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      n[CU] a public celebration when musical bands, brightly decorated vehicles etc move down the street ¶ formal gathering of troops for inspection ¶ a series of things or people ¶ an obvious display of sth ¶ a street with a row of small shops
      also a verb
      A parade (also called march or marchpast) is a procession of people, usually organized along a street, often in costume, and often accompanied by marching bands, floats or sometimes large balloons.
      The gang is watching the Thanksgiving Day parade.
      Parade is a formal occasion when soldiers stand in lines or march in a group, to be seen by an officer or important person.
      The 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China took place on 1 October 2009.
      A military parade involving 10,000 troops and the display of many high-tech weapons was held in Tiananmen Square in Beijing and various celebrations were conducted all over the country.
      This parade was immediately followed by a civilian parade involving 100,000 participants.
      The guards were on parade in front of the palace.
      The battalion went on parade to welcome the new major.
      The major paraded his troops.
      A parade ground is an area of ground where soldiers practice marching and have parades.
      At an identity parade or line-up, a witness to a crime tries to identify the criminal from among a line of people.
      The police held an identity parade.
      When people parade somewhere, they walk together in a formal group or a line, usually with other people watching them.
      Protest demonstrations can also take the form of a parade, but such cases are usually referred to as a march instead.
      The strikers paraded through the city center.
      If prisoners are paraded, they are shown to the public, usually in order to make the people who are holding them seem more powerful.
      In ancient Rome, captured generals were paraded through the streets in chairs.
      If people parade something, they show it in public so that it can be admired.
      The way he parades his wealth, his car and his expensive clothes makes me sick.
      If someone parades, they walk about somewhere in order to be seen and admired.
      The children paraded about in their new clothes.
      A girl in extremely tight leather shorts paraded up and down.
      In that scheme, buffoons paraded (claim that sb/sth has good qualities that they do not really have) as business people, acquiring import licenses for services and goods about which they had no clue only to sell the licenses to third parties.
      If you talk about a parade of people or things, you mean that there is a series of them that seems never to end.
      Penny had a constant parade of men coming to visit her.
      Sheldon always tries to make a parade of his talents.
      North Parade, or more formally North Parade Avenue, is a short shopping street in north Oxford, England.
      n[CU] the fitting together of the parts of a machine ¶ involvement ¶ arrangement to do sth ¶ marriage agreement ¶ employment ¶ fighting
      After having my car for about 6 months now, I swear the clutch feel was getting worse - engagement way too high.
      Her views are based on years of engagement with the problems of the inner city.
      Many students pass without any real engagement in learning.
      Princess Anne will continue to carry out royal engagements.
      This is her only public speaking engagement on the tour.
      I have several engagements for next week.
      I'm afraid I have a previous lunch engagement.
      An engagement ring is a ring worn by a woman when she is engaged to be married.
      Their engagement was announced in the paper.
      Please sign to indicate your acceptance of the terms of engagement.
      Heavy engagements are reported between rebels and government forces.
      The constitution prohibits them from military engagement on foreign soil.
      n[UC] the crime of getting money from sb by tricking them
      n[C] sb/sth that is not what it is claimed to be
      He's been charged with credit card fraud.
      He is fighting extradition to the US to face trial on fraud charges.
      The fraud squad is a part of a police force whose job is to investigate crimes involving fraud.
      This man is a fraud; he has no medical qualifications at all.
      "We are committing genetic fraud. There's no guarantee that our sperm is going to generate high-IQ offspring," said Sheldon.
      Would you be willing to read a book that concisely explains how all psychics are frauds?
      What self-important, preening fraud are they honoring this year?
      Bait and switch is a form of fraud used in retail sales but also employed in other contexts.
      Bad news, the Nigerian prince may be a fraud.
      What matters is the greatest scientific achievement of my life is based on a blunder I'm not a genius, I'm a fraud.
      Something that is a sham is not real or is not really what it seems to be.
      n[C] a very large sea mammal that breathes air through a hole at the top of its head
      v[I] hunt ~
      Whale is the common name for various marine mammals of the order Cetacea.
      The term whale sometimes refers to all cetaceans, but more often it excludes dolphins and porpoises, which belong to the suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales).
      This suborder includes the sperm whale, killer whale, pilot whale, and beluga whale.
      The other Cetacean suborder, Mysticeti (baleen whales), comprises filter feeders that eat small organisms caught by straining seawater through a comblike structure found in the mouth called baleen.
      This suborder includes the blue whale, the humpback whale, the bowhead whale and the minke whale.
      The sperm whale is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.
      The sperm whale feeds primarily on squid.
      Plunging to 2,250 metres (7,380 ft) for prey, it is the second deepest diving mammal, following only the Cuvier's beaked whale.
      At 30 metres (98 ft) in length and 170 tonnes (190 short tons) or more in weight, the blue whale is the largest existing animal and the heaviest that ever existed.
      We saw a whale blowing a jet of spray high in the air.
      Moby-Dick or The Whale is a novel by Herman Melville, first published in 1851. It is considered to be one of the Great American Novels.
      Contemporary whaling is subject to intense debate. Pro-whaling countries, notably Japan, Norway, and Iceland, wish to lift the ban on certain whale stocks for hunting.
      To have a whale of a time means to enjoy yourself very much.
      If you whale into/on someone or something, you hit them.
      If you whale at someone or something, you criticize them strongly.
      n[UC] the most basic and important quality of sth ¶ a liquid that contains the strong taste or smell of the plant it is taken from
      The cushions are the essence of the chair!
      Could you help me capture the essence of the character?
      The essence of the character is rooted in her confidence.
      Pagans brought evergreen boughs in their homes as an act of sympathetic magic intended to guard the life essences of the plants until spring.
      The essence of the custom is I now have to go out and purchase for you a gift of commensurate value.
      I've distilled its essence into a simple flow chart that will guide me through the process.
      In its essence, teaching is a performance art.
      The essence of his argument is that money is important.
      His theory is not new in essence (fundamentally, essentially).
      Time is of the essence (of the greatest importance, crucial).
      Essential oils are used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and other products.
      Vanilla essence and vanilla extract are both flavoring ingredients.
      n[U] the quality of being honest and strong about what you believe to be right ¶ the quality of being complete or whole
      He's a man of integrity; he won't break his promise.
      When I thought you wanted sex in exchange for this job, I said no. That shows integrity.
      You're loyal, and you're honest, and you have integrity! That's the kind of strength that I want in the man that I love!
      I'm torn, between my integrity and my desire to avoid a beating. But I must be honest, your soup is abysmal.
      What's your point? In order to keep having a sexual relationship with Penny, I have to give up everything I believe in, my intellectual integrity, the very nature of who I am? I can't do that, Howard.
      "I truly support the FBI in the mission which is expressed through their motto? "Fidelity, bravery, integrity?"
      Okay, this cereal has lost all its molecular integrity. I now have a bowl of shredded wheat paste.
      Sheldon, you owe it to yourself and to posterity to protect the genetic integrity of your sister's future offspring.
      Penny, I believe the condensation on your frozen foods weakened the structural integrity of the bag.
      And then you put it back. Compromising the integrity of all the other onion rings.
      But we agreed not to violate the integrity of the internal hardware.
      Separatist movements are a threat to the integrity of the nation.
      The country is fighting to preserve its territorial integrity.
      n[C] a plant used to add flavor to food or as a medicine
      Sage, shallot and tarragon are all herbs.
      A large range of herbs and spices are used in Indian cookery.
      Sprinkle the dish with chopped fresh herbs.
      Remember that guy from cooking school I told you about that put cilantro with everything?
      Coriander, also known as cilantro, Chinese parsley or dhania, is an annual herb
      We are out of herbal tea. Do you have any?
      In human studies, chamomile tea in combination with other herbs (vervain, licorice, fennel, balm mint) was shown to be effective in treating colic in children.
      A herbicide is a chemical that is used to destroy plants, especially weeds.
      A herbivore is an animal that only eats plants.
      n[UC] a piece of unverified information of uncertain origin usu spread by word of mouth
      "We started a rumor." "What rumor?" "It was no big deal. The rumor was that you had both male and female reproductive parts."
      You did start that rumor about Ross making out with Mrs. Altman, our 50-year-old librarian.
      Rachel, even with that rumor you were one of the most popular girls in school.
      If it weren't for Rachel's rumor no one in high school would even know who you were.
      Did anything happen? Because rumor has it you guys shut the drapes!
      All that stuff about Nancy Branson being a slut was all a rumor so Chip dumped her and he wants to come over to my house tonight!
      I keep hearing all these rumors that I might get fired. Okay, they even have actors coming in to read for my part!
      Hey Rach, maybe your resolution should be to gossip less.
      adj in all parts of a country
      also an adverb
      We employ 30,000 people nationwide and have 789 sales outlets nationwide.
      The rising number of unemployment is a nationwide problem.
      The award was selected by both an in-house committee and a nationwide online consumer poll.
      Approximately 5 million to 7 million companion animals enter animal shelters nationwide every year.
      Nationwide, natural gas ranges from 79 cents to $1.50.
      Last year's killings saw nationwide protests in Turkey.
      The woman's rape set off nationwide protests.
      n[UC] liquid
      adj able to flow/move freely, likely to change ¶ smooth and graceful
      A fluid ounce is a measurement of liquid. There are twenty fluid ounces in a British pint, and sixteen in an American pint.
      I need to measure my fluid intake and output to make sure my kidneys aren't shutting down.
      All right, well, get some rest and drink plenty of fluids.
      Starch absorbs fluid which reduces the amount of vomit available for violent expulsion.
      There's some sort of sticky fluid on the kitchen floor.
      Make sure that you drink plenty of fluids during exercise.
      He is not allowed solid food yet, only fluids.
      The virus is contracted through exchange of bodily fluids.
      Hawaii's volcanic eruptions are typically characterized by the relatively quiet outflow of very fluid lava and by sometimes spectacular lava fountains.
      I think we should try and keep our arrangements fluid at this stage.
      The military situation is still highly fluid.
      Africans adopted a looser, more fluid style of dance.
      n[C] a tool with a heavy metal head for hitting things
      v[IT] hit sth with a ~ ¶ hit repeatedly, pound, bang ¶ hit/kick sth very hard ¶ beat quickly, pound ¶ defeat completely
      In Norse mythology, Thor is a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, and also hallowing, healing and fertility.
      He swung the hammer with all his strength and hammered the nail into the back of the frame.
      The engraving is done using only a hammer and a chisel.
      Hammer and sickle are symbols of the industrial worker and the peasant, used as the emblem of the Soviet Union.
      The rain was hammering against the window.
      Someone was hammering at the door.
      Beckham hammered the ball into the goal.
      She stood outside the door, her heart hammering in her chest.
      Lin Dan hammered the young badminton player.
      If you say that something goes, comes, or is under the hammer, you mean that it is going to be sold at an auction.
      Other items from Hollywood sets will also go under the hammer.
      If people hammer out an agreement, deal, pact, contract, treaty etc, they succeed in producing it after a long or difficult discussion.
      A new deal was hammered out between Alibaba and the banks.
      If you hammer away at something, you keep saying it or working at it constantly and with great energy.
      I keep hammering away at this point because it's important.
      Rachel spent all weekend hammering away at her novel.
      If you hammer something in, you keep saying something until people completely understand it.
      They have had English grammar hammered into them.
      If people go at each other hammer and tongs, they fight or argue very loudly.
      If someone does something hammer and tongs, they do it with all their energy.
      v[T] press sth down ¶ reduce sth such as prices/wages ¶ make sb feel very unhappy ¶ make sth (esp trade) less active
      Slowly depress the accelerator pedal.
      High interest rates may depress share prices.
      Wet weather always depresses me.
      He's depressed because he's pathetic and creepy and can't get girls.
      The stronger US dollar depressed sales.
      The rise in the value of the dollar has depressed the company's earnings this year.
      High interest rates are continuing to depress the economy.
      An antidepressant is a drug used to treat depression (=a mental illness that makes people very unhappy).
      Compare compress, depress, impress, and press.
      v[IT] beg ¶ say in a court of law whether you are guilty of a crime or not ¶ give reasons/excuses
      She was on her knees, pleading for mercy.
      If you plead with someone to do something, you ask them in an intense, emotional way to do it.
      She pleaded with him not to leave her alone.
      When someone charged with a crime pleads guilty or not guilty in a court of law, they officially state that they are guilty or not guilty of the crime.
      The offender pleaded not guilty to all of the charges, requiring the victim to testify at trial.
      If you plead the case or cause of someone or something, you speak out in their support or defense.
      He pleaded the cause for continued cooperation with the Russians.
      She appeared on TV to plead the case of political prisoners everywhere.
      If you plead a particular thing as the reason for doing or not doing something, you give it as your excuse.
      He stayed home from work, pleading illness.
      adj almost the same as sth ¶ created by computers or appearing on computers
      Our deputy manager is the virtual head of the business.
      Ten years of incompetent government had brought about the virtual collapse of the country's economy.
      Students would get their degrees from virtual universities.
      Virtual reality is an environment which is produced by a computer and seems very like reality to the person experiencing it.
      In computing, virtual memory is a memory management technique that is implemented using both hardware and software. It maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
      The operating system manages virtual address spaces and the assignment of real memory to virtual memory.
      Address translation hardware in the CPU, often referred to as a memory management unit or MMU, automatically translates virtual addresses to physical addresses.
      In object-oriented programming, a virtual function or virtual method is a function or method whose behavior can be overridden within an inheriting class.
      adj pleasing to look at, artistic, tasteful ¶ relating to beauty and the study of beauty
      n[C] a principle of taste/style
      The new building has little aesthetic (also spelled esthetic) value.
      The design isn't particularly aesthetic, but at least it's practical.
      From an aesthetic point of view, it's not a good design.
      The building was more practical than aesthetic.
      She didn't respond very strongly to the aesthetic of this particular work.
      Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
      Aesthetic medicine is an inclusive term for specialties that focus on improving cosmetic appearance through the treatment of conditions including (but not limited to) scars, skin laxity, wrinkles, moles, liver spots, excess fat, cellulite, unwanted hair, skin discoloration, and spider veins.
      Traditionally, aesthetic medicine includes dermatology, reconstructive surgery and plastic surgery, however it is not strictly limited to these fields.
      Aesthetic medicine includes both surgical procedures (liposuction, facelifts, breast implants, Radio frequency ablation) and non-surgical procedures (radio frequency skin tightening, non surgical liposuction, chemical peel), and practitioners may utilize a combination of both.
      Although aesthetic medicine procedures are typically elective, they can significantly improve quality of life, psychological wellbeing and social function.
      Worldwide, there were 23 million aesthetic procedures performed from 2013-2014.
      n[U] energy or the sending out of energy
      In physics, radiation is a process in which electromagnetic waves (EMR) travel through a vacuum or through matter-containing media.
      Nuclear radiation is radiation that emanates from nuclear processes such as radioactive decay.
      Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, is a medical treatment that involves exposing part or all of the body to a controlled amount of ionizing radiation.
      Some mistakes, such as Madam Curie's discovery of radium, turned out to have great scientific potential, even though she would later die a slow, painful death from radiation poisoning.
      He switched over to high-energy radiation research, had a little mishap, and now the other guys are uncomfortable sitting next to him.
      Hey, do you wanna slip over to the radiation lab and share a decontamination shower?
      I'm in a radiation suit. What's up?
      Oh my god, there's a breach in the radiation unit! The whole city is in jeopardy! Oh, my god! Professor Golden Bell is melting.
      Authorities at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island nuclear plant were investigating what caused a weekend radiation leak that resulted in 150 workers being sent home, officials said Sunday.
      The 1986 Chernobyl disaster triggered the release of substantial amounts of radiation into the atmosphere in the form of both particulate and gaseous radioisotopes.
      The radiation effects from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster are the observed and predicted effects resulting from the release of radioactive isotopes from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami.
      Preliminary dose-estimation reports by WHO and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) indicate that future health effects due to the accident may not be statistically detectable.
      Sun creams work by blocking harmful ultraviolet radiation.
      n[C] a large animal of the cattle family, with long curved horns
      The African buffalo or Cape buffalo is a large African bovine.
      The American bison, also commonly known as the American buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.
      The water buffalo or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid found on the Indian subcontinent to Vietnam and Peninsular Malaysia, in Sri Lanka, in Luzon Island in the Philippines, and in Borneo.
      The wild water buffalo native to Southeast Asia is considered a different species but most likely represents the ancestor of the domestic water buffalo.
      Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City.
      A Buffalo wing, Buffalo chicken wing, hot wing, or wing, in the cuisine of the United States, is a chicken wing section that is generally deep-fried, unbreaded, and coated in vinegar-based cayenne pepper hot sauce and butter in the kitchen.
      v[I] strike one's foot against sth and almost fall, trip ¶ move with difficulty, stagger ¶ stop or make a mistake when you are reading to people or speaking
      Snow White stumbled on a tree root and almost fell on the ground.
      She stumbled a little on the uneven path.
      Phoebe stumbled across the living room and felt for the light switch.
      She stumbled and spilled the milk all over the floor.
      He stumbled over the step as he came in.
      He stumbled upstairs and into bed.
      "I hope I don't stumble over any of the long words," said Joey.
      He was embarrassed, stumbling over the words.
      If you stumble/come across something or stumble on it, you find/discover it unexpectedly.
      Researchers have stumbled across a drug that may help patients with Parkinson's disease.
      Police investigating burglary stumbled across a corrupt official.
      v[IT] shut and open the eyes quickly ¶ shine unsteadily
      n[C] the act
      I blinked as I came out into the sunlight.
      The light on my answering machine is blinking.
      When I told him how much it would cost, he didn't even blink.
      If a piece of electrical equipment is on the blink, it is not working very well.
      The washing machine's on the blink again.
      "The plug is loose." In the blink of an eye (within a very short period of time), he fixed it.
      No, the "check engine" light is fine. It's still blinking away. It's the stupid engine that stopped working. It cost me, like, $1200 to fix it.
      n[C] a quality in sb's character
      One of her less attractive traits is criticizing her husband in public.
      Chandler's sense of humor is one of his traits.
      She shares several character traits with her father.
      My boss doesn't display any human traits.
      We do not know which behavioral traits are inherited and which acquired.
      A unique trait to the Sperm Whale is that it can dive down deep into the ocean for long periods of time.
      adj showing signs of being successful or good in the future
      They won the award for the most promising new band of the year.
      Promising new technologies could sniff out liquid bombs.
      There are several promising research directions.
      I don't see this as a promising endeavor.
      It's a very promising area.
      I just learned a Chinese research team at the Hubei Institute for Nuclear Physics ran a test on a cyclotron, and the results were extremely promising.
      Mozart's career in Vienna began promisingly, and he was soon commissioned to write The Abduction from the Seraglio.
      Auspicious and promising are synonyms.
      n[C] sth that makes it difficult to achieve sth
      Tiredness was the biggest obstacle in the way of their attempt to rescue the climbers.
      In a race, an obstacle course is a series of obstacles that people have to go over or round in order to complete the race.
      The attitude of the unions is a serious obstacle.
      So far, we have managed to overcome all the obstacles.
      We're determined to overcome all obstacles in our way.
      "We combat obstacles in order to get repose" (Henry Adams).
      n[C] a country that is being controlled by another country ¶ a group of people/animals
      Algeria was formerly a French colony.
      Connecticut was one of the original colonies.
      You can refer to a place where a particular group of people lives as a particular kind of colony.
      Nudist colony is no longer a favored term.
      A colony of birds, insects, or animals is a group of them that live together.
      The birds nest in huge colonies.
      Some of the insects will leave to form a new colony.
      v[IT] amuse/interest sb in order to give them pleasure ¶ receive sb as a guest and give them food and drink or other forms of enjoyment ¶ consider
      Carol and Susan entertained us to dinner last night.
      Could you entertain Ben for an hour while we make supper?
      We entertained Ben with stories and songs.
      Do you get an allowance for entertaining clients?
      As far as the solar system is concerned, nobody seriously entertains the possibility of finding general conditions similar to those on Earth on another planet in this system.
      A real entrepreneur never entertains the possibility of failure, never!
      n[CU] sth that encourages activity in people/things
      Interest rates could fall soon and be a stimulus to the US economy.
      The Fed hopes that lower interest rates will be a stimulus to investment.
      Tax cuts provided the stimulus which the slow economy needed.
      Does the child respond to auditory stimuli?
      At this age, the infant begins to react more to visual stimuli.