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      adj (esp of a disease or sth bad) continuing for a long time ¶ extremely bad
      A chronic disease or illness is one that continues for a long time and cannot be cured.
      Chronic back pain is really annoying.
      Asthma (from the Greek "panting") is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms.
      One-fourth of U.S. veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War are affected by the chronic symptomatic illness known as Gulf War illness.
      Some people suffer from chronic and increasingly common diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure.
      He was a chronic alcoholic and unable to hold down a job.
      The movie was absolutely chronic.
      adj being very good at sth, having a lot of skills
      Susan's a very accomplished photographer.
      Quite difficult to replace, Jerry is a very accomplished, multi-instrumentalist musician.
      He came to Canada in 2002, already accomplished in the English language.
      But Priya is highly educated, she's an accomplished professional, and she comes from the culture that literally wrote the book on neat ways to have sex.
      Sheldon will never be able to cope with the fact that some 15-year-old kid is smarter and more accomplished than he is.
      n[C] a serious/formal promise/agreement
      v[T] make a ~, or make sb do this
      If you make a pledge, you make a serious promise that you'll do something.
      Eisenhower fulfilled his election pledge to end the war in Korea.
      If you pledge to do something, you promise in a serious way to do it.
      The new governor pledged to reduce crime.
      If you pledge something, you promise to give it.
      Britain, France, and Germany were among the countries pledging their support.
      If you pledge a sum of money to an organization or activity, you promise to pay that amount of money to it at a particular time or over a particular period.
      I would like to pledge $200.
      If you pledge something such as a valuable possession or a sum of money, you leave it with someone as a guarantee that you will repay money that you have borrowed.
      It's a loan requiring a pledge of property.
      If you pledge yourself to something, you commit yourself to following a particular course of action or to supporting a particular person, group, or idea.
      The Government has pledged itself to send aid to the famine victims.
      Joey will answer calls and take pledges.
      It looks like we have surpassed last year's pledge total!
      Hey, my pledge got Joey on TV!
      I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
      Compare pledge and plead.
      n[C] a large bird with a short, hooked beak, and sharp claws ¶ ≠dove
      v[IT] try to sell things by going from place to place ¶ cough up phlegm
      Many people are really confused about the difference between an eagle and a hawk. Experts on birds would often generalize that the simplest way out of this confusion is accepting that eagles are generally the larger birds compared to the hawks.
      The Bald Eagle is the national bird of the United States of America and appears on its Seal.
      Hawks catch and eat small birds and animals.
      The hawk swooped low over the field.
      In politics, if you refer to someone as a hawk, you mean that they believe in using force and violence to achieve something, rather than using more peaceful or diplomatic methods.
      If you watch someone like a hawk, you watch them very carefully.
      If you have eyes like a hawk, you're quick to notice things, especially small details.
      The Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk is a four-bladed, twin-engine, medium-lift utility helicopter manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft.
      You can say that someone is hawking something if you do not like the forceful way in which they are asking people to buy it.
      I have phlegm in my throat everyday all day, especially in the morning, I don't know how to hawk it up and when I try I gag and it still does not come up.
      adj used to refer to the different things you have just mentioned
      Phoebe and Rachel chatted about their respective childhoods.
      He and I were at very different stages in our respective careers.
      Software handles the rest, putting the highest-rated articles at the top of their respective categories.
      We seek candidates who can teach a broad range of courses in their respective disciplines.
      The two countries are respectively the third and fourth biggest military spenders in the world.
      The spleen and the liver also receive a few twigs from the left and right vessels respectively.
      A twig is a final ramification (a branching shape or arrangement), as of branches of a nerve or blood vessel.
      v[I] compete
      v[T] claim that sth is true
      Three armed groups are contending for power.
      There are several world-class badminton players contending for this title.
      He's contending against someone with twice his experience.
      If you have to contend with a problem or difficulty, you have to deal with it or overcome it.
      I had a lot of problems to contend with.
      I would contend that inequity is our most serious social evil.
      I do contend that we have put poisonous and biologically potent chemicals indiscriminately into the hands of persons largely or wholly ignorant of their potentials for harm.
      v[IT] reduce, decrease, become smaller/less
      v[T] make sb/sth seem less important than they really are
      My strength has diminished over the years.
      In the expanding universe it's generally considered that universal density must diminish as the universe expands.
      We've seen our house diminish greatly in value over the last six months.
      His reassurances did nothing to diminish her anxiety.
      Federalism is intended to diminish the power of the central state.
      I don't want to diminish her achievements, but she did have a lot of help.
      The opposition are trying to diminish my achievements.
      n[C] sb whose job is to find out secret information about a country or an organization
      v[IT] work as a ~ ¶ keep watch secretly ¶ notice
      Now that we're spies, we should all have code nicknames.
      When I first met Leonard, he was on the verge of giving away rocket secrets to a North Korean spy, and not one agent ever investigated that.
      John Mason was jailed for three decades as an alleged British spy.
      He confessed to spying for The Security Service (MI5).
      He was charged with spying on American military bases.
      Sheldon, how could you just sit there and let them spy on me?
      I was walking down the street when I spied a friend.
      A secret agent is a person who is employed by a government to find out the secrets of other governments.
      Industrial espionage, economic espionage or corporate espionage is a form of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security.
      v[T] make sb suddenly surprised or slightly shocked
      The sudden noise in the bushes startled Susan's horse.
      You startled me; I didn't hear you come in.
      Sorry, I didn't mean to startle you.
      Her article on diet startled many people into changing their eating habits.
      It is startling to read that his son never visited him in hospital.
      The aftermath of the battle, with thousands of dead soldiers spread along the landscape, reflected a startlingly realistic picture of the horrors of war.
      n[C] an insect or small creature ¶ an illness caused by small organisms ¶ a computer/program fault/mistake ¶ a tiny hidden microphone for secret listening
      v[T] annoy, irritate ¶ put a ~ somewhere
      A lightning bug is a type of beetle that produces light from its body.
      There were bugs crawling all over the kitchen floor.
      I think I've got a bit of a stomach bug.
      There is a bug in our software.
      The bug caused our customers' computer systems to crash.
      Be careful what you say; our conversation may be being bugged.
      The management had planted (put) bugs everywhere.
      I love our company; it never bugs me that I have to work so many extra hours.
      If you say someone has been bitten by a particular bug, you mean they suddenly become very enthusiastic about something.
      Carol had one Lesbian lesson and immediately caught the bug.
      She had got the Lesbian bug.
      What's bugging you, Ross?
      If you put a bug in someone's ear, you tell them something that suggests what they should do.
      n[C] a tool used in weaving ¶ a vehicle/aircraft that travels regularly between two places
      v[IT] travel or take people regularly between two places
      There's a shuttle service from the city center to the airport.
      The supermarket operates a complimentary shuttle service.
      The space shuttle can be used many times to put payloads in space.
      A shuttlecock, or a birdie, is a small light object with a rounded end to which real or artificial feathers are fixed and which is hit over the net in the game of badminton.
      Shuttle diplomacy is the movement of diplomats between countries whose leaders refuse to talk directly to each other, in order to try to settle the argument between them.
      v[I] disappear in a sudden and mysterious way ¶ suddenly stop existing
      'Harry Potter and Hermione Granger vanished into the crowd!' Ron Weasley exclaimed in shock.
      My keys were here a minute ago but now they've vanished.
      Many of these old shops have now vanished altogether.
      Much of the land we loved has vanished forever.
      They have made half the country's rivers vanish.
      We watched the boy run between the cars and vanish.
      Compare vanish and varnish.
      n[C] a set of sth, for example, rooms, matching pieces of furniture, or computer programs ¶ a series of pieces of music
      Hey, so where are we staying? Is the movie putting us up in a big hotel suite?
      Unfortunately the only thing we have available is our deluxe suite, the rate is six hundred dollars.
      As a wedding gift to you, the hotel would like to give you the honeymoon suite.
      I couldn't get a plane out, so I had to stay in their honeymoon suite with people coming up to me all the time going, "Oh, Mrs. Geller, why are you crying?"
      This is the honeymoon suite. The room expects sex. The room would be disappointed if it didn't get sex. All of the other honeymoon suites would think it was a loser.
      Hi, we're checking out of the bridal suite.
      Adobe Creative Suite (CS) was a series of software suites of graphic design, video editing, and web development applications made or acquired by Adobe Systems.
      An en suite bathroom or a private bathroom is next to a bedroom and can only be reached by a door in the bedroom.
      A three-piece suite is a set of two chairs and a couch that match each other.
      A bathroom suite is a matching bath, washbasin, and toilet.
      A suite is piece of music consisting of three or more related parts.
      v[T] manage, organize, supervise ¶ cause sb to receive sth
      "Benjamin Hobart is administering that grant." "So your ex-boyfriend is gonna determine if your new boyfriend gets this grant?"
      The Statue of Liberty is administered by the National Park Service.
      If a doctor or a nurse administers a drug, they give it to a patient.
      Painkillers were administered to the women.
      Tests will be administered to schoolchildren at seven, twelve and sixteen years.
      The police are doing their best to administer (make sure that something is done fairly and in the correct way) justice.
      Compare administer and administrator.
      v[IT] travel in a curved path around a planet or star
      n[C] the path ¶ the area of power and influence
      In 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first satellite to orbit the earth.
      The Space Shuttle is now in orbit.
      Space stations are designed to remain in orbit for years.
      How many satellites have been put into orbit round the earth?
      Mercury's orbit is fairly eccentric.
      The spaceship made an orbit of the moon.
      For years Mongolia remained within the orbit of the Soviet Union.
      adj has a strong sharp taste that is not sweet ¶ making you feel very unhappy and upset ¶ feeling angry, jealous, and upset when being treated unfairly
      n[UC] a type/glass of dark beer that tastes ~
      "Do you like espresso (strong black Italian coffee)?" "It's too bitter for me."
      Oh, I have tasted my own medicine and it is bitter.
      Get out of the bitter barn and play in the hay!
      It's a one-woman play called "Why don't you like me: a bitter woman's journey through life".
      She's all bitter now that she lost the weight and it turns out she doesn't have a pretty face.
      Who's the bitterest man in the living room, Ross?
      Bitter weather, or a bitter wind, is extremely cold.
      A bitter argument, battle etc is one in which people oppose or criticize each other with strong feelings of hate and anger.
      If you say that you will continue doing something to the bitter end, especially something difficult or unpleasant, you are emphasizing that you will continue doing it until it is completely finished.
      We're prepared to fight to the bitter end for our rights.
      Bitter is an English term for pale ale. Bitters vary in colour from gold to dark amber and in strength from 3% to 7% alcohol by volume.
      How about a pint of bitter?
      v[I] become smaller in size, amount, value, or range ¶ move back and away
      v[T] make sth smaller in size
      n[C] a psychoanalyst/psychiatrist
      Their share of the market has shrunk from 14% to 4%.
      "So you can balloon up or you can shrink down and I will still love you." "Even if I shrink down to two inches tall?" "I'd carry you around in my pocket."
      "OK, so you wanna play it that way, do you?" said Monica. Chandler shrank back.
      The child shrank behind the couch as his father yelled at him.
      A shrinking violet is a timid or shy person.
      His social circle had shrunk to a sister and a couple of close friends.
      She gave me an old, shrunken apple.
      I'm Rachel, is my sweater too tight? No? Oh, I'd better wash it and shrink it!
      Guru Saj thought he'd got a salve that oughta shrink Ross's thing right up.
      If you shrink from (doing) something, you avoid it.
      He shrank from telling his secrets to anyone.
      I hate it when they make me see the shrink at my office.
      For a shrink, he's not too shrinky.
      adj giving or ready to give freely ¶ larger or more than the usual size/amount ¶ kind, friendly, and helpful
      It's most generous of you to share your food with me.
      You are a very generous man.
      Joey's been very generous with his food.
      They all get their wallets out and give generous tips.
      Thank you Phoebe, that is very generous.
      The gift is generous by any standards.
      She's quite generous with her praise.
      n[U] the way that sb connects ideas when they are explaining sth or giving a reason ¶ sensible reasons for doing sth ¶ the science of reasoning
      By that logic, we should sell the company tomorrow.
      It's a stupid decision that completely defies logic.
      What's the logic of your argument?
      I don't understand your logic.
      I can't follow the logic of your argument.
      I don't follow the logic of what you are saying.
      I fail to see the logic behind you argument.
      Logic has two meanings: first, it describes the use of valid reasoning in some activity; second, it names the normative study of reasoning or a branch thereof. In the latter sense, it features most prominently in the subjects of philosophy, mathematics, and computer science.
      Logic is often divided into three parts: inductive ("bottom-up") reasoning, abductive reasoning, and deductive ("top-down") reasoning.
      An example of an inductive argument: 100% of biological life forms that we know of depend on liquid water to exist. Therefore, if we discover a new biological life form it will probably depend on liquid water to exist.
      An example of a deductive argument: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
      Abduction, or abductive reasoning, is the process of reasoning to the best explanations. In other words, it is the reasoning process that starts from a set of facts and derives their most likely explanations. Lawyers do this all the time.
      adj dependable
      Amy can't take care of Emma. She's not very reliable.
      Molly's a quiet and reliable woman.
      Is this car reliable?
      It has a highly reliable control system.
      How reliable are these statistics?
      n[UC] a mixture of liquids such as oil and vinegar that you put on salad ¶ stuffing ¶ a piece of material used to cover and protect a wound
      Sauces for salads are often called "dressings". The following are examples of common salad dressings: Blue cheese dressing, Caesar dressing, Extra virgin olive oil, and French dressing.
      Stuffing is a mixture of food that is put inside a bird such as a chicken, or a vegetable such as a pepper, before it is cooked.
      If you refer to something as window-dressing, you are critical of it because it is done in order to create a good impression and to prevent people from realizing the real or more unpleasant nature of someone's activities.
      A dressing gown is a long, loose garment which you wear over your night clothes when you are not in bed.
      A dressing table is a small table in a bedroom. It has drawers underneath and a mirror on top.
      The nurse came to change her dressing.
      Cross-dressing (CD) is the practice of wearing the clothes of the opposite sex.
      n[CU] sweet sticky food made from boiled fruit and sugar ¶ line of stopped vehicles ¶ blockage in machine ¶ difficult situation
      v[IT] put in small space ¶ difficult to move, block sth ¶ injure by squeezing
      I spread the toast thinly with peach jam.
      How are we going to get ourselves out of this jam?
      Sorry I'm late. I got stuck in a traffic jam.
      It caused a jam in the printer.
      We became friends after he helped me out of a jam.
      It's a real jam inside - it took me twenty minutes to get to the platform.
      Crowds jammed the entrance to the station.
      We all jammed into the carriage.
      I jammed the boxes into the back of the car.
      The traffic was jammed solid in the city center.
      I jammed my key into the lock.
      The drawer was jammed.
      Don't park there you'll probably get jammed in.
      The streets were completely jammed with traffic.
      The window suddenly dropped down and jammed my finger.
      To jam a radio or electronic signal means to interfere with it and prevent it from being received or heard clearly.
      v[I] (flowers) open/appear ¶ become happier, healthier, more successful etc in a noticeable way
      n[CU] flower ¶ health, energy and attractiveness
      Roses bloom at spring time.
      Two weeks passed, her plant grew very well, it was strong and a beautiful flower had bloomed proudly, but mine nearly died.
      Some women seem to bloom during pregnancy.
      Compare bloom, glow, and gloom.
      The desert bloomed and people settled there.
      These roses have magnificent blooms.
      The rosy bloom of Carol's cheeks had faded, but Ross' love for her never faded.
      Compare bloom, blossom, and bosom.
      n[C] the transparent part of the eye behind the pupil that produces an image on the retina ¶ a piece of curved glass or plastic which makes things look bigger, smaller, or clearer ¶ a piece of equipment that is part of a camera
      She wears glasses with very thick lenses.
      Contact lenses, or lens, are small plastic lenses that you put on the surface of your eyes to help you see better, instead of wearing glasses.
      A telephoto lens is a camera lens which allows you to take close-up pictures of something that is far away.
      A wide-angle lens is a lens which allows you to photograph a wider view than a normal lens.
      A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length (and thus angle of view) can be varied.
      He's got five Leica M lenses.
      I took the lens cap off my camera and waited for a good shot.
      n[C] soldier/fighter
      Who is worthy to be trusted with the secret to limitless power? To become the Dragon Warrior?
      A Jedi Guardian was the name given to one of the three distinct branches of Jedi whose skills and talents lay in battle, a light side mirror of the Sith Warrior.
      The Sith Warrior is entrusted with the most important tasks assigned by the Sith Empire: destroying the Emperor's enemies and enforcing his rule all across the galaxy.
      The Sith Warrior is a master of domination and control, intent on utterly annihilating his enemies.
      The Sith Warrior has clear goals and seeks the most direct, confrontational approach.
      Despite focusing mainly on negative emotions to fuel attacks, the Sith Warrior is capable of showing much loyalty and determination to further the empire's purposes.
      The Terracotta Army or the "Terracotta Warriors and Horses" is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.
      The Last Samurai is a 2003 American epic war film directed and co-produced by Edward Zwick, who also co-wrote the screenplay with John Logan. The film stars Tom Cruise, who also co-produced.