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n[pl] very small living things, some of which cause disease
Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. They are typically a few micrometers long and have many shapes including curved rods, spheres, rods, and spirals.
Viruses are the smallest and simplest life form known. They are 10 to 100 times smaller than bacteria.
The biggest difference between viruses and bacteria is that viruses must have a living host - like a plant or animal - to multiply, while most bacteria can grow on non-living surfaces.
There are some useful bacteria but all viruses are harmful.
Antibiotics can kill bacteria but not viruses.
An example of a disease caused by bacteria is strep throat and an example of an affliction caused by a virus is the flu.
Chlorine is added to tap water to kill bacteria.
Neither chilling nor freezing kills all bacteria.
v[T] take/carry sth to some place ¶ communicate/express sth
Pipes convey hot water from the boiler to the radiators.
Please convey my good wishes to your family.
If you see Andy, please convey my apologies to him.
I want to convey to children that reading is one of life's greatest treats.
I think China will definitely convey that information clearly to North Korea.
I hope you understand what I'm attempting to convey.
n[U] a colorless gas that all animals depend on to breathe
Air is mainly composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, which together constitute the major gases of the atmosphere.
An oxygen mask is a device that is connected to a cylinder of oxygen by means of a tube. It is placed over the nose and mouth of someone who is having difficulty in breathing in order to help them breathe more easily.
Oxygen masks are used in aircraft only in emergencies.
After dark the plants stop producing oxygen.
There was a shortage of oxygen at the top of the mountain.
Fish tanks often have a pump which oxygenates the water.
The fish died from lack of oxygen.
v[T] make sb very interested, fascinate ¶ make secret plans to harm sb, plot
also a noun
Oh, come on. You can't tell me that you're not intrigued about the possibility of building a better girlfriend.
All right, color me intrigued.
He was intrigued by her wit and stellar personality and he found himself becoming very attached to her.
While King Richard was abroad, the barons had been intriguing against him.
It was a time of heroes and villains, of battles and castles, intrigue and cunning.
This movie has everything: passion, intrigue, and humor.
It has the intrigue of a Dan Brown novel mixed with the science of Hawking and Brian Greene.
n[CU] the act of working together ¶ sth produced by working together ¶ the act of helping an enemy who is occupying your country during a war
Close collaboration between money and power is not merely desirable, it is essential.
We arrange events and activities in collaboration with other clubs.
The movie was a collaboration of British and Indian production companies.
According to historical records, out of 37,000 sent to jail on charges of collaboration, about 26,000 were freed following announcement of the general amnesty.
In 1957, Kastner was assassinated, but in 1958 he was posthumously cleared by the Supreme Court of all charges of collaboration.
n[C] the place that sb/sth is going to
According to Rachel, they should reach their destination by about mid-afternoon.
Athens is our final destination.
We arrived at our destination at midnight.
The Caribbean is an ideal holiday destination.
The island is a popular vacation destination.
Beijing is a famous tourist destination.
n[U] a state of complete disorder and confusion
The wintry weather has caused complete chaos on the roads.
The country was plunged into economic chaos.
Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including meteorology, physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy.
Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions - a paradigm popularly referred to as the butterfly effect.
In Greek mythology, Chaos, the primeval void, was the first thing which existed.
n[C] sb who has been trained to give a particular form of treatment for physical or mental illness
Phoebe is a fully qualified massage therapist looking to build her client base.
Rachel had been very busy working as a beauty therapist.
This is the most holiday fun I've had since my therapist changed my anxiety medication and I stopped caring about the blood in my stool.
An occupational therapist is someone whose job involves helping people by means of occupational therapy.
A speech therapist is a person whose job is to help people to overcome speech and language problems.
We also have a speech and language therapist who works with these pupils two and a half days per week.
adj deep/far-reaching ¶ very great/intense ¶ showing great knowledge and understanding
When you need a word that's deeper than "deep," consider "profound."
What if you were granted profound insights into the human psyche?
This is a scientific discovery of profound significance.
Apple's innovations are powerful and profound, but they are often in the realms of design, consumer use and marketing.
This is a book full of profound, original and challenging insights.
Society has changed so profoundly over the last fifty years.
We are all profoundly grateful for your help and encouragement.
"The best way to make your dreams come true is to wake up" is a profound motivational quote.
v[I] stare angrily ¶ shine with a very strong light that makes you feel uncomfortable
n[U] the stare/light
Shrek and Fiona's father glared at each other across the table.
Susan just glares back, as Ross's inappropriate joke falls flat (not interesting).
The sun was glaring right in my eyes.
The searchlights glared, illuminating the prison yard.
The hearings were conducted in the full glare of publicity.
n[C] a husband/wife
Someone's spouse is the person they are married to.
Divorce not only terminates the legal partnership between two spouses but also divides property previously shared by the couple.
In 80% of the households surveyed both spouses went out to work.
I get mad at my spouse and yell at him for staying out all night drinking with his buddies.
Both the spouses had engraved wedding rings on their fingers.
n[C] a place in a port where ships are loaded, unloaded, or repaired ¶ the part of a law court where the person who is charged with a crime stands ¶ a wild plant
v[IT] make a ship etc come into a ~ ¶ cut sth short, esp an dog's tail
A dry dock is a dock from which water can be removed so that ships or boats can be built or repaired.
Monica and Chandler docked at Liverpool the next morning.
A crowd was waiting at the dock to greet them.
This recent tragedy has put the manufacturers of the drug squarely in the dock.
The judge looked over to the defendants in the dock.
Rubbing dock leaves on nettle stings helps to relieve the pain.
In computing, a docking station or port replicator or dock provides a simplified way of "plugging-in" an electronic device such as a laptop computer to common peripherals (mouse, monitors, flash drives, etc).
When one spacecraft docks or is docked with another, the two crafts join together.
The space shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to dock with Russia's Mir space station.
The dog's tail is docked for aesthetic reasons.
The university has docked lecturers' pay by 14% because of their refusal to mark examination papers.
adj very carefully made, fine ¶ easily broken, damaged, or injured, fragile ¶ attractive and thin, small, light ¶ not intense/strong ¶ sensitive
Something that is delicate is small and beautifully shaped.
She had delicate hands.
Something that is delicate has a color, taste, or smell which is pleasant and not strong or intense.
Veal is too delicate for a spicy sauce.
I like the gentle, delicate flavor of bass.
If something is delicate, it is easy to harm, damage, or break, and needs to be handled or treated carefully.
The sun can easily damage a girl's delicate skin.
Someone who is delicate is not healthy and strong, and becomes ill easily.
She used to be a delicate child.
You use delicate to describe a situation, problem, matter, or discussion that needs to be dealt with carefully and sensitively in order to avoid upsetting things or offending people.
The negotiations are at a very delicate stage.
It's a politically delicate situation.
There is a fairly delicate matter that I need to discuss with you.
A delicate task, movement, action, or product needs or shows great skill and attention to detail.
"Repairing damaged nerves is a very delicate operation," said Dr. Drake Ramory, the best neurosurgeon.
Only a very delicate thermometer can measure such tiny changes in temperature.
n[C] a government department related to finance and taxation ¶ a place where money or precious items are kept
In the United Kingdom, Her Majesty's Treasury is overseen by the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
The traditional honorary title of First Lord of the Treasury is held by the Prime Minister.
The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury.
The IRS (Internal Revenue Service) is the revenue agency of the US Department of the Treasury.
A United States Treasury security is a government debt issued by the United States Department of the Treasury through the Bureau of the Public Debt.
It was first published in B. A. Botkin's A Treasury of American Folklore.
n[C] sth that attracts people, animals, or fish, bait, decoy
She can't resist the lure of easy money.
She lured him into buying an overpriced house.
As a way to lure their prey, coyotes will often act playful to small dogs and cats.
She used all her lures to attract his attention.
Joey is getting ready for a fishing trip and Phoebe is asking him about the fishing lures.
Under what pretext did you lure Amy here?
It's how they lure you in. I believe it's called bait and switch.
n[C] sb whose job is to protect a forest or natural park ¶ a state police officer in some states of the US, esp Texas
Bill Bunch is a park ranger at the Yellowstone National Park.
Madison Square Garden is the arena of the New York Knicks basketball and New York Rangers ice hockey teams.
The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers, is a law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, and is based in Austin, Texas.
The Ranger Regiment is a light infantry combat unit the falls under the administrative control of the US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC).
Along with the Rangers, which consist of one active regiment (the 75th Ranger Regiment) with three battalions, the U.S. Army Special Operations Command includes Army National Guard, civil affairs, psychological operations and chemical reconnaissance groups.
n[C] a sudden shaking of the ground
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.
Earthquakes have destroyed whole cities.
The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time.
Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers.
The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe.
The most recent large earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or larger was a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan in 2011 (as of March 2014).
The biggest earthquake ever recorded took place in Chile in 1960. The quake measured an impressive 9.5 on the Richter scale.
In 1906 an earthquake destroyed much of San Francisco.
n[C] the part of a coat/jacket that covers your head ¶ sth like a ~ in shape or use
The coat has a detachable hood.
Why don't you put your hood up if you're cold?
She put up her hood when it started to snow.
She walked into the room and pulled off her hood.
She was kidnapped by three men wearing black hoods.
The hood or bonnet of a car is the metal cover over the engine at the front.
Check under the hood and see what that noise is.
Rachel's father bought her a Mercedes convertible (a car with a soft roof that you can fold back or remove).
In fine weather you can drive your car with the hood (folding waterproof top of a car) down.
A cooker hood is an electrical device fitted over a cooker above head height, and containing an extractor fan and usually a light.
When he started he was just a poor boy from the hood (neighborhood) - now he's a multimillionaire.
Little Red Riding Hood, or Little Red Ridinghood, also known as Little Red Cap or simply Red Riding Hood, is a French and later European fairy tale about a young girl and a Big Bad Wolf.
v[T] go to a place very often ¶ (of ghosts) visit regularly ¶ return repeatedly to the mind
n[C] a place that sb likes to go to often
A place that is the haunt of a particular person is one which they often visit because they enjoy going there.
This café is a favorite haunt of artists.
A ghost or spirit that haunts a place or a person regularly appears in the place, or is seen by the person and frightens them.
The story begins when Mr Otis and family move to Canterville Chase, despite warnings from Lord Canterville that the house is haunted.
If something unpleasant haunts you, you keep thinking or worrying about it over a long period of time.
Many women were haunted by the fear that their husbands were having an affair.
n[C] a magazine that contains stories told in pictures ¶ sb whose job is to tell jokes and make people laugh, comedian
He wore a red nose and novelty glasses for comic effect.
A comic book or comic is a magazine that contains stories told in pictures.
A comic strip is a series of drawings that tell a story, especially in a newspaper or magazine.
Snoopy is a fictional character in the long-running comic strip Peanuts, by Charles M. Schulz.
Silver Surfer is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in comic books and other publications by Marvel Comics.
Flash is a superhero in comic books from DC.
Manga are comics created in Japan, or by Japanese creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century.
In 1977 CoroCoro Comic (a Japanese monthly manga magazine) was launched as a magazine of Doraemon.
Why are you still reading comics at your age?
Stand up comics usually obtain their material from real-life events.
v[T] make new animal/plant life develop ¶ add a natural/chemical substance to soil to help plants grow, enrich
After the egg has been fertilized, it will hatch in about six weeks.
Monica is ovulating; her egg will be fertilized by Chandler's sperm.
Flowers are often fertilized by bees as they gather nectar.
The feces contain nitrogen and it is that which fertilizes the soil.
We spread organic fertilizer on the field with a rake.
Although the impact of age on a woman's fertility has been well-studied, experts say this is the first time such a strong association has been found between age and male fertility in the time it takes to conceive a child.
adj willing to be helpful ¶ done by people/organizations working together, joint ¶ a ~ business is run by people working together
n[C] a ~ business
I've asked the aunties not to play their music so loudly, but they're not being very cooperative.
In the United States, a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA or CRDA) is an agreement between a government agency and a private company to work together on research and development.
An agricultural cooperative, also known as a farmers' co-op, is a cooperative where farmers pool their resources in certain areas of activity.
Examples of agricultural production cooperatives include collective farms in former socialist countries, the kibbutzim in Israel, collectively governed community shared agriculture, Longo Mai co-operatives and Nicaraguan production co-operatives.
Gandhi is a 1982 epic biographical film which dramatizes the life of the leader of India's non-violent, non-cooperative independence movement against the United Kingdom's rule of the country.
v[T] write one's name on the back of a check ¶ express formal support/approval
The payee of the check must endorse the check.
I fully endorse everything the Chairperson has said.
If a famous person endorses a product or service, they say in an advertisement that they use and like it.
Leonard endorsed a cell phone that "has a connection that is so clear that my agent's gonna think I'm next door."
Well-known sportsmen can earn large sums of money from manufacturers by endorsing clothes and equipment.
If someone's driving license is endorsed, an official record is made on it that they have been found guilty of a driving offence.
Ross had his license endorsed with eight penalty points.
adj having the official power to control sth
He figured out a way to dupe officials at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission into providing him with crucial information he needed.
This means that state securities authorities will have primary regulatory authority over a substantial number of investment advisers that previously were subject to primary regulation by the SEC.
Department of Interior: all programs, services, and regulatory activities relating to lands and natural resources, including parks and recreation, water and waste management, environmental protection, energy, historic and cultural preservation, and museums.
Department of Justice: all programs, services, and regulatory activities relating to law enforcement, public safety, and the administration of justice, including courts and correctional institutions.
House Bill 1284 provides a regulatory framework for dispensaries, including giving local communities the ability to ban or place sensible and much-needed controls on the operation, location and ownership of these establishments.
n[C] a small (partly) enclosed place
A photo booth is a vending machine or kiosk (a very small store) which contains an automated camera and film processor.
Voters cast their ballots in secrecy in a voting booth, polling booth, or polling station.
A box office or ticket booth is a place where admission tickets are sold.
A food booth is a structure from which food is sold.
A telephone booth, phone booth, call box, or phone box is a small structure furnished with a payphone.
Office cubicles can be arranged in a variety of ways to suit the particular needs of the environment in which they are installed. For example, cubicle walls can be arranged to make very small square "booth" type office spaces for simple telemarketing set ups.