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      gam`ble
      'gæmbəl
      v[IT] bet money ¶ do sth risky
      also a noun
      -
      His religion forbids him to drink or gamble.
      He spends all his time gambling at the casinos in Atlantic City.
      He gambled away all of his savings on a single throw of the dice.
      He had to borrow money to pay off his gambling debts.
      We can't relax our safety standards - we'd be gambling with people's lives.
      They're gambling everything on Bob being fit for Sunday's game.
      She was gambling that he wouldn't read it too carefully.
      It was a big gamble for her to leave the band and go solo.
      In a depressed market, setting up this business was a bit of a gamble.
      We cannot afford to take a gamble on a new product.
      The improved atmosphere persuaded some foreign investors to gamble on a recovery.
      Anyone who gambles on the stock exchange has to be prepared to lose money.
      The gamble paid off.
      "Rock Paper Scissors Lizard Spock?" "Why would I gamble? It's mine. Let go."
      That seems like an awfully large gamble given that the prize is Leonard.
      If animals or people gambol, they run or jump about in a playful way.
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      for`um
      'fɔ:rəm
      n[C] open public space in the middle of a Roman city ¶ a place where issues can be discussed
      -
      The Roman Forum is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
      In United States constitutional law, a public forum is a government-owned property that is open to public expression and assembly.
      An international forum on economic development took place in New York.
      The Boao Forum for Asia, abbreviated to BFA, is a non-profit organization that hosts high-level forums for leaders from government, business and academia in Asia and other continents to share their vision on the most pressing issues in this dynamic region and the world at large.
      Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies[1] that seeks to promote free trade and economic cooperation throughout the Asia-Pacific region.
      Discussion forums are a way of contacting people with similar interests from all over the world.
      For years the club has provided a forum for political discussion.
      The conference provides a useful forum for the exchange of views and ideas.
      An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.
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      bass
      beis
      n[UC] the lowest tone or part in music ¶ a man's singing voice with a low range, or a man with a ~ ¶ a musical part that is written for a bass voice ¶ a fish
      adj low in tone
      -
      Bass describes tones of low frequency or range. In musical compositions, these are the lowest parts of the harmony.
      A bass is a type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types.
      Bass describes musical instruments that produce tones in the low-pitched range.
      When the F-clef is placed on the fourth line, it is called the bass clef. This clef is used for the cello, euphonium, double bass, bass guitar, bassoon, contrabassoon, trombone, baritone horn, tuba, and timpani. It is also used for the lowest notes of the horn, and for the baritone and bass voices.
      In music theory, the bass note of a chord or sonority is the lowest note played or notated.
      The bass guitar (also called electric bass, or simply bass) is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb, by plucking, slapping, popping, tapping, thumping, or picking with a plectrum, often known as a pick.
      The double bass, or upright bass, also called the string bass, contrabass, bass viol, stand-up bass, bull fiddle or simply bass, is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument of the viol family in the modern symphony orchestra.
      Is he a bass, a baritone, or a tenor?
      He sings bass in the church choir.
      On a stereo system or radio, the bass is the ability to reproduce the lower musical notes. The bass is also the knob which controls this.
      A subwoofer (or sub) is a woofer, or a complete loudspeaker, which is dedicated to the reproduction of low-pitched audio frequencies known as bass.
      Bass are edible fish that are found in rivers and the sea. There are several types of bass. Bass is also a piece of this fish eaten as food.
      It is very easy to tell the difference between a yellow perch and white perch. However, many people mistake white perch for silver bass.
      Could the waiters gather around to hear tonight's specials? Ok, first, there is a Chilean sea bass prepared with a mango relish...
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      i`ni`ti`ate
      i'niʃieit
      v[T] put sth into operation, cause sth to happen, make sth start ¶ admit/introduce
      n[C] sb who has recently joined an organization etc
      -
      This is a huge deal! Come on I need more details, who initiated the first kiss?
      I didn't initiate the kiss, but I also didn't stop it, and I've been feeling guilty.
      If she hadn't initiated it I know you would have.
      If you initiate someone into something, you introduce someone to a skill, subject, or activity and teach them about it.
      At the age of eleven, Harry Potter was initiated into white magic.
      If someone is initiated into something such as a religion, secret society, or social group, they become a member of it by taking part in ceremonies at which they learn its special knowledge or customs.
      Hogwarts had a special ritual to initiate students.
      In the American Mafia, a made man is a fully initiated member of the Mafia. Other common names for members include man of honor, goodfella and wiseguy.
      Tomorrow morning you will put on the gray robe of an initiate.
      Compare initiate and orientate.
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      di`ag`nose
      'daiəgnəuz
      v[T] find out what illness sb has, or why sth is not working
      -
      Susan had a tumor, and it was diagnosed as benign.
      In 1984 her illness was diagnosed as cancer.
      They are traditionally difficult for doctors to diagnose.
      Joey struggled in school before he was diagnosed as dyslexic.
      He could diagnose an engine problem simply by listening.
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      in`di`ge`nous
      in'didʒənəs
      adj native
      -
      Koalas are indigenous to Australia.
      Blueberries are indigenous to America.
      The Maori are the indigenous people of New Zealand.
      The Chinese Pheasant is indigenous to the forests in the mountainous area of western China, although it can be found in many zoos. The Pheasant is also a Chinese symbol of good fourtune and beauty.
      The peony, also known as the "king of flowers," is a perennial flower indigenous to China.
      However, resistance by the indigenous Carib Indians continues.
      The origins of the indigenous tribes still mystify anthropologists.
      The violence was between indigenous Christians and Muslim settlers.
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      re`sume
      ri'zju:m 'rezumei
      v[IT] start sth again after stopping temporarily ¶ take or occupy sth again
      n[C] summary ¶ curriculum vitae (CV)
      -
      Shall we resume after lunch?
      The six-party talks will resume tomorrow.
      Rachel hopes to resume work after the baby is born.
      Liu Xiang will resume training as soon as the injury is better.
      If you resume your seat, place, or position, you go back to the seat, place, or position where you were before.
      Chandler came back from the bathroom and tried to resume his seat.
      If you suspend something, you delay it or stop it from happening for a while or until a decision is made about it.
      I gave him a quick resume of events.
      Not only am I not getting interviews but people are not even acknowledging my resume.
      I get an email from someone in a different office saying my resume is a perfect match then get set up with someone completely different who says I needed such and such experience. Ridiculous.
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      so`di`um
      'səudiəm
      n[U] a soft silver-white chemical element that is found in salt
      -
      Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.
      Sodium is an essential element for all animals and some plants.
      Many sodium compounds are useful, such as sodium chloride for use as a nutrient (edible salt).
      Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals), is a sodium salt of carbonic acid.
      A dilute solution of sodium hydroxide solution is also produced at the cathode.
      We added small amounts of sodium hydroxide to the acid, testing its pH and its ability to produce carbon dioxide from sodium carbonate.
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      bat`ter
      'bætə
      v[IT] hit heavily and repeatedly with violent blows
      n[CU] a liquid mixture of milk, flour, and eggs
      -
      The victim's face was battered to a pulp.
      If someone is battered, they are regularly hit and badly hurt by a member of their family or by their partner.
      As a child he was battered by his father.
      If a place is battered by wind, rain, or storms, it is seriously damaged or affected by very bad weather.
      The waves battered against the rocks at the bottom of the cliff.
      In sports such as baseball and softball, a batter is a person who hits the ball with a bat.
      When the ball is hit in a home run, the batter is able to reach home safely in one play without any errors being committed by the defensive team in the process.
      Monica used to eat uncooked batter.
      A corn dog is a hot dog sausage coated in a thick layer of cornmeal batter.
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      phys`ics
      'fiziks
      n[U] the scientific study of matter and energy and the effect that they have on each other
      -
      Physics (from Ancient Greek: "knowledge of nature"), is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.
      Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined.
      Physics makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs.
      For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products which have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons.
      Sheldon teaches Penny physics.
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      co`or`di`nate
      kəu'ɔ:dineit
      v[IT] organize the different parts of a job or plan so that the people involved work together effectively ¶ make the parts of your body move and work together well ¶ match, look attractive together
      n[C] one of a set of numbers that give the exact position of sth on a map
      -
      They appointed a new manager to coordinate the work of the team.
      Children have to learn to coordinate eye and hand movements.
      Chandler wasn't very coordinated.
      Phoebe's movements were beautifully coordinated.
      Monica is wearing a coordinating jacket and skirt.
      The bed linen coordinates with the bedroom curtains.
      Coordinates of the selected vertices is calculated.
      Give me some coordinates so I can find my way.
      Coordinating conjunctions, also called coordinators, are conjunctions that join, or coordinate, two or more items (such as words, main clauses, or sentences) of equal syntactic importance.
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      mon`ster
      'ma:nstər
      n[C] an imaginary creature that is large and frightening ¶ cruel or evil person ¶ a child who behaves badly ¶ sth that is unusually large
      adj unusually large, giant
      -
      Shrek is an ogre, which is a monster in children's stories who eats people.
      He'd have to be a monster to hit a child like that.
      I didn't know that I was gonna unleash this weepy, clingy, moist monster!
      I've got to get home and feed these little monsters.
      The government has created a bureaucratic monster.
      The movie is a monster hit.
      A monster truck is a vehicle that is typically styled after pickup truck bodies, modified or purposely built with extremely large wheels and suspension.
      Monster trucks are used for competition and popular sports entertainment and in some cases they are featured alongside motocross races, mud bogging, tractor pulls and car-eating robots.
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      dip
      dip
      v[IT] put sth briefly into a liquid ¶ move down ¶ fall
      n[CU] a quick swim ¶ a slight decrease ¶ a cold thick creamy sauce
      -
      Don't dip your bread stick in my cream!
      Dipped strawberries would go down well with a champagne reception.
      Dip in the pool or relax on a sun bed in the patio area.
      Carol and Susan watched the sun dip below the horizon.
      Temperatures dipped to -18 °C last night.
      Enjoy a refreshing dip in the inviting swimming pool or simply relax with a cool drink at the poolside bar.
      There's an unexpected dip in profits.
      What's for dinner? Sour cream and onion dip.
      If you dip into a book, you have a brief look at it without reading or studying it seriously.
      People interested in history would enjoy a dip into this book now and again.
      If you dip into a sum of money, you use some of it to buy something or pay for something.
      Parents are dipping into their pockets for extracurricular classes.
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      neg`lect
      ni'glekt
      v[T] fail to do sth that you should do, to look after sb when you are responsible, or to pay attention to sth
      n[U] the failure
      -
      You'd neglected to give me the name of the hotel where you'd be staying.
      He neglects that poor dog - he never takes it for walks or gives it any attention.
      He'd given too much to his career, worked long hours, neglected her.
      Both parents were found guilty of neglect and their child was taken away from them.
      The maximum penalty for child neglect is two years' imprisonment.
      The police officer was severely criticized for neglect of duty.
      After years of neglect, the roads were full of potholes.
      The whole district had an air of abandonment and neglect.
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      con`tra`ry
      'kɔntrəri
      adj completely different and opposed to sth else
      n[s] the opposite
      -
      It seems contrary to common sense.
      The ship was delayed by contrary winds.
      Our boat took a course contrary to theirs.
      'Rich' and 'poor' are contrary terms.
      Contrary to the weather forecast, we had a fine day.
      Two contrary views emerged.
      Contrary to popular belief, a desert can be very cold.
      Contrary to popular belief, moderate exercise actually decreases your appetite.
      You can use quite the contrary to emphasize a previous negative statement, or when you are making a strong negative reply.
      'Are you happy?' 'No, quite the contrary.'
      I don't find her pretty at all. Quite the contrary.
      Unless there is evidence to the contrary, we ought to believe him.
      He continued to smoke despite advice to the contrary.
      Someone who is contrary enjoys disagreeing with people and doing the opposite of what is expected or asked.
      Amy, Rachel's sister, is rather contrary.
      Many events in our lives go by contraries.
      The antonym of a word is a word which means the opposite.
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      do`main
      dəu'mein
      n[C] an area/field of sth
      -
      A domain is a non-sovereign geographic area which has come under the authority of another government.
      He treated the business as his private domain.
      Looking after the house was viewed as a woman's domain.
      Physics is really outside my domain.
      Domain of a function is the set of input values for which the function is defined.
      If something such as a book, song, computer program etc is in the public domain, no one has the right to control its use and anyone may use it without charge.
      A domain name is an identification string; domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS).
      Any name registered in the DNS is a domain name.
      You should register a domain name if you don't want people to remember IP addresses.
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      sculp`ture
      'skʌlptʃə
      n[CU] an object made out of stone, wood, clay, metal etc by an artist ¶ the art
      -
      Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions and one of the plastic arts.
      The Western tradition of sculpture began in Ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period.
      During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith.
      The revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David.
      A wax sculpture is a sculpture made in wax.
      The cost of making a wax sculpture can be between USD 150,000 and 300,000.
      Who left the ice sculpture on the steam grate?
      The museum has a life-sized sculpture of Ms. Asakawa.
      She teaches sculpture at the local art school.
      She creates sculptures out of scrap materials.
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      in`fra`struc`ture
      'infrəstrʌktʃə
      n[UC] underlying base/foundation
      -
      The infrastructure of a country or organization is the basic systems and structures that it needs in order to work properly, for example roads, railways, banks etc.
      The war has badly damaged the country's infrastructure.
      According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word infrastructure has been used in English since at least 1927, originally meaning "The installations that form the basis for any operation or system".
      The word was imported from French, where it means subgrade, the native material underneath a constructed pavement or railway.
      The word is a combination of the Latin prefix "infra", meaning "below", and "structure".
      Compare infrastructure, infrared, supersonic, ultrasound, and ultraviolet.
      The military use of the term achieved currency in the United States after the formation of NATO in the 1940s, and was then adopted by urban planners in its modern civilian sense by 1970.
      A network infrastructure is an interconnected group of computer systems linked by the various parts of a telecommunications architecture.
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      le`gend
      'ledʒənd
      n[CU] an old story about famous people and events in the past ¶ famous event/person ¶ a short piece of writing on an object ¶ the words that explain a picture or map
      -
      Legend tells of a legendary warrior whose kung fu skills were the stuff of legend.
      According to legend, one of the great legends of pop music, Elvis Presley, died here.
      This match will go into badminton legend.
      Lin Dan is a marvelous player who was a legend in his own lifetime.
      His laziness was legend among his friends.
      His laziness was legendary.
      Legend has it that he always wore his shoes in bed.
      Lenovo was founded in Beijing in 1984 as Legend and was incorporated in Hong Kong in 1988. Lenovo acquired IBM's personal computer business in 2005 and agreed to acquire its Intel-based server business in 2014.
      Most of the early Lydian coins include no writing ("legend" or "inscription"), only an image of a symbolic animal.
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      in`vent
      in'vent
      v[T] make, design, or think of a new type of thing ¶ make up a story, excuse etc that is not true
      -
      Nobel went on to invent a number of other explosives.
      Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876.
      Laszlo Biro invented the ball-point pen.
      The first safety razor was invented by company founder King C. Gillette in 1903.
      Jim Henson did more than invent the Muppets.
      She stood still, trying to invent a plausible excuse.
      We needed something, we had to invent it.
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      sur`geon
      'sə:dʒən
      n[C] a doctor who does operations
      -
      A plastic surgeon is a doctor who performs operations to repair or replace skin which has been damaged, or to improve people's appearance.
      A veterinary surgeon is someone who is qualified to treat sick or injured animals.
      A dental surgeon is a dentist who can perform operations in the mouth.
      He is determined to qualify as a surgeon.
      One of our surgeons will have a look at your incision.
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      ex`cess
      'ekses
      adj being more than what is usual/required/permitted
      n[CU] sth exceeding what is normal/sufficient ¶ the exceeding amount/quantity ¶ the state of exceeding ¶ extreme behavior ¶ socially/morally unacceptable actions
      -
      Cut any excess fat from the meat.
      Drain off any excess liquid.
      Cover both sides of the meat with flour, shaking off any excess.
      An excess of something is a larger amount than is needed, allowed, or usual.
      An excess of fat in one's diet can lead to heart disease.
      An excess of enthusiasm is not always a good thing.
      Excess is behavior that is unacceptable because it is considered too extreme or immoral.
      Alcoholics drink to excess.
      We should never smoke or drink to excess.
      The drug can be harmful if taken in excess.
      As for shoes, her excesses were well known.
      The excesses committed by the occupying Japanese troops will never be forgotten.
      Excess is used to refer to additional amounts of money that need to be paid for services and activities that were not originally planned or taken into account.
      Passengers traveling on to Li Jiang will be required to pay an excess fare of $30.
      A company which makes high profits must pay excess profits duty to the government.
      On an airplane journey, excess baggage is luggage that is larger or weighs more than your ticket allows, so that you have to pay extra to take it on board.
      You can use excess baggage to talk about problems or events from someone's past which you think still worry them, especially when you think these things make it difficult for the person to cope or develop.
      The excess on an insurance policy is a sum of money which the insured person has to pay towards the cost of a claim. The insurance company pays the rest.
      You will have to pay the first $50 of the cost of repairing your damaged car as there is an excess of $50 on your policy.
      In excess of means more/greater than a particular amount.
      The vehicle had been travelling at speeds in excess of 30 miles per hour.
      Luggage in excess of 100 kg will be charged extra.
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      dive
      daiv
      v[I] jump into water ¶ swim under water ¶ move downward, fall ¶ move/jump quickly
      also a noun
      -
      If you dive into some water, you jump in head-first with your arms held straight above your head.
      Diving off the cliffs is dangerous.
      Mark hesitated for a second and then dived off the bridge into the river.
      If you dive, you go under the surface of the sea or a lake, using special breathing equipment.
      Scuba diving is the use of a self-contained breathing set to stay underwater for periods of time.
      Jane had just learnt to dive, the first time she dived on a coral reef was an experience she will never forget.
      The submarine dived just in time to avoid the enemy attack.
      When birds and animals dive, they go quickly downwards, head-first, through the air or through water.
      Unlike some birds, it does not dive vertically.
      If an airplane dives, it flies or drops down quickly and suddenly.
      The plane suddenly dived from 10,000 feet to 5,000.
      The pilot was almost killed when his monoplane stalled and dived into the ground.
      Thankfully, he managed to pull out of the dive and regain control.
      If a bird or aircraft swoops, it moves suddenly down through the air, especially in order to attack something.
      If you dive in a particular direction or into a particular place, you jump or move there quickly.
      We dived for cover when we heard the shooting start.
      We dived into a shop to avoid the rain.
      Joey dived for his sandwich.
      Monica made a dive for the bathroom.
      The goalkeeper made a spectacular dive to save the goal.
      If you dive into a bag or container, you put your hands into it quickly in order to get something out.
      She dived into her bag and brought out a folded piece of paper.
      If shares, profits, or figures dive, their value falls suddenly and by a large amount.
      If we cut interest rates, the dollar would dive.
      The dollar dived against the yen in Tokyo today.
      The news put shares in a dive.
      Stock prices took a dive; the company's shares dived by $190 to $16 on the stock market yesterday.
      I know this place is a bit of a dive (a cheap and dirty place), but the drink's cheap and the food's great.
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      en`force
      in'fɔ:s
      v[T] make people obey a rule or law ¶ make sure that sth happens or is done
      -
      The main role of the police is to uphold and enforce the law.
      It's the job of the police to enforce the law.
      It isn't always easy for the police to enforce parking restrictions.
      The lack of graffiti or litter was due to heavy fines rigorously enforced.
      Safety cannot be left to chance and is aggressively enforced company wide.
      The bottom line is that we need to enforce the laws in this country.
      You can't enforce cooperation between the players.
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      fis`cal
      'fiskəl
      adj related to government/public money, esp taxes
      -
      A fiscal year is the same as a financial year.
      Wouldn't it be nice to elect a fiscal conservative to Ted Kennedy's seat in the United States Senate?
      He said managing the fiscal crisis in Europe must be coupled with a "strong growth agenda."
      Economists say that what Federal Reserve chairman Ben Bernanke calls a "fiscal cliff" could possibly lead to another severe recession.
      Over the past 20 years hyperinflation, a problem that used to bedevil large swaths of the world from Turkey to Brazil to Indonesia, has largely vanished, tamed by successful fiscal and monetary policies.
      The government was borrowing long term to fund its fiscal deficit.
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      $