to all the kids.
      Dole Food Company, Inc. is an American-based agricultural multinational corporation headquartered in Westlake Village, California.
      v[T] arrange things so that they stand one on top of another
      n[C] a neat pile of things ¶ a large amount of sth
      Stack the chairs up over there.
      Once the last few people had left the hall, the caretaker began stacking up the chairs.
      If a number of things stack up, they gradually collect or get stuck in one place.
      Traffic stacked up behind the car crash.
      If something is stacked against you, it is unfair and will probably cause you to fail.
      Despite the evidence stacking up against him, he still denies the claims. (like "hang up" means the same as "hang, "stack up" means "stack")
      If you say that the odds are stacked against someone, or that some factors are stacked against them, you mean that they are unlikely to succeed because the conditions are not favorable.
      As a phrasal verb, "stack up against" is used to talk about how good something is compared with something else.
      Parents want to know how their kids' schools stack up against others.
      The stacks are the rows of shelves in a library where the books are kept.
      He picked a Sola Aoi's from the stack of videos on the shelf.
      I've got stacks of work to do; there's a whole stack of bills waiting to be paid.
      Compare these words: heap, pile, and stack.
      v[IT] run or hurry away, escape
      Many German artists fled to America at the beginning of World War II.
      During the civil war thousands of people fled the country.
      Thousands of refugees fled across the border to escape the fighting.
      The family managed to flee to safety.
      She dropped the phone and fled from the room in tears.
      The children fled in terror as the hay caught fire.
      n[UC] a substance that can flow, has no fixed shape, for example water or milk
      also an adjective
      Mercury is a liquid at room temperature.
      A liquid crystal display (LCD) uses liquid crystals that become visible when electricity is passed through them.
      Washing-up liquid, dishwashing liquid, or dish soap, is a liquid soap for washing plates, knives etc.
      Liquid eyes are clear and clean, like water.
      Liquid sounds are clear and pure.
      Liquid assets is the money that a company or person has, and anything else that can easily be exchanged for money.
      She has very few liquid assets as most of her wealth is tied up in stocks and shares.
      Liquid gas is gas reduced to liquid form.
      Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of buried plants, gases, and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.
      v[T] order sb to do sth ¶ give sb the right or power to do sth
      n[CU] power, authority, order
      Quebec mandated that all immigrants send their children to French schools.
      Our delegates had been mandated to vote against the proposal at the conference.
      It is undemocratic to govern a country without an electoral mandate.
      At the forthcoming elections, the government will be seeking a fresh mandate from the people.
      They accused the president of acting without a mandate.
      Compare compulsory, mandate, mandatory, and obligatory.