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      n[C] the tube through which food passes from the stomach, intestine ¶ belly
      n[pl] internal organs ¶ courage and determination
      v[T] remove ~ ¶ destroy the inside of a building etc
      Now, let's assume, by some miracle, you actually catch a fish. You're gonna have to know how to gut it.
      What you're gonna do is you're gonna stick your thumb down its throat, grab the guts and pull.
      Meat stays in the gut longer than vegetable matter.
      It can take 72 hours for food to pass through the gut.
      Let's get real; it's not going to be easy getting rid of a beer gut/belly.
      I don't like films that are full of blood and guts (extremely violent).
      What if I had had the guts to quit my job?
      It's not a lot of women would've had the guts to come back here tonight, and even fewer, who would do it with their asses hanging out!
      It takes guts to bring this up.
      A fire gutted the bookstore last week.
      Look, I know that you're in a place right now where you really need to hate Julie's guts (hate someone very much), but, she didn't do anything wrong.
      Rachel had a gut feeling (6th feeling) that Ross was lying.
      If you say that you are working your guts out or busting a gut, you mean you are working as hard as you can.
      If you say you'll have someone's guts for garters, you mean you would like to punish someone severely.
      To spill your guts is to tell someone all about your private life, or about a personal secret.
      n[pl] cows and bulls
      Cattle (colloquially cows) are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
      The world cattle population is estimated to be about 1.3 billion.
      Cattle are raised as livestock for meat (beef and veal), as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products, and as draft animals (oxen or bullocks) (pulling carts, plows and the like).
      In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning.
      An "intact" (i.e., not castrated) adult male is called a bull.
      An adult female that has had a calf (or two, depending on regional usage) is a cow.
      Young cattle of both sexes are called calves until they are weaned.
      A castrated male is called a steer in the United States.
      A castrated male (occasionally a female or in some areas a bull) kept for draft purposes is called an ox (plural oxen).
      Cattle raised for human consumption are called beef cattle.
      Cattle of bred specifically for milk production are called milking or dairy cattle; a cow kept to provide milk for one family may be called a house cow or milker.
      The adjective applying to cattle in general is usually bovine.
      The terms "bull", "cow" and "calf" are also used by extension to denote the sex or age of other large animals, including whales, hippopotamuses, camels, elk and elephants.
      Bullfighting, also known as tauromachia or tauromachy, is a traditional spectacle of Spain, Portugal, southern France and some Hispanic American countries (Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Peru), in which one or more bulls are fought in a bullring.
      n[U] a style of speaking or writing that is intended to influence people ¶ the skill or art of using language effectively
      Rhetoric is the art of discourse, an art that aims to improve the capability of writers or speakers to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
      Along with grammar and logic, rhetoric is one of the three ancient arts of discourse.
      Because the ancient Greeks highly valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics.
      From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric was a central part of Western education, filling the need to train public speakers and writers to move audiences to action with arguments.
      Classical rhetoric trained speakers are effective persuaders in public forums and institutions such as courtrooms and assemblies.
      How far the president will be able to translate his campaign rhetoric into action remains to be seen.
      Mike was swayed by Phoebe's rhetoric into donating all his savings to the charity.
      v[I] be in agreement ¶ be equivalent/similar ¶ be connected/related to ¶ exchange letters
      The legend does not correspond to historical fact, however.
      Your account of events does not correspond with his.
      Our nursery schools correspond roughly to their infant schools.
      The numbers correspond to points on the map.
      For the next three years they corresponded regularly.
      I wish that I could find a pen pal to correspond with.
      A correspondent or on-the-scene reporter is a journalist or commentator for magazines, or more generally speaking, an agent who contributes reports to a newspaper, or radio or television news, or another type of company, from a remote, often distant, location.
      n[U] feeling of extreme unhappiness ¶ suffering and problems ¶ the state of being in extreme danger and needing urgent help
      v[T] make sb feel very upset
      Ross and Chandler look at the monkey, who is now in some distress.
      As you're in distress, it would be customary for me to offer you a hot beverage.
      The causes of social distress include inadequate housing.
      She tried to conceal her distress, but the tremor in her voice was unmistakable.
      SOS is the commonly used description for the international Morse code distress signal.
      Bat-Signal is a distress signal device appearing in the various interpretations of the Batman mythos.
      Never fly the flag upside down, unless the apartment's in distress.
      Let it never be said that Sheldon Lee Cooper ignored the pleas of a damsel in distress.
      But the only reason I was driving your car was because you were in distress and I was rescuing you.
      We picked up a distress signal 6 km away.
      The ship is in distress and taking on water.
      She was deeply distressed by the news of his death.
      I am a bit distressed to be in a vehicle that's not subjected to regular maintenance.
      Compare depress and distress.
      n[U] the outer covering of a tree
      n[C] a short loud sound made by a dog, voice, gun etc
      v[IT] make the sound ¶ say sth in a loud, unfriendly way ¶ remove ~, scrape, graze
      Willow bark has been used by humans for several thousands of years for medicinal purposes. It contains salicin, a predecessor to aspirin.
      The people strip the bark and use it in medicines.
      Cork production is generally considered sustainable due to the fact that the entire cork tree is not harvested; merely its bark.
      The dog gave a loud bark.
      He gave a harsh bark of laughter.
      Phoebe, we can hear the dog barking!
      Over the background music Ross plays the sound of a barking dog, a mooing cow, a laser beam, someone coughing, a jackhammer, a doorbell, a police siren, a ray gun, breaking dishes, and for a closure he plays the sound of a loud crash.
      The drill instructor barked out an order.
      He started barking orders at us.
      When she's angry, she often barks at the children.
      She barked her knees by falling against some stone steps.
      "Someone's bark is worse than their bite" is used to say that someone who seems unpleasant or difficult to deal with, is not really too bad.
      n[C] sb who gives blood, sperm, eggs, or a part of their body to be used in the medical treatment of sb else ¶ sb who gives money/goods to an organization
      A blood donor is someone who gives some of their blood so that it can be used in operations.
      A donor card is a card which people carry to make sure that, when they die, their organs are used by doctors to help people who are ill.
      The hospital is searching for a bone marrow donor for the child.
      The museum was saved by an anonymous donor.
      He is a major donor to the Democratic Party.
      Come on, let me introduce you to one of the university's leading donors.
      Well, given your situation, the options with the greatest chances for success would be surrogacy, or insemination using a sperm donor.
      Sheldon will find an appropriate sperm donor for Missy's eggs, have them fertilized and implanted in her.
      v[T] make sb extremely afraid
      Don't terrify the children with ghost stories.
      Ross is terrified of spiders.
      The idea of swinging terrifies Rachel.
      "I'm terrified. This is just a very absorbent suit," said Richard.
      I'm terrified of heights (acrophobia).
      The back-end of the loan system is terrifying . If you end up in a position where you can't repay what you've borrowed it can be a hell of a pit to dig out of.
      Nothing is more terrifying than the prospect of more debt.
      adj old and valuable
      n[C] an ~ object such as a piece of china
      An antique is an old collectable item.
      It is collected or desirable because of its age, beauty, rarity, condition, utility, personal emotional connection, and/or other unique features.
      It is an object that represents a previous era or time period in human society.
      An collectible is an object that is valuable because people want to own it.
      Sheldon, that is a five hundred dollar limited edition collectible, and I want it back.
      "You know what rust does to a boat?" "It gives it a nice antiquey look." "Rust is boat cancer, Ross."
      "The beautiful guest room is gonna be filled with antiques," said Monica.
      It was like months ago. We were walking by this antique store, and I saw this pin in the window.
      Though I'm an antique dealer, I don't collect antiques.
      n[C] a mark on the skin which is left after a wound has healed ¶ a permanent effect on sb's mind, caused by an unpleasant experience they have had ¶ damaged area
      v[T] leave a ~ or spoil the appearance of sth
      Will the cut scar?
      Will the cut leave a permanent scar?
      That burn will leave a nasty scar.
      His hands were badly scarred by the fire.
      The accident left him permanently scarred.
      His experiences in prison left him scarred for life.
      He was both physically and mentally scarred.
      The countryside still bears the scars of the recent earthquake.
      Does colonialism leave a psychological scar that makes it hard for previously occupied countries to progress?
      v[I] pause before saying/doing sth
      Joey hesitated a moment, and then knocked on the door.
      "Don't hesitate to do something" is used for encouraging someone to do something.
      Don't hesitate to call me if you need any help.
      Don't hesitate to tell us if you have a problem.
      She replied without hesitating.
      Keep a lookout. This place is swarming with campus security. They will not hesitate to scold us.
      Penny's door. Leonard hesitates and then knock on the door.
      Sheldon hesitates for a while, picks up the chicken out of the garbage can, blows onto it, and then goes up the staircase.
      v[T] make sb unable to do sth ¶ prevent sth from working
      In Forest Gump, Second Lieutenant Dan Taylor was permanently disabled in Vietnam War.
      Howard, please, you can't treat the man differently just because he's disabled. That's not okay.
      The theater has good access for the disabled.
      Press the red button if you need to disable the car alarm.
      "Sorry about that, but I couldn't get that lock to work on the door." "Yeah, Joey disabled it when I moved in."
      n[C] a senior officer in an army,air force,or the marines
      Colonel is usually the highest or second-highest field rank, and is below the general ranks.
      Colonel is the military rank between lieutenant colonel and brigadier general.
      In the United States, a brigadier general is a senior officer in the armed forces who is often in charge of a brigade and has a rank above colonel and below major general.
      A colonel was typically in charge of a regiment in an army, especially in Great Britain; but typically as of 2012 a colonel is the commander of a brigade or regiment in the U.S. Army or Marine Corps, and of a wing in the U.S. Air Force.
      He has been made an honorary colonel of the 1st South African Tank Regiment.
      Colonel Harland David Sanders was an American businessman, best known for founding Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), and later acting as the company's goodwill ambassador and symbol.
      Well fine! I'd like to meet this chicken expert! Send the Colonel in!
      Marshall's name was given to the Marshall Plan.
      Göring felt obligated to tell Hitler, but also saw this event as an opportunity to dispose of the field marshal.
      v[T] encourage sth to happen, develop, or improve ¶ make sb feel interested ¶ make a plant or part of the body become active or stronger
      The government plans to cut taxes in order to stimulate the economy.
      Her interest in art was stimulated by her mother.
      I find her work very stimulating.
      Erotic images are often more sexually stimulating to men than to women.
      An inspiring teacher should ask questions that stimulate students to think.
      Exercise stimulates the digestive and excretory systems.
      It's a hormone that stimulates ovulation.
      Both coffee and tea have stimulating effect because of caffeine.
      Studies have proven that using one's vocal cords stimulates natural memory.
      Compare these words: simulate, stimulate, and stipulate.
      v[IT] use magic powers to make bad things happen to sb ¶ say or think offensive/impolite words, swear
      also a noun
      "Curse" may refer to a wish that harm or hurt will be inflicted by any supernatural powers, such as a spell, a prayer, an imprecation, an execration, magic, witchcraft, God, a natural force, or a spirit.
      It seemed that someone had put a curse on Ross and Emily's marriage.
      Ross cursed his bad luck in arriving just after Emily had climbed out of the window.
      My Enchanted Troll bludgeons your Screaming Harpy with a Cursed Mace.
      We could hear him cursing and swearing as he tried to get the door open.
      n[C] a simple, quickly-made drawing, without many details ¶ a short funny play or piece of writing, skit ¶ a short written/spoken description
      v[IT] draw a ~ ¶ make a general plan
      He drew a sketch map of the area to show us the way.
      A sketchbook or sketchpad is a book of plain paper for drawing on.
      Susan was told to sketch the landscape.
      But she made a (pencil) sketch of Carol reading a book.
      I thought the sketch about Queen Victoria was very funny.
      A biographical sketch, sometimes referred to as a professional profile, is a brief narrative that presents you in the best possible light to prospective employers, clients and the general public.
      His TV program is made up of a series of comic sketches.
      I'll just sketch the main points for you.
      He sketched a 10-year program for rebuilding the city.
      We need to sketch in (add) a few more details before presenting the plan.
      I've just sketched (out) a rough proposal; we can add details later.
      n[CU] smell ¶ pleasant smell, fragrance ¶ perfume
      v[T] give sth ~ ¶ discover by ~
      The dogs picked up the fox's scent.
      The dogs lost the scent of the fox near the river.
      The sweet fresh scent of newly baked bread filled the bakery.
      Sautéed mutton with garlic gives off a heavy scent.
      She decided to put some scent on before going out.
      She dabbed herself with scent.
      She dabbed some scent on her wrists.
      The scent lingered in the air.
      The air was scented with lavender.
      Jasmine flowers scent the air.
      The bloodhound scented a fox.
      Fantastic Mr. Fox scented danger and decided to leave.
      adj very large in amount,size,or number ¶ seeming to continue forever
      The possibilities are endless.
      I mean, having sex with an endless line of beautiful women must be very unfulfilling for you.
      Will a video game provide endless hours of fun?
      They used to have endless arguments about money.
      The war was endless.
      The days of waiting seemed endless.
      I have endless patience.
      It's like the whole country is one endless Comic Con, except everybody's wearing the same costume, Indian Guy.
      I just had a seemingly endless dinner with your mom.
      Something bad that is relentless continues without ever stopping or getting less severe.
      n[U] the study of numbers, quantities, or shapes, including algebra, geometry, and arithmetic
      Math (American English), or maths (British English), is the same as mathematics.
      Arithmetic or arithmetics is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics.
      In common usage, arithmetic refers to the simpler properties when using the traditional operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with smaller values of numbers.
      Algebra is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.
      Elementary algebra differs from arithmetic in the use of abstractions, such as using letters to stand for numbers that are either unknown or allowed to take on many values.
      Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
      n[C] a large flat case used esp for carrying pictures or paintings ¶ a set of pictures or other pieces of work that an artist, photographer etc has done ¶ set of investments (eg stocks and shares) ¶ all of the responsibilities of a government official
      A portfolio is a handleless case for carrying in the hand or under the arm. A folio case is a portfolio with a retractable handle.
      In finance, a portfolio is a collection of investments held by an investment company, hedge fund, financial institution or individual.
      The term portfolio refers to any collection of financial assets such as cash.
      Portfolios may be held by individual investors and/or managed by financial professionals, hedge funds, banks and other financial institutions.
      An artist's portfolio is an edited collection of their best artwork intended to showcase an artist's style or method of work.
      A portfolio is used by artists to show employers their versatility by showing different samples of current work.
      Career portfolios are used to plan, organize and document education, work samples and skills.
      People use career portfolios to apply to jobs, apply to college or training programs, get a higher salary, show transferable skills, and to track personal development.
      Career portfolios serve as proof of one's skills, abilities, and potential in the future.
      Career portfolios are becoming common in high schools, college, and workforce development.
      A patent portfolio is a collection of patents owned by a single entity, such as an individual or corporation.
      The monetary benefits of a patent portfolio include a market monopoly position for the portfolio holder and revenue from licensing the intellectual property.
      In politics, a portfolio is a minister's responsibility for a particular area of a government's activities.
      The specific tasks assigned to a minister is referred to as his or her "portfolio".
      A minister without portfolio is a politician who is given the rank of minister without being given responsibility for any particular area of a government's activities.
      n[C] sb/sth that has the same job or purpose as sb/sth else in a different place
      I'm a self-employed translator and I want to know how to refer to other self-employed translators. My colleagues? My peers? My counterparts?
      My counterpart would be someone who does the same job as me for a different company/organization/country, etc.
      My peers are, broadly speaking, all people of the same status as me.
      You could say: 'Here is something for all my fellow translators out there'.
      The sales director phoned her counterpart in the other firm.
      The Prime Minister is to meet her European counterparts to discuss the war against drugs.
      n[C] an amount of money paid to obtain insurance ¶ an additional amount of money
      adj of higher quality ¶ more expensive
      My monthly premium is $200.
      If you buy or sell something at a premium, you buy or sell it at a higher price than usual.
      Top quality cigars are being sold at a premium.
      Consumers are prepared to pay a premium for organically grown vegetables.
      If something is at a premium, it is wanted or needed, but is difficult to get or achieve.
      During the Olympic Games, accommodation will be at a premium.
      If you place/put a (high) premium on something, you regard it as very important.
      The company places a high premium on customer loyalty.
      The cigarette brands smuggled to China from the Philippines are the popular premium brands preferred by China's smokers, principally State Express 555, Kool and Camel.
      Small-batch whiskeys are positioned for the upper-premium market, and are typically aged from six to nine years in oak barrels.
      The premiere of a new play or film is the first public performance of it.
      n[C] a preference/tendency/inclination for/to a particular set of beliefs, opinions, etc
      I don't know what his political leanings are.
      I always knew he had right-wing leanings.
      You should try sending it out to magazines with the appropriate ideological leanings.
      He was leaning over the bathtub, rubbing it.
      "It'll be $1 m," he confirms, leaning back in his desk chair and grinning broadly.
      v[T] put/fit/place sth into sth else or between two things
      n[C] an advertisement or notice put inside a newspaper, magazine, or book ¶ sth that is designed to be put inside sth else
      His hand shook slightly as he inserted the key into the lock.
      Insert the plug/jack into the earphone socket/jack.
      Acupuncture is the stimulation of specific acupoints along the skin of the body involving various methods such as the application of heat, pressure, or laser or penetration of thin needles; the skin is sterilized, e.g. with alcohol, and the needles are inserted.
      This command inserts the deleted text into its new place.
      The English translation is inserted between the lines of text.
      This newspaper has too many annoying inserts advertising various products.
      Mr. Guo wore special inserts in his shoes to make him look taller.
      n[C] a chess piece with a horse's head on it ¶ sb who has the title 'sir' ¶ sb who helps sb else
      also a verb
      Each player begins the game with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns.
      The knight is a piece in the game of chess, representing a knight (armored cavalry).
      Each player starts with two knights, which begin on the row closest to the player, one square from each corner.
      A rook is a piece in chess. Formerly the piece was called the tower, marquess, rector, and comes. The term castle is considered informal, incorrect, or old-fashioned.
      Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is a code of conduct associated with the medieval institution of knighthood.
      Prince Charming is a stock character who appears in a number of fairy tales.
      If you refer to someone as a knight in shining armor, you mean that they are kind and brave, and likely to rescue someone, especially a beautiful woman, from a difficult situation.
      A white knight is a person or an organization that rescues a company from difficulties such as financial problems or an unwelcome takeover bid.
      In 1934, he was part of the last group of Canadians to be knighted by King George V.