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n[C] money or property left to sb in a will, inheritance ¶ sth that happens/exists as a result of things that happened before
His grandfather died and left him a small legacy.
He received a legacy of $6000.
She is the heir to a legacy of $1 billion.
His weak chest was a legacy of a childhood illness.
The Chinese have a rich legacy of literature.
The war has left a legacy of hatred.
v[IT] treat used materials so that they can be used again ¶ use sth such as an idea, writing etc again
To save paper, one should consider buying books made only with recycled paper.
This newspaper is made of recycled paper.
In computing, the trash (also known as the recycle bin and by other names) is temporary storage for files that have been deleted in a file manager by the user, but not yet permanently erased from the file system.
When the user views the Recycle Bin, the files are displayed with their original names. When the file is "Restored" from the Recycle Bin, it is returned to its original directory and name. It is possible to bypass the Recycle Bin and directly delete a file by holding the SHIFT key while performing an action that would normally send a file to the trash.
The fashion world just keeps recycling old ideas.
n[CU] words for play/movie etc ¶ system of writing, alphabet ¶ handwriting ¶ a set of papers that a student writes in an exam
v[T] write a ~ for
Joey said he wrote all his own scripts.
The Arabic script is a writing system used for writing several languages of Asia and Africa, such as Arabic, Persian, Pashto and Urdu.
The invitation was written in beautiful italic script.
Ross had a large pile of scripts to mark.
Typically, a scripting language is characterized by the following properties: ease of use, OS facilities, interpreted from source code, and relatively loose structure.
James Cameron scripted and directed both films.
v[T] control sth by rules ¶ adjust
Did your mother regulate how much TV you can watch?
The activities of credit companies must be regulated by law rather than morality.
The proposal seeks to change the way the airline industry is regulated.
People sweat to regulate their body heat.
You can regulate the temperature in the room by turning the knob.
v[T] experience sth, esp a change or sth unpleasant, endure
She underwent an operation on a tumor in her left lung last year.
The country has undergone massive changes recently.
New recruits have been undergoing training in recent weeks.
The average gasoline engine generates the most pollution and undergoes the greatest engine wear in the first few miles of operation.
Compare "undergo" and "undertake."
n[U] a type of heavy sticky earth that can be used for making pots, bricks etc
Pottery is pots, dishes, and other objects made out of baked clay.
Homo habilus hasn't even learned how to use tools yet and they've got him here with clay pots. Why don't they just give him a microwave?
In tennis, matches played on clay are played on courts whose surface is covered with finely crushed stones or brick.
Lawn tennis is the same as tennis.
Clay pigeons are discs of baked clay which are thrown into the air by a machine as targets for gun shooting practice.
Someone that you admire who has feet of clay has faults and weaknesses that you did not realize they had.
v[IT] lie or exist beneath sth ¶ be the real or basic cause of or reason for sth
Ice in the accumulation zone is deep enough to exert a downward force that erodes underlying rock.
The evening chatter was underlain by the distant roar of a lion deep in the bush.
Try to figure out what feeling underlies your anger.
Contrary to what is popularly believed, the underlying cause of the Civil War was the issue of state rights.
An extraordinary quality underlay his very ordinary words.
Compare underlie and undermine.
adj full of interest or desire, enthusiastic, keen
She was eager to know what they had said.
Some patients are eager to eliminate the cancer risk.
I am eager and ready for the work ahead.
Obama was eager to get credit as a penny-pincher.
The girls were bored and seemed eager for new experiences.
In their eagerness to buy new cell phones, they may have overlooked certain financial difficulties.
An eager beaver is someone who is too keen and works harder than they should.
n[U] sth that proves who you are, ID ¶ recognition ¶ a strong feeling of sympathy, understanding or support
I was stopped at the customs. "Do you have any identification?"
A customs officer checked my identification.
You should always carry some identification.
The Thai government's national ID card will contain biometric identification, as well as insurance, tax and welfare benefit information.
RFID or radio frequency identification technology is now ready to roll out.
In forensic handwriting identification, line quality is extremely important.
The identification of a problem is the first step toward solving it.
She was unable to make a positive identification of the suspect.
Phoebe had a strong identification with animals.
While "in the psychoanalytic literature there is agreement that the core meaning of identification is simple - to be like or to become like another", it has also been adjudged '"the most perplexing clinical/theoretical area" in psychoanalysis.
n[C] sth, esp a small bunch of hair, in the shape of a curve
v[IT] form a ~, or make sth do this ¶ move in a curving or twisting way
If you have curls, your hair is in the form of tight curves and spirals.
Her hair was styled into a cascade of spiral curls.
Does her hair curl naturally?
I put a clip on one side, which seems to have stopped the curling.
The heat takes all the curl out of your hair.
Hey, Mr. Bing. That hotel you stayed at called. Said someone left an eyelash curler in your room.
If your toes, fingers, or other parts of your body curl, or if you curl them, they form a curved or round shape.
James's fingers curled tightly round the steering wheel.
Do you think you can ever have both? Someone who's like your best friend, but then also can make your toes curl?
To curl up is to move so that you are lying or sitting with your arms and legs bent close to your body.
Your laundry smelled so good that I thought I'd curl up in it.
Phoebe moves the dresses out of the way to find Rachel curled up in a fetal position frantically blowing on the whistle.
A curl of something is a piece or quantity of it that is curved or spiral in shape.
A curl of smoke was rising from Chandler's cigarette.
Smoke curled from his cigarette.
If something flat curls up, its edges start to become curved and point upwards.
The photograph was brown and curling at the edges.
If you curl your lip, you pull your top lip upward at one side in a way that shows that you are annoyed, bored, or do not respect someone.
'Of course not,' she said, with a curl of her lip.
Her lip curled in contempt.
adj making you have feelings of love and excitement ¶ involving love and sex ¶ not realistic ¶ marked by feeling rather than intellect ¶ preferring wild nature, passion etc
n[C] sb who enjoys romantic situations
'Ross always sends me red roses on my birthday.' 'How romantic!'
I'd take you out for a romantic night. Some champagne, fancy dinner, feel you up on the carriage ride home.
What could be more romantic than a wedding on a tropical island?
"I have to break up with Charlie? You're crazy." "Crazy, or romantic?"
Romantic relationships between teachers and students are frowned upon.
An Affair to Remember is a 1957 film, starring Cary Grant and Deborah Kerr. The film is considered one of the most romantic of all time, according to the American Film Institute.
Like many New Yorkers, Alex (originally named Alakay) had a romantic image of country life.
Her dreams of love and marriage are hopelessly romantic.
She's an incurable romantic.
Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, it was also a revolt against the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.
Beethoven, Schumann and Chopin were leading Romantic composers.
Keats is one of the greatest Romantic poets.
n[CU] a single seed or seeds of of corn, rice, wheat etc ¶ a very small piece of a substance such as sand, salt, or sugar
Grains are small, hard, dry seeds, with or without attached hulls or fruit layers, harvested for human or animal consumption.
Agronomists also call the plants producing such seeds "grain crops".
The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals such as wheat and rye and legumes such as beans and soybeans.
Last year's grain harvest was the biggest ever.
There were crumbs and grains of sugar on the table.
"A grain of something" is a very small amount of something.
There isn't a grain of truth in those rumors.
Anyone with a grain of common sense would have known what to do.
The grain of something is the natural lines you can see in a substance such as wood, which are the result of its structure.
This wood has a beautiful natural grain.
Shall we cut the wood along/across the grain?
If something goes against the grain, it is not what you would naturally or normally do.
It really goes against the grain to have to work on a Sunday.
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass equal to 64.79891 milligrams. It is nominally based upon the mass of a single seed of a cereal.
The grain was the legal foundation of traditional English weight systems.
adj accepted by or involving most people in a society
also a verb/noun
These children have been cut off from the mainstream of educational activity.
Deaf children can often be included in mainstream education.
Don't let them drift out of the mainstream of society.
Many feminist ideas have entered the mainstream.
His radical views place him outside the mainstream of American writers.
To mainstream is to include a child with physical or mental problems in an ordinary class.
In mainstreamed classrooms, hearing/listening is the cornerstone of the educational system. If a child can not clearly hear the teacher, the entire premise of the educational system is undermined.
v[T] change sth slightly, alter, adapt
We may need to modify our plans a little.
The plane was a modified version of the MiG-21.
The plan involved modifying the engine.
If an adjective, adverb etc modifies another word, it describes something or limits the word's meaning.
In the sentence 'He ran quickly', the adverb 'quickly' modifies the verb 'ran'.
adj acceptable/allowed by law ¶ fair/reasonable
I'm not sure that his business is strictly legitimate.
A legitimate child is born to parents who are legally married to each other.
"It's a legitimate learning technique," said Ross.
"We are going to have a legitimate member of the clergy!" yelled Chandler.
"It's not porn! This is a serious, legitimate movie. The nudity is really important to the story," said Joey.
She claimed that the hotel bill was a legitimate business expense.
The army must give power back to the legitimate government.
The government has been legitimately elected by the people.
adj relating to a system or period in which one country rules another ¶ relating to the US when it was under British rule ¶ made in a style that was common in the US in the 18th century
n[C] sb who lives in a country that is controlled by their own country
Kenya was under British colonial rule for many years.
Various parts of Africa have suffered under colonial rule.
Britain was the largest colonial power.
Early colonial bird merchants used to bring their birds to market in that.
It is a room separating apparatus from colonial times.
What are other time periods other than colonial, Rachel?
Well there's yore. And uh, you know, yesteryear.
n[C] sth you buy cheaply or for less than its usual price ¶ an agreement in which two people or groups each promise to do sth
v[I] discuss prices, terms of trade etc
You should be able to pick up a few good bargains.
I picked up a really good bargain in the market.
That second-hand table is a real bargain.
Ten bucks is a real bargain!
This coat is half-price - a real bargain.
It's a bargain at that price.
You've got a good bargain there.
If you refer to something as a bargain basement thing, you mean that it is cheap and not very good quality.
Good knives don't come at bargain prices.
You can get even better deals if you're prepared to bargain.
You gotta get me out of here Phoebe! These bargain shoppers are crazy!
The treaty was based on a bargain between the Japan and German governments.
"I'll make a bargain with you. I'll clean the car if you tidy the kitchen." "OK, it's a bargain."
If you promote our goods, we will give you a good discount as our part of the bargain.
I've done what I promised and I expect you to keep your side of the bargain.
If you keep your side/end/part of the bargain, you do what you agreed.
You use into the bargain when mentioning an additional quantity, feature, fact, or action, to emphasize the fact that it is also involved.
She was a distinguished announcer and a gifted porn star into the bargain.
If you have not bargained for or bargained on something that happens, you did not expect it to happen and so feel surprised or worried by it.
Jerry didn't bargain on Tom returning so soon.
The management and employees finally made a bargain (reached an agreement).
Eventually the two sides struck a bargain.
A bargain was made between the employers and the unions.
"To drive/strike a hard bargain" means to demand a lot or refuse to give too much when you are making an agreement.
The company is believed to have struck a hard bargain.
In some legal systems, a plea bargain is an agreement that, if an accused person says they are guilty, they will be charged with a less serious crime or will receive a less severe punishment.
If an accused person plea bargains, they accept a plea bargain.
n[UC] a clear rock that looks like glass, esp quartz ¶ very high quality clear glass ¶ the clear cover on a clock or watch ¶ a small regular-shaped piece of a substance
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Swarovski is the brand name for a range of cut crystal and related luxury products produced by Swarovski AG of Wattens, Austria.
Ross bought Carol a ridiculously expensive crystal duck.
He made his meaning crystal clear.
The dining-table shone with silver and crystal.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an ordered pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.
Examples of large crystals include snowflakes, diamonds, and table salt.
Cirrus clouds are composed of ice crystals.
A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a display of information on a screen, which uses liquid crystals that become visible when electricity is passed through them.
Crystal balls are traditionally used by fortune-tellers.
If you say that someone, especially an expert, looks into a crystal ball, you mean that they are trying to predict the future.
n[C] a long,narrow valley with very steep sides
A canyon or gorge is a deep ravine between pairs of escarpments or cliffs and is most often carved from the landscape by the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.
Some canyons have notable cultural significance. Evidence of early humanoids have been discovered in Africa's Olduvai Gorge.
The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in the United States in the state of Arizona.
Development of the new Canyon and the Colorado is already under way.
The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is regarded by some as the deepest canyon in the world, and is slightly longer than the Grand Canyon in the United States, making it one of the world's largest.
The Tara River canyon is the deepest and longest in Europe.
n[CU] an opinion that everyone in a group agrees with or accepts
The group consensus is that Howard's proposal will be met with an humiliating, soul-crushing rejection.
The general consensus in the office is that managers are good at writing reports.
Could we reach a consensus on this matter?
The consensus amongst the world's scientists is that the world is likely to warm up over the next few decades.
Not all good decisions are made by consensus.
The consensus of many studies suggests that the DLOM ranges between 30-50%.
During the discussion, we reached a consensus on a recommendation for the nine examples where we agreed on the balance between benefits and harms.
There is a consensus that global warming is real.
n[C] a piece of paper that a doctor gives you that says what medicine/treatment you need ¶ the medicine/treatment
n[U] the act
Why do you need a prescription for sleeping pills?
Because if a medication is by prescription, you can only get it if you have a prescription.
If a medicine is available on prescription, you can only get it from a chemist/pharmacist if a doctor gives you a prescription for it.
The drug is only available on prescription.
Over-the-counter drugs can be obtained without a prescription.
I've been prescribed painkillers.
I'll get the prescription filled (get the drugs) on the way home.
Would you like to wait while the chemist makes up your prescription?
Prescription costs (the fixed amount you have to pay for a prescription) had risen again.
If you're pregnant, you can get free prescriptions.
The government should try to cut the price of prescription drugs.
A repeat prescription is a prescription for a medicine that you have taken before or that you use regularly.
A prescription is a plan that will help you achieve something, or that will have a particular result.
His prescription for economic recovery was not well received.
The government's main prescription for educational problems was to give schools more money.
adj not covered/decorated with anything
If a part of your body is bare, it is not covered by any clothing.
I felt the sun warm on my bare arms.
She likes to walk around in bare feet.
A bare surface is not covered or decorated with anything.
There's no carpet in the room, just bare floorboards.
An area of ground that is bare has no plants growing on it.
The trees soon gave way to bare rock.
If a tree or a branch is bare, it has no leaves on it.
In winter, when the trees are bare and snow covers the ground, the landscape is very bleak.
If a room, cupboard, or shelf is bare, it is empty.
She looked round her tiny bare room.
If someone gives you the bare facts or the barest details of something, they tell you only the most basic and important things.
The newspaper had simply published the bare facts.
I just packed the bare essentials.
Bare is used in front of an amount to emphasize how small it is.
If you talk about the bare minimum or the bare essentials, you mean the very least that is necessary.
She eats only the bare minimum to stay alive.
If someone does something with their bare hands, they do it without using any weapons or tools.
He had killed a man with his bare hands.
If you lay bare something or someone, you reveal or expose them.
Unwilling to lay bare her private thoughts to a stranger, Monica only gave him an awkward smile.
The dog bared its teeth and growled.
n[CU] a secret vote ¶ a piece of paper that you write your vote on ¶ the total number of votes
v[T] vote for sth, or ask sb do this
A ballot is a device used to cast votes in an election, and may be a piece of paper or a small ball used in secret voting.
In the simplest elections, a ballot may be a simple scrap of paper on which each voter writes in the name of a candidate, but governmental elections use pre-printed to protect the secrecy of the votes.
The voter casts his/her ballot in a box at a polling station.
A ballot box is the box into which ballot papers are put after people have voted.
The party leader is elected by secret ballot.
Only 25% of eligible voters cast their ballots.
Election boards counted the ballots by hand.
She got just over 60% of the ballot.
I voted for her on the ballot.
He voted against her at the ballot.
The union cannot call a strike unless it holds a ballot of members.
If you ballot a group of people, you find out what they think about a subject by organizing a secret vote.
The union will ballot members on the possibility of striking.
The members balloted for strike action yesterday.
Ballot rigging is the act of illegally changing the result of an election by producing a false record of the number of votes.
n[C] a sudden feeling of being very excited and pleased
v[T] make sb feel excited and happy
Winning first place must have been quite a thrill.
It gave Melissa a real thrill to see Rachel again after so many years.
Thriller is the sixth studio album by American recording artist Michael Jackson. It was released on November 30, 1982.
Ross is showing his less than thrilled friends, Joey and Chandler, pictures of his new baby boy, Ben.
Everyone groans except for Kathy, who is thrilled.
So Chandler, your parents must've been thrilled when you told them you were engaged.
"My favorite part was when Superman flew all the Jews out of Egypt." "The Armadillo was actually not so thrilled about that part!"
n[C] the leader of the Roman Catholic Church
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Bill Clinton and the Pope die on the same day, but a mix up in the afterlife paperwork sends them to the wrong places: the Pope goes to hell and Bill goes to heaven.
After a couple of days they fix this problem and the Pope gets on the escalator to go to heaven and Bill gets on the other to go to hell.
The two pass each other on the way and Bill asks, "How bad was it down there?"
The Pope says, "Not that bad, kind of hot and noisy, but I am glad to be going up to heaven now. There's one thing up there I have been looking forward to."
Bill asks, "What is that?"
The Pope replies, "I want to meet the Virgin Mary."
Bill, shakes his head sheepishly and whispers to the Pope, "Too late."