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n[C] a large area of land that has never been developed or farmed ¶ a place that is not taken care of
Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by civilized human activity.
Wilderness areas can be found in preserves, estates, farms, conservation preserves, ranches, National Forests, National Parks and even in urban areas along rivers, gulches or otherwise undeveloped areas.
They set out to explore the earth's last great wilderness, Antarctica.
The garden is turning into a wilderness.
Someone who is in the wilderness does not have power or is not involved in something in an important way at a particular time.
A voice in the wilderness is someone whose suggestions are ignored.
Compare wilderness and wasteland.
n[C] all the plants and living creatures in an area considered in relation to their physical environment
An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system.
Coral reefs are a highly productive marine ecosystem.
Rainforest ecosystems are rich in biodiversity.
Energy and carbon enter ecosystems through photosynthesis, are incorporated into living tissue, transferred to other organisms that feed on the living and dead plant matter, and eventually released through respiration.
Most mineral nutrients, on the other hand, are recycled within ecosystems.
Pollution can have disastrous effects on the delicately balanced ecosystem.
n[C] sb's name written by herself/himself ¶ sth that is closely related to sth else
n[U] the act of signing sth
The will bears his signature, but it's not witnessed.
The signature is totally illegible.
Someone's forged my signature.
We collected 8,000 signatures for the petition.
Children must obtain the signature of their parents.
They both refused to put their signatures to the agreement.
An autograph is a document written entirely in the handwriting of its author, or the term may refer to a famous person's artistic signature.
A signature is a particular quality that makes something different from other similar things and makes it easy to recognize.
A surprise ending is the signature of an O. Henry short story.
A signature tune or theme song is the tune which is always played at the beginning or end of a particular TV or radio program.
The time signature of a piece of music is two numbers at the beginning of a line of music that tell you how many beats there are in a bar.
n[C] a scientist who studies the stars and planets
An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as black holes, moons, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies, as well as Gamma-ray bursts and cosmic microwave background radiation.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble.
An astronomer researches the world beyond earth.
Professional astronomers are highly educated individuals who typically have a PhD in physics or astronomy and are employed by research institutions or universities.
The number of professional astronomers in the United States is actually quite small.
The American Astronomical Society, which is the major organization of professional astronomers in North America, has approximately 7,700 members.
This number includes scientists from other fields such as physics, geology, and engineering, whose research interests are closely related to astronomy.
"You can see it if you want. It's on YouTube. Google astronaut screams for nine minutes," said Howard.
adj carrying/holding a lot of sth ¶ having a lot of a quality
Passengers got off the train laden with boxes and suitcases.
The tables were laden with food at Hogwarts.
The air was laden with aromas.
She was laden with doubts about the affair.
Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden was the founder of al-Qaeda, the militant organization that claimed responsibility for the September 11 attacks on the United States, along with numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets.
n[C] a priest of very high rank in the Roman Catholic Church ¶ a North American bird, the male of which has bright red feathers
adj very important or basic
A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, an ecclesiastical prince, and usually an ordained bishop.
The cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church are collectively known as the College of Cardinals.
The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and making themselves available individually or in groups to the pope as requested.
When in choir dress, a Latin-rite cardinal wears scarlet garments - the blood-like red symbolizes a cardinal's willingness to die for his faith.
Cardinals are robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills.
A cardinal number is a number such as 1, 3, or 10 that tells you how many things there are in a group but not what order they are in.
In linguistics, ordinal numbers are words representing position or rank in a sequential order. In English, they are adjectives such as 'third' and 'tertiary'. They differ from cardinal numbers, which represent quantity.
The cardinal points are the four main points of the compass, north, south, east, and west.
v[T] complete, carry out, put into effect ¶ perform, do, create ¶ kill sb as a legal punishment
Make sure all work is being executed according to the council's guidelines.
The pilot executed a perfect landing.
The skaters' routine was perfectly executed.
Her ankle twisted when she was executing an especially complex step.
Picasso also executed several landscapes at Horta de San Juan.
The prisoners were executed by firing squad.
He was summarily executed (killed without any trial/legal process).
He was executed by lethal injection earlier today.
If a computer executes a program or command, it runs them.
adj coming from or relating to God or a god ¶ extremely good/pleasant
In religious terms, divinity is the state of things that come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, or spirit beings, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.
Divine forces or powers are powers or forces that are universal, or transcend human capacities.
The victories over British forces were interpreted as evidence of divine intervention.
Some fans seem to regard footballers as divine beings.
If someone thinks they have a divine right to something, they think that it is their right to have it, without making any effort.
You look simply divine, Phoebe!
Astrologers claim to be able to divine what the stars hold in store for us.
Dowsing (also known as divining) is a type of divination employed in attempts to locate ground water, buried metals or ores, gemstones, oil, gravesites, and many other objects and materials without the use of scientific apparatus.
Compare divine, holy, sacred, and saint.
adj able or likely to kill people, lethal ¶ extreme, complete ¶ extremely effective
Passive smoking can be deadly too.
Rachel's dad glares at Ross with a deadly look.
Ross and Elizabeth's dad rapidly became deadly enemies (somebody who will always be your enemy and will try to harm you as much as possible).
They aimed at each other in deadly silence.
The seven deadly sins are usually given as wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony.
It was the deadly striker's 13th goal of the season.
Monica's party was absolutely deadly (boring).
She was deadly serious.
v[IT] stop, or make sth do this
n[s] a stop/pause
Stupid student drivers brought traffic to a halt (made it stop moving).
Rachel slammed on the brakes and the car skidded to a halt.
The car screeched to a halt (suddenly and noisily stopped) just as the lights turned red.
If a vehicle grinds to a halt, it stops gradually.
The government has failed to halt economic decline.
The truck was halted by soldiers guarding the bridge.
The sergeant ordered "Platoon, halt!"
If a country, organization, process etc grinds to a halt, its activity or the process gradually stops.
The strike brought Hong Kong to a grinding halt.
Production was brought to a temporary halt when power supplies failed.
Scientists have decided to call a halt to the project.
The horse halted dead in its tracks and refused to move.
v[IT] provide a place or room for sb ¶ provide enough space for sb/sth ¶ take account of ¶ adapt
Students are accommodated in homes nearby.
The hotel can accommodate 1,000 guests.
Over 70 minutes of music can be accommodated on one CD.
Pleased to meet you, Dr. Gablehauser. How fortunate for you that the university's chosen to hire you, despite the fact that you've done no original research in 25 years, and instead have written a series of popular books that reduce the great concepts of science to a series of anecdotes, each one dumbed down to accommodate the duration of an average bowel movement.
Next, apartment vacuuming shall be increased from two to three times a week to accommodate the increased accumulation of dead skin cells.
We've made every effort to accommodate your point of view.
Your investment strategy has to be flexible enough to accommodate changes in the market.
Some find it hard to accommodate themselves to the new working conditions.
It was a lot of work to accommodate Penny in Sheldon's life.
It is never easy to accommodate to social change.
n[C] a line or long mark on sth that is a different color than the color surrounding it ¶ a part of sb's character that is different from the rest ¶ a short period of good or bad luck
v[T] leave lines or long marks
v[I] move very quickly
I dye my hair to hide my grey streaks.
A streak of lightning forked across the sky.
Meteors produce streaks of light as they burn up in the Earth's atmosphere.
Slices from the pork belly (with streaks of meat and fat) are referred to as 'streaky bacon'.
Her stubborn streak makes her very difficult to work with sometimes.
The casinos had better watch out since I'm obviously on a lucky streak!
Look at you; your face is streaked with dirt!
Doesn't Susan look good with her hair streaked?
Two jet fighters streaked across the sky.
The car streaked past the finish line.
The game was interrupted when a man streaked (run across a public place with no clothes) across the field.
v[IT] come/go down
v[I] slope downwards ¶ come from an ancestor ¶ (of darkness etc) fall
Our plane started to descend.
I heard her footsteps descending the stairs.
From here the path descends steeply.
The path descends to the village.
Total silence descended on the room.
Numbers, choices etc that are in descending order are arranged from the highest or most important to the lowest or least important.
She claims to be descended from royalty.
The people here are descended from the Vikings.
If a large group of people arrive to see you, especially if their visit is unexpected or causes you a lot of work, you can say that they have descended on you.
Millions of tourists descend on the city every year.
If you say that someone descends to behavior which you consider unacceptable, you are expressing your disapproval of the fact that they do it.
Other people may gossip, but don't descend to their level.
They descended to the level of personal insults.
She, the conqueror, had descended to the level of the conquered.
n[C] an officer of low rank in the military ¶ a police officer of middle rank ¶ deputy
The word lieutenant derives from French; "lieu" means "place" and "tenant" meaning "holding".
Historically the "lieutenant" was the deputy to a "captain".
A lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer in many nations' armed forces, fire service, or law enforcement.
The rank of police lieutenant is used in most police forces in the United States. It is normally roughly equivalent to the British police inspector.
A sergeant is a police officer just below the rank of a lieutenant or captain.
Lieutenant may also appear as part of a title used in various other organizations with a codified command structure. It often designates someone who is "second-in-command".
I still can't believe they promoted Stephanie to lieutenant.
n[UC] the official legal right to make or sell an invention for a particular number of years
adj protected by a ~ ¶ obvious
v[T] obtain a ~
In 1878, Edison received a patent for his phonograph.
Motorola has approximately 24,500 patent assets in total.
He applied for a patent on a new type of toilet.
A patent will be refused if details of the item have already been released to the public.
Should genetically engineered plants be protected by patent?
Amy showed a patent disregard for everyone's feelings.
Patent leather is leather which has a shiny surface. It is used to make shoes, bags, and belts.
When was the first computer mouse patented?
n[U] a feeling of shame because sb have done sth wrong ¶ the fact that sb has committed a crime
She remembered with a pang of guilt that she hadn't called her mother.
You needn't feel any guilt about me.
Talking to her helped to assuage her guilt.
He had no feelings of guilt over what he had done.
Don't lay a guilt trip (things you say to someone in order to make them feel guilty about something) on your child about schoolwork.
Her parents guilted her into (make someone feel guilty so they will do what you want) not going to the concert.
If you say that someone has a guilt complex about something, you mean that they feel very guilty about it, in a way that you consider is exaggerated, unreasonable, or unnecessary.
It might be difficult to prove his guilt.
The police established his guilt beyond all doubt.
v[I] bring your eyebrows together because you are annoyed,worried, or thinking hard
also a noun
"Oh, is that against the rules?" "No, but it is frowned upon."
"Well, how about this: another table leaves, right? But there's still some food left on their plates, ok, what's the restaurant's policy about people eating that?" "It's frowned upon."
Ross frowned as he read the letter.
He read through the letter, frowning at its contents.
What's wrong? Why are you frowning?
Rachel frowned at Ross, clearly annoyed.
She wore a worried frown.
Her brows drew together in a frown.
adj having the right
I felt entitled to know how my own money is being spent!
You are not entitled to unemployment benefit if you have never worked.
Wait a minute; I believe I'm entitled to use my Angel Pass for a free turn?
Chandler thought Monica's entitled to be a little paranoid.
Look, if this was 1, 500 years ago, by virtue of his size and strength, Kurt would be entitled to his choice of female partners.
You watch your mouth, Shelly. Everyone's entitled to their opinion.
With the friendship clause of our roommate agreement nullified, you are no longer entitled to accompany me to go swimming at Bill Gates' house should I be invited.
According to the roommate agreement, I'm entitled to allocate 50% of the cubic footage of the common areas.
Calling "dibs" is the American English term for an informal convention where one declares a first claim to something to which no one else has a clearly recognized right.
n[C] a quick look at sb/sth ¶ an experience that gives you an idea of what sth is like
v[T] see sb/sth for a very short time or only partly ¶ start to understand sth
Thousands of people had gathered; the crowd was anxious for a glimpse of Prof. Aoi.
I only had a fleeting (very quick) glimpse of her.
That was my first tantalizing (making you feel excited or hopeful about having something you want, often something that you never get) glimpse of her.
This biography offers a few glimpses of her life before she became famous.
I glimpsed a dark red car.
I only caught a glimpse of the driver of the getaway car, but I doubt I would recognize him if I saw him again.
Gravity Probe B, an artificial satellite, has seen glimpses of Einstein's predicted frame-dragging.
v[IT] walk through water that is not deep
The river was full but we managed to wade across.
We had to wade breast deep through the rising water to effect a rescue.
They had to wade knee-deep through mud and debris to reach the victims.
I wish you wouldn't always wade in (become involved in someone else's discussion, argument, or fight in a confident way that may not be very welcome) with your opinion.
The police waded (move forward and attack someone) into the crowd swinging sticks.
Each day Chandler wades through (read or deal with a lot of boring papers or written work) lengthy reports.
n[C] a glass container with a wide top and a lid ¶ a clay container ¶ a glass of beer ¶ a sudden forceful/unpleasant shake/movement
v[IT] shake/move sb/sth unpleasantly/violently ¶ make sb feel annoyed/shocked ¶ be different in a strange/unpleasant way
I bought a jar of peanut butter and a jar of instant coffee.
Canopic jars were used by the Ancient Egyptians during the mummification process to store and preserve the viscera of their owner for the afterlife.
We're going down to the pub for a few jars.
With every jar of the carriage, the children shrieked with excitement.
I must have jarred my shoulder playing basketball.
The screaming was starting to jar on my nerves.
Her brown shoes jarred with the rest of the outfit.
A screech of brakes jarred the silence.
adj not genuine
n[C] an object that seems real but is not ¶ sb who is not what or whom they say they are
v[IT] make sth seem real in order to deceive people ¶ pretend
Damn it, a fake $20 dollar bill!
This is a fake passport.
You're not a real policeman, you're just a fake.
Experts revealed that the painting was a fake.
After working for ten years as a psychologist, he was exposed as a fake.
He faked his father's signature on the will.
The insurance company suspected that he had faked his own death and left the country.
The results of the experiments were faked.
He faked a pass and then handed the ball off to Jordan.
"That thing that I have to do to make a baby. I faked it." "Guys can fake it? Unbelievable. The one thing that's ours!"
You use make-believe to refer to the activity involved when a child plays a game in which they pretend something, for example that they are someone else.
n[U] strong heavy cloth used to make bags, tents, shoes etc
n[C] a piece of ~ for painting ¶ a picture painted
Modern canvas is usually made of cotton or linen, although historically it was made from hemp.
In the United States, canvas is classified in two ways: by weight (ounces per square yard) and by a graded number system.
Canvas has become the most common support medium for oil painting, replacing wooden panels.
Canvas is typically stretched across a wooden frame called a stretcher, and may be coated with gesso before it is to be used.
The show includes canvases by masters like Vincent van Gogh and Claude Monet.
Note the painterly lines and subtle impasto on this canvas.
Uh-oh, Bruiser has Becker on the canvas (boxing ring canvas) and is going for his favorite area.
Look, I just saw my best friends brains smeared across the canvas, that's not gonna be me, not me.
A convertible is a type of car that can convert from open-air mode to a roofed mode.
Soft-tops are made of vinyl, canvas or other textile material, while hard-tops are made of steel, aluminum, plastic, or other rigid materials.
A tarp is a large piece of thick plastic or other material that you put over something to protect it from the rain.
These questions must be considered on a broader canvas.
v[IT] put your name on the official list of students who go to a particular school etc
When his two sons came to enroll for National School in Dublin it became clear that you had to be baptised in order to be admitted.
Any eligible student who wishes to enroll for a course as an auditor must seek approval from the appropriate instructor and department chair.
He had just enrolled at MIT when the war started.
He enrolled in the army.
Many people want to enroll their children in the best elementary school.
You're taking one class. It's nice. Maybe if it goes well, you take another, you enrol full-time. Oh, be sure to keep an eye on which credits transfer to a four-year college.
If you sign up for something, you join a club, enrol on a course etc.
n[C] sth placed beneath/against a structure to keep it from falling or shaking, support ¶ sth serves as an assistance
v[T] hold in position, support
A construction prop is a steel post used in the construction trades for shoring walls and trenches.
In mining, a pit prop is used to support the roof of a tunnel.
A mouth prop (also "Bite block") is a wedge-shaped implement used in dentistry for dentists working with children and other patients who have difficulty keeping their mouths open wide and steady during a procedure, or during procedures where the patient is sedated.
A property, commonly shortened to prop (plural: props), is an object used on stage or on screen by actors during a performance or screen production.
All right, it's time to act, my talking props.
A propeller, sometimes shortened to prop, is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.
He was becoming an emotional prop for her.
The army is the prop of the Kim Fat III government.
I noticed a mountain bike propped against the wall.
We had to prop up the tree with long poles under the branches.
Carol was sitting at the desk with her chin propped on her hands.
This new initiative is a desperate attempt to prop up the economy.
On the Stock Exchange, aggressive buying propped the market up.