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      n[C] a sweet biscuit
      In the United States and Canada a cookie is a small, flat, baked treat, usually containing flour, eggs, sugar, and either butter or cooking oil, and often including ingredients such as raisins, oats, or chocolate chips.
      In many other English-speaking countries cookies are called biscuits.
      Phoebe opens a tin and offers Rachel a cookie.
      Joey reaches into the cookie jar for a cookie, takes his hand out, covered with pasta sauce.
      If you say that someone is a tough cookie or smart cookie, you mean that they have a strong and determined character.
      'That's the way the cookie crumbles' is used to say when something bad has happened and you must accept things the way they are, even though you do not want to.
      A HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie or simply cookie, the latter which is not to be confused with the literal definition), is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored in a user's web browser while the user is browsing that website.
      Although cookies cannot carry viruses, and cannot install malware on the host computer, tracking cookies and especially third-party tracking cookies are commonly used as ways to compile long-term records of individuals' browsing histories—a potential privacy concern that prompted European and U.S. law makers to take action in 2011.
      n[C] sb whose job is to help another person
      An aide is an assistant to someone who has an important job, especially in government or in the armed forces.
      She served as an aide to the former president.
      Only a handful of trusted aides within Downing Street were told.
      He claimed one top aide was seriously wounded.
      I was the lab aide that cleaned up the lab, put away the beakers.
      Someone's sidekick is a person who accompanies them and helps them, and who you consider to be less intelligent or less important than the other person.
      n[C] sb who operates equipment, a machine, etc ¶ sb who works for a telephone company and helps people with calls ¶ a person or company that runs a business ¶ sb who is good at achieving things by persuading people to help or agree with them
      It's not easy to be a crane operator.
      Dial 0 for the operator.
      Hello, operator? Could you put me through to Mrs. Green's office?
      I asked the operator to put me through to her office.
      Her husband, Ben, is a pipeline operator.
      She left the mobile operator in October last year.
      More recently, several US cable operators have begun offering wireless services to their subscribers.
      He was a shrewd operator who skillfully manipulated the press.
      adj causing a lot of disagreement, because many people have strong opinions about the subject being discussed
      It's a highly controversial plan to flood the valley in order to build a dam.
      But this theory is highly controversial and bitterly disputed.
      The laws covering dangerous dogs have long been controversial.
      Iran says its controversial nuclear program is peaceful.
      Thatcher's leadership was controversial at the time.
      Ms. Zhao was a highly controversial poet; but I liked her pie.
      n[C] a group of people ¶ a part of the army which has special duties ¶ an army unit made of two or more divisions
      The diplomatic corps is the group of all the diplomats who work in one city or country.
      The press corps is a group of journalists who are all working in a particular place, for different newspapers.
      In ballet, the corps de ballet is the group of dancers who dance together, in contrast to the main dancers, who dance by themselves.
      Esprit de corps is a feeling of loyalty and pride that is shared by the members of a group who consider themselves to be different from other people in some special way.
      The Peace Corps is an American organization that sends young people to help with projects in developing countries.
      The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces.
      On March 6, 1943, following the defeat of the U.S. II Corps by the German Afrika Korps at the Battle of the Kasserine Pass, Patton replaced Major General Lloyd Fredendall as commander of the II Corps and was promoted to lieutenant general.
      The II Corps was a corps of the United States Army and the first US formation of any size to see combat in Europe or Africa during World War II.
      As of 2003, the United States Army has four field corps.
      n[sU] opinion or feeling that strongly favors one side, prejudice ¶ an ability or interest in one type of thing
      v[T] unfairly influence attitudes, choices, or decisions
      The newspaper has a clear bias towards the Republican Party.
      Reporters should be impartial and not show political bias.
      Some institutions still have a strong bias against women.
      Monica showed a cooking bias at an early age.
      Phoebe has a strong musical bias.
      The course has a strong practical bias.
      Several factors could have biased the results of the study.
      The skirt is cut on the bias (slanting direction across threads of woven material).
      v[T] be like/similar to
      Rachel does not resemble her sisters in any way.
      But their experiences eerily resemble each other.
      It's amazing how closely Joey and Karl resemble each other.
      Ross makes a strange sound, vaguely resembling the sound of a dinosaur.
      The tofu resembles meat in flavor.
      "I have never had anything remotely resembling the embarrassment of that day," said Rachel.
      adj loving sb very much ¶ loyal ¶ dedicated
      Someone who is devoted to a person loves that person very much.
      They were devoted to each other their entire married lives.
      If you are devoted to something, you care about it a lot and are very enthusiastic about it.
      All of her energy, friends say, is devoted to getting her husband elected president.
      Joey and Ross are devoted Die Hard fans.
      Something that is devoted to a particular thing deals only with that thing or contains only that thing.
      It's a museum devoted to wax sculptures.
      Taxonomy is the area of the biological sciences devoted to the identification, nomenclature, and classification of organisms according to apparent common characteristics.
      v[IT] stop sb from speaking for a short period by sth you say or do ¶ make sth stop for a period of time ¶ break the continuity of sth
      I tried to explain what had happened but she kept interrupting me.
      Don't interrupt me while I'm talking!
      What was I saying before I was interrupted?
      I'm sorry to interrupt, but there's a telephone call for you, Mr. Grey.
      Sorry to interrupt, but there's someone to see you.
      I didn't manage to finish the report; I kept getting interrupted.
      We interrupt this program to bring you an important news bulletin.
      Commerce between the two countries was interrupted by the war.
      Tall trees interrupt the views from the house.
      If you interject something, you say it and interrupt someone else who is speaking.
      adj giving all your attention to sth, attentive ¶ able to think quickly and clearly
      v[T] make sb realize sth important or dangerous, warn ¶ tell sb in authority about a danger or problem, inform
      n[C] warning
      The rabbit raised its head, suddenly alert.
      Pinching yourself is one of the best ways to stay alert in Ross' lectures.
      I'm not feeling very alert today - not enough sleep last night.
      I'm just getting some coffee. So I'm alert for the wedding.
      Regular exercise could help you to feel better, look better, and be more alert.
      To be alert to something is to know about or understand something, especially a possible danger or problem.
      Climbers need to be alert to possible dangers.
      Our neighbors heard the car being broken into and alerted the police.
      Oh my God! Well the idea of a woman flirting with a single man, we must alert the church elders!
      They rang the church bells to sound the alert and the villagers then fled.
      The bomb alert was raised soon after midnight.
      Police warned the public to be on the alert for suspected terrorists.
      All our border points are on full alert.
      "Thank you for warning me; at breakfast I'll be on full alert for sex weapons," said Ross.
      If a hospital, a police force, or a military force is on red alert, they have been warned that there may be an emergency, so they can be ready to deal with it.
      Command & Conquer: Red Alert is a real-time strategy computer game of the Command & Conquer franchise, produced by Westwood Studios.
      Level 1 alert. I repeat, level 1. This is not a drill.
      v[T] have a view of, esp from above ¶ fail to see/notice, miss ¶ ignore, forgive
      The hotel overlooks Beijing National Aquatics Center (colloquially known as the Water Cube).
      It is easy to overlook a small detail like that.
      We should not overlook this possibility.
      The importance of this should not be overlooked.
      Accidents happen when safety checks are overlooked.
      Amy Green found him rich enough to overlook his faults.
      Compare "overlook" and "oversee."
      n[C] theory ¶ guesses, speculation
      A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
      For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it.
      Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory.
      A scientific hypothesis is a proposed explanation of a phenomenon which still has to be rigorously tested.
      In contrast, a scientific theory has undergone extensive testing and is generally accepted to be the accurate explanation behind an observation.
      A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.
      A different meaning of the term hypothesis is used in formal logic. In the proposition "If P, then Q", P denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); Q can be called a consequent.
      Several hypotheses for global warming have been suggested.
      These observations appear to support our working hypothesis.
      Her hypothesis concerns the role of electromagnetic radiation.
      The bold hypothesis has been disproved.
      n[C] a large area that is surrounded by seats, used for sports or entertainment; statium ¶ place or scene of activity or conflict
      An arena is an enclosed area, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theater, musical performances, or sporting events.
      The word derives from Latin harena, a particularly fine/smooth sand used to absorb blood in ancient arenas like the Colosseum in Rome.
      He left the arena to loud applause.
      Women are entering the political arena in larger numbers.
      I'm writing a political risk analysis of Iran, and I'm supposed to evaluate its position in the international arena.
      The arena of cyberspace is becoming a growing source of disagreement between Beijing and Washington.
      n[U] great pleasure
      n[C] sth that gives you great pleasure
      v[T] give sb great pleasure
      "Theodore, Bitsy, what a delight," said Phoebe.
      If someone takes delight or takes a delight in something, they get a lot of pleasure from it.
      Rachel takes great delight in teasing Melissa.
      The girls were screaming with delight.
      Monica's singing delighted everyone.
      She gave a little gasp of delight.
      Turkish delight or Lokum is a family of confections (beautifully prepared sweet foods) based on a gel of starch and sugar. Premium varieties consist largely of chopped dates, pistachios, and hazelnuts or walnuts bound by the gel.
      "Thank you for a delightful stay," said Ross.
      n[UC] entertainment that is intended to make people laugh ¶ a funny movie, play or TV program ¶ humor
      "Airport!" is a 1980 American satirical comedy film.
      Splash is a 1984 American fantasy romantic comedy film.
      Judy Jetson is an animated television comedy.
      A Shakespearean comedy is one that has a happy ending, usually involving marriages between the unmarried characters, e.g. "The Merchant of Venice" and "A Midsummer Night's Dream".
      FRIENDS is a highly successful TV comedy.
      The new channel will bring you the best in drama, music, and comedy.
      Musical comedy is a type of play or film that has singing and dancing as part of the story and that is humorous and entertaining, especially one written before the middle of the twentieth century.
      A situation comedy is an amusing television drama series about a set of characters. The abbreviation sitcom is also used.
      The reverend's forgetting his lines in the middle of the speech provided some good comedy.
      I think for us, kissing is pretty much like an opening act, you know? I mean it's like the stand-up comedian you have to sit through before Pink Floyd comes out.
      n[C] sofa
      v[T] express sth in a particular way
      A couch or sofa is a piece of furniture for seating two or more people in the form of a bench, with or without armrests, that is partially or entirely upholstered, and often fitted with springs and tailored cushions.
      Although a couch is used primarily for seating, it may be used for reclining and napping.
      In homes, couches are normally found in the family room, living room, den, sitting room or the lounge.
      Couches are also found in hotels, lobbies of commercial offices, waiting rooms, furniture stores, etc.
      Chandler offered to sleep on the couch.
      Everybody's sitting on the couch and Monica is eating a chunk of cake.
      A couch potato is someone who spends most of their time watching television and does not exercise or have any interesting hobbies.
      If a statement is couched in a particular style of language, it is expressed in that style of language.
      I don't understand this form - it's all couched in legal terminology.
      n[U] the ability to recognize the difference between things ¶ good judgement ¶ unfair treatment of sb because of their race etc
      It's important to learn discrimination between right and wrong.
      Rachel cooked without skill and Joey ate without discrimination.
      Positive/reverse discrimination or affirmative action means making sure that people such as women, members of smaller racial groups, and disabled people get a fair share of the opportunities available.
      Mr. Honeywell claimed he had been the victim of sexual discrimination.
      There is widespread discrimination against doctors of Asian origin.
      Discrimination by age is as vicious as discrimination by race.
      Some IT companies practice discrimination in favor of younger people.
      It's time we ban discrimination on the grounds of age.
      v[T] state clearly and firmly
      "French cheese," Monica asserted, "is the best in the world."
      Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary asserted that nuclear power was a safe and non-polluting energy source.
      In Egypt, the army made an attempt to assert its authority.
      The Germans took a great deal of the city but they failed to fully assert their authority. Areas captured by the Germans during the day, were re-taken by the Russians at night.
      If you assert your right or claim to something, you insist that you have the right to it.
      Native Americans begin to assert their rights to ancestral land.
      If an idea or belief asserts itself, it begins to influence something.
      Joey's bag begins to assert itself.
      The republics began asserting their right to govern themselves.
      They successfully asserted their right to protect their homes.
      n[C] sth that is usual or expected ¶ generally accepted standard
      Computer-generated images will become an accepted norm in movies.
      One child per family will no longer be the norm in China.
      Short term contracts are now the norm with some big companies.
      In the inner-city areas, poverty is the norm instead of the exception.
      Players who fall below the norm should leave the team.
      Norms are the generally accepted standards of social behavior.
      The terrorists had violated the norms of civilized society.
      n[U] features belonging to the culture that still exist from the past and have a historical importance
      Cultural heritage includes tangible culture (such as buildings, monuments, landscapes, books, works of art, and artifacts), intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions, language, and knowledge), and natural heritage (including culturally significant landscapes, and biodiversity).
      A UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) World Heritage Site is a place (such as a forest, mountain, lake, island, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that is listed by UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance.
      A single text was agreed on by all parties, and the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
      Until the end of 2004, there were six criteria for cultural heritage and four criteria for natural heritage.
      There are 981 World Heritage Sites located in 160 States Party. Of these, 759 are cultural, 193 are natural and 29 are mixed properties.
      China has 45 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, ranking second in the world.
      Numbered World Heritage Sites in Beijing: 1. Great Wall of China; 2. Forbidden City; 3. Zhoukoudian; 4. Summer Palace; 5. Temple of Heaven; 6. Ming Dynasty Tombs.
      Folk songs are part of our common heritage.
      The city has an exceptionally rich heritage of historic buildings.
      adj having or showing a not too high opinion of one's abilities, qualities etc ¶ not very great, big, or expensive ¶ feeling shy or embarrassed about other people seeing your body
      You're too modest! You've been a huge help to us.
      The engine has very modest oil consumption.
      A bistro is a small restaurant serving moderately priced simple meals in a modest setting.
      A coy person is, or pretends to be, shy or modest.
      Julie was a modest girl, always keeping covered, even in summer.
      Modest clothing covers the body in a way that does not attract sexual interest.
      v[T] describe, portray
      Children's books often depict farmyard animals as gentle lovable creatures.
      Joey is depicting his acting skills.
      The drawing depicts her sitting on a couch.
      Cave paintings found on the south coast depict whale hunts.
      Her novel depicted life in modern Shanghai.
      The works of William Powell Frith depict crowded scenes from Victorian life.
      n[C] sb who opposes or fights against people in authority ¶ sb who refuses to do things in the normal way, or in the way that other people want them to
      v[I] fight against or resist the established government ¶ resist authority or control
      Fighting between the rebels and government troops continues in the north.
      The town fell into rebel hands.
      She has always been a bit of a rebel.
      I was very young and rebelling against everything.
      It is a highly sensitive region in the eye of three overlapping storms: civil war in Syria, the contested frontier between Arab Iraq and Kurdistan, and a three-decade-long conflict involving with Kurdish rebels in southeastern Turkey.
      The Canon EOS 300D was marketed in North America as the EOS Digital Rebel.
      n[s] the fourth planet from the Sun
      Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.
      Named after the Roman god of war, Mars is often described as the "Red Planet" because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance.
      Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring.
      Mars has approximately half the diameter of Earth. It is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earth's volume and 11% of the mass.
      Mars is a terrestrial planet that consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygen, metals, and other elements that typically make up rock.
      Mission to Mars (2000) is a science fiction film. In 2020, the first manned mission to the planet Mars is launched.
      My Favorite Martian (an imaginary creature from the planet Mars) is an American television sitcom. Tim takes the Martian in as his roommate and passes him off as his Uncle Martin.
      v[T] make possible/easier, aid, assist
      Computers can be used to facilitate language learning.
      It will help facilitate the sharing of information within their organizations over the Internet.
      The use of computers has greatly facilitated the firm's ability to keep accurate records.
      The new airport will facilitate the development of tourism.
      A working group has been established, externally facilitated, which will aim to deliver the final scheme by December 2014.
      We will actively facilitate business opportunities and develop them whenever they benefit the people of Northern Ireland.