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      v[IT] gather crops from the fields
      n[CU] the time, act, or crops ¶ the amount and quality of the crops
      Winter wheat is planted in the fall and harvested in early summer.
      There were about 300 million tons of grain in the fields at the start of the harvest.
      Poor harvests increased food prices.
      Millions of people are threatened with starvation as a result of drought and poor harvests.
      We are now reaping the harvest of our hard work last year.
      We've had a bumper harvest of pears this year.
      adj relating to the mental process involved in knowing, learning, and understanding things
      Cognition is the mental processing that includes the attention of working memory, comprehending and producing language, calculating, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making.
      Various disciplines, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics all study cognition.
      In psychology and cognitive science, "cognition" usually refers to an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions.
      In cognitive psychology and cognitive engineering, cognition is typically assumed to be information processing in a participant's or operator's mind or brain.
      Cognition, or cognitive processes, can be natural or artificial, conscious or unconscious.
      Language and Cognitive Processes provides an international forum for the publication of theoretical and experimental research into the mental processes and representations involved in language use.
      n[UC] a state of prolonged public dispute or debate, usu concerning a matter of conflicting opinion or point of view
      The genetically modified foods controversy is a dispute over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production.
      The judge's decision provoked controversy.
      The election ended in controversy, with allegations of widespread ballot rigging.
      The proposed cuts have aroused considerable controversy.
      Ross' views have excited a lively controversy among fellow scientists.
      The singer deliberately courts controversy with his racist and sexist lyrics.
      A fierce controversy has broken out over the issue.
      Controversy is raging over the sitting of the new airport.
      The controversy centered on the issue of compensation.
      There has been a lot of controversy over the use of these drugs.
      The book has caused heated controversy ever since it was published.
      n[C] a long area of high land, esp at the top of a mountain ¶ a raised line on a flat surface
      We walked along the narrow mountain ridge.
      We made our way carefully along the ridge.
      There are ridges on the soles to help the boots grip the surface.
      The ridges on the soles give the boots a better grip.
      The ridges on the soles of our boots stopped us from slipping.
      In meteorology, a ridge is an elongated region of relatively high atmospheric pressure, the opposite of a trough.
      Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram science and technology national laboratory managed for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) by UT-Battelle.
      n[U] ~ music has very strong rhythms and often involves improvisation
      Jazz is a music genre that originated at the beginning of the 20th century, arguably earlier, within the African-American communities of the Southern United States.
      From its early development until the present day, jazz has also incorporated elements from popular music especially, in its early days, from American popular music.
      Louis Armstrong, one of the most famous musicians in jazz, said to Bing Crosby on the latter's radio show, "Ah, swing, well, we used to call it syncopation, then they called it ragtime, then blues, then jazz. Now, it's swing. White folks - yo'all sho is a mess!"
      In a 1988 interview, trombonist J. J. Johnson said, "Jazz is restless. It won't stay put and it never will."
      "And all that jazz" means "and things like that."
      The principal lectured us about the honor of the school and all that jazz.
      "To jazz something up" is to make something more attractive or exciting.
      He's just jazzing it up for the media.
      adj sticking out from a surface ¶ easily seen ¶ well known, important
      Lincoln has a rather prominent chin.
      The statue was in a prominent position outside the railway station.
      New cell phones are displayed in a prominent position on tables at the front of the shop.
      The Golden Gate Bridge was a prominent feature in the landscape.
      The order was given by a prominent member of the government.
      Velociraptor is one of the dinosaur genera most familiar to the general public due to its prominent role in the Jurassic Park motion picture series.
      n[C] a large group of related families who live in the same area and share a common language, religion, and customs ¶ a large group of people
      A tribe is viewed, historically or developmentally, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states.
      Many anthropologists used the term tribal society to refer to societies organized largely on the basis of kinship; especially corporate descent groups (see clan and kinship).
      "Tribe" is a contested term due to its roots in colonialism. It conveys a negative connotation of a timeless unchanging past. To avoid these implications, some have chosen to use the terms 'ethnic group', or nation instead.
      Sitting Bull and the Sioux realized they could not defeat the army alone, and they must stand with other tribes.
      Are you looking at a naked tribe's woman?
      We were only expecting Jack and his wife, but the whole tribe turned up. What a tribe we've got!
      n[C] a man with the highest social rank outside the royal family
      A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
      The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux, "leader", a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank, and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province.
      A marquis is a male member of the nobility who has a rank between duke and earl.
      After his grandfather's death, Henry was recognized as Duke of Buckingham.
      Anne Boleyn disliked her uncle Thomas Howard, the 3rd Duke of Norfolk.
      Katharine, Duchess of Kent, is the wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, who is a grandson of King George V and Queen Mary, and first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II.
      Duke University in Durham, North Carolina traces its origins to 1838 when Methodist and Quaker Families in rural Randolph County employed Brantley York as a permanent teacher for their subscription school.
      adj continuing, still happening or being done
      No agreement has yet been reached and the negotiations are still ongoing.
      The phase II part of the study is currently ongoing.
      We fear that a great deal of the harvest which was ongoing in the south of the country may have been destroyed completely.
      Like many people in technical professions, I face the ongoing challenge of explaining my industry to non-technical friends and relatives.
      "What is the application deadline?" "We accept applications on an ongoing basis."
      The supervisory process is not a onetime thing. It's an ongoing process.
      n[C] covered entrance to a building ¶ a roofed platform along the outside of a house
      Frank's mother didn't want him and Alice to be together, so she tied him to the porch.
      The porch, Bonnie is coming back from swimming, Rachel is reading.
      Hurricane Gloria didn't break the porch swing, Monica did!
      You can sit with him on the front porch and make sure no one steals the trash cans.
      A sleeping porch is a deck or balcony that is screened and furnished for sleeping in the warmer months.
      Ray-ray and Melissa were on the sleeping porch, they couldn't stop giggling, and their coconut bras kept knocking together.
      v[T] do sth against an official agreement, law, principle etc ¶ enter an area or place without permission ¶ rape
      If someone violates an agreement, law, or promise, they break it.
      Phoebe and Gary violated Section 12 Paragraph 7 of the criminal code.
      I took Larry there to eat but it was all violated. So we shut it down!
      Enemy jets have repeatedly violated the Allied no-fly zone.
      The fishermen claimed that ships from another country had violated their territorial waters.
      If you violate someone's privacy or peace, you disturb it.
      Questions of this kind violate my privacy and I am not willing to answer them.
      If someone violates a special place, for example a grave, they damage it or treat it with disrespect.
      Vandals had violated the graveyard.
      "God, I feel violated," said Rachel.
      v[T] force sb to do sth ¶ make people have a particular feeling or attitude
      The new circumstances compelled a change in policy.
      The enemy was compelled to surrender.
      If you feel compelled to do something, you feel that you must do it, because it is the right thing to do.
      He felt compelled to resign because of the scandal.
      Her courage compels universal admiration.
      We cannot compel you to do it, but we think you should.
      Compare compel, compulsory, mandate, mandatory, oblige, and obligatory.
      v[T] move sth with a quick sudden movement
      v[I] turn over ¶ move in twists and turns ¶ suddenly become very angry or upset
      also a noun
      I flipped the top off the bottle and poured myself a glass of whiskey.
      Monica flipped the lid of the box open and looked inside.
      If you flip a device on or off, or if you flip a switch, you turn it on or off by pressing the switch quickly.
      Carol flipped the switch that opened the front gate.
      If you flip through the pages of a book, you quickly turn over the pages.
      He picked up the newspaper and flipped straight to the sports pages.
      I flipped through my address book but couldn't find his phone number.
      Would you stop flipping channels!
      If something flips over, or if you flip it over or into a different position, it moves or is moved into a different position.
      There's quite an art to flipping pancakes.
      You're supposed to flip a mattress regularly.
      If you flip something, especially a coin, you make it turn over and over, as it goes through the air.
      I pulled a coin from my pocket and flipped it.
      In the end the decision was made by the flip of a coin.
      Ross and Joey flipped a coin to see who would go first.
      Fishes are flipping about in the net.
      Mom really flipped when I told her I was pregnant.
      The flip side of a situation consists of the less obvious or less pleasant aspects of it.
      The flip side of the treatment is that it can make patients feel very tired.
      An acrobatic flip is a sequence of body movements in which a person leaps into the air and then rotates one or more times while airborne.
      I tripped and almost did a front flip down the stairs.
      A pair of flip-flops or thongs is a type of open shoe, often made of rubber, with a V-shaped strap which goes between the big toe and the toe next to it.
      v[T] use time, energy, goods etc ¶ eat or drink sth ¶ destroy completely
      Only 17% of the paper we consume is recycled.
      The car consumes a lot of fuel.
      A smaller vehicle will consume less fuel.
      Some of the most efficient refrigerators consume 70 percent less electricity than traditional models.
      Producing a dictionary is a very time-consuming job.
      Many people experienced a drop in their cholesterol levels when they consumed oat bran.
      The fire quickly consumed the cottage.
      If a feeling or idea consumes you, it takes all of your attention so that you cannot think of anything else.
      She was consumed with envy.
      Building model trains is his consuming passion.
      n[U] a plant with white hairs on its seeds that are used for making cloth and thread ¶ the cloth/thread
      also a verb
      Cotton is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world.
      The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of cotton fabric dated from 5000 BC have been excavated in Mexico and the Indus Valley Civilization.
      Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China.
      Cotton, cotton wool, or absorbent cotton is a soft mass of cotton, used especially for applying liquids or creams to your skin.
      A cotton bud or Q-tip is a small stick with a ball of cotton wool at each end, which people use, for example, for applying make-up.
      Cotton candy or candyfloss is a large mass of sugar threads that is eaten from a stick. It is sold at fairs or other outdoor events.
      It's a pure cotton T-shirt; it's made from/of 100% cotton.
      The sheets are 100% pure cotton.
      Carol looked pretty even in a simple cotton dress.
      If you cotton to someone or something, you start to like them.
      Penny didn't cotton to Leonard at first, but he's really nice.
      If you cotton on to something, you understand it or realize it.
      Ross soon cottoned on to what Susan was trying to do.
      n[U] trade
      Commerce is the activity of buying and selling, especially on a large scale.
      Commerce is a system or an environment that affects the business prospects of economies.
      Commerce can also be defined as a component of business which includes all activities, functions and institutions involved in transferring goods from producers to consumers.
      Apart from traditional self-sufficiency, trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other.
      Historian Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from about 150,000 years ago.
      E-commerce is the business of buying and selling goods and services on the Internet.
      The United States Department of Commerce (DOC) is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.
      A chamber of commerce is an organization consisting of people in business who work together to improve business in their town or local area.
      The United States Chamber of Commerce (USCC) is a business-oriented American lobbying group. It is not an agency of the United States government.
      n[UC] an area of ground in a garden or park that is covered with short grass
      The lawn really needs mowing.
      Will you mow the lawn at the weekend?
      I spent all day mowing the lawn last month.
      In summer we should mow the lawn once a week.
      Our next-door neighbors have carefully tended lawns.
      The house has half an acre of darn lawn.
      The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as "lawn tennis".
      A meadow is a field which has grass and flowers growing in it.
      Grassland is land covered with wild grass.
      A prairie is a large area of flat, grassy land in North America.
      adj physically strong and good at sport ¶ relating to sports/sportsmen
      Susan looks very athletic.
      She is an athletic 32-year-old with a 26-year-old's body.
      Her jersey has been slim cut for a dramatically athletic look.
      Athletic workout uses interval training techniques.
      This university has a long tradition of athletic excellence.
      n[UC] a very strong feeling of anger
      v[I] show ~
      "We were on a break!" Ross raged.
      "You ate my sandwich?!" raged Ross.
      He was red-cheeked with rage.
      He was white with rage.
      He was trembling with rage.
      His rages don't last long.
      Try to master your rage, count to 10 before you speak.
      Road rage is anger or violent behavior caused by someone else's bad driving or the stress of being in heavy traffic.
      Air rage is aggressive or violent behavior by airline passengers.
      The people vented their rage on the flight attendants.
      When something is popular and fashionable, you can say that it is the rage or all the rage.
      Smart phones became all the rage after iPhone's debut.
      A rage for something is a situation in which something is very popular or fashionable.
      I find the rage for mobile phones ridiculous.
      You say that something powerful or unpleasant rages when it continues with great force or violence.
      Fierce fighting raged for several days.
      A flu epidemic raged through the overcrowded city for weeks.
      v[IT] bring people together ¶ come together ¶ recover health, strength etc
      also a noun
      The colonel rallied his forces to defend the town.
      Supporters of the new shopping mall are trying to rally local people in favor of it.
      In a last effort to regain control of Shiloh, the confederate troops rallied against the union soldiers in a three day raging battle.
      Neighbors rallied round and alerted the emergency services.
      We paused to refresh ourselves and rally our strength.
      The Tokyo stock market rallied later in the day.
      The team played badly in the first half of the match but rallied in the second.
      About 1,000 people attended the rally in Hyde Park.
      A pep rally at a school, college, or university is a gathering to support a football team or sports team.
      A rally in tennis, badminton, or squash is a continuous series of shots that the players exchange without stopping.
      The Dakar Rally (or simply "The Dakar"; formerly known as "The Paris–Dakar" or "Paris to Dakar Rally") is an annual Dakar Series rally raid type of off-road race, organized by the Amaury Sport Organization.
      Madison Square Garden in New York City is the site of a pro-Nazi rally which attracts more than 20,000 supporters of the Nazi cause and of fascist sympathizer Father Charles Coughlin.
      This is one of only a few such rallies held on behalf of Nazi beliefs.
      Most rallies tend to be in opposition to the Nazis and Nazi racism.
      v[IT] make sth by cutting into esp wood/stone ¶ cut meat
      Michelangelo carved in marble.
      Someone had carved their initials on the tree, 'S&H'.
      "Shall I carve?" asked Chandler.
      "Please carve me another slice," said Joey.
      Those birds are browned, basted, and ready to be carved!
      "To carve out" is to succeed in getting the job, position, life etc that you want.
      Over the past five or six years Jamaica has carved out a name in global track and field as a sprint powerhouse.
      If you say that someone carves something up, you disapprove of the way they have divided it into small parts.
      They have begun carving the country up like a pie.
      The territory was carved up by the occupying powers.
      n[C] an extremely large group of stars and planets, celebrities, or things that are similar
      A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas and dust, and dark matter.
      The word galaxy is derived from the Greek galaxias (γαλαξίας), literally "milky", a reference to the Milky Way.
      The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
      The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy some 100,000–120,000 light-years in diameter which contains 100–400 billion stars.
      Edwin Hubble discovered that distant galaxies are moving away from us.
      Present tonight at the long-awaited opening of this film are a whole galaxy of stars from the acting and musical professions.
      Each film in the Star Wars series opens with scrolling text "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away."
      He's a singer-songwriter acclaimed by a galaxy of artists from Bob Dylan to Elton John, Steve Earle to Lucinda Williams for his insight into the human heart and a melodic purity (to paraphrase admirer Elvis Costello) unheard of since the heyday of Paul McCartney.
      v[T] say hello to sb or welcome them ¶ react to sth in a particular way ¶ be the first thing you notice when you arrive somewhere
      Helen rushed to open the door and greet the guest.
      She greeted Susan with a quick kiss.
      As they walked into the house, they were greeted by a wonderful smell of baking.
      The prime minister greeted them at the airport.
      A burst of applause greeted the players.
      The unions have greeted the decision with anger.
      v[IT] throw or drop things so that they spread over an area ¶ move far apart in different directions, or cause people or animals to do this
      The children had scattered toys all over the floor.
      The square had been scattered with sand to turn it into a makeshift bullring.
      The protesters scattered at the sound of gunshots.
      The police scattered the crowd.
      The cavalry scattered them and chased them off the field.
      The Bengal rural society is believed to have been scattered into tiny village settlements all over the plains of the vast delta.
      n[UC] the direction in which sth faces ¶ sb's basic attitudes or beliefs ¶ training or information that people are given for a new job or course of study
      Because of the building's orientation the garden gets very little sun.
      Someone's sexual orientation is whether they are sexually attracted to people of the same sex, people of the opposite sex, or both.
      Discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation is still far too widespread.
      We employ people without regard to their political or religious orientation.
      The movement is liberal and social democratic in orientation.
      Market orientation emphasizes the needs of the customer.
      Everyone, even new CEOs, experiences some level of anxiety and stress when starting a new job at a new workplace. Efficient new employee orientation programs have been proven to significantly reduce this stress and bring it down to a manageable level.