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      n[UC] use of a word/phrase to indicate sth different from (though related in some way to) the basic/original meaning ¶ symbol
      A metaphor is a figure of speech that identifies something as being the same as some unrelated thing for rhetorical effect, thus highlighting the similarities between the two.
      While a simile compares two items, a metaphor may compare or directly equate them, and so does not necessarily apply any distancing words of comparison, such as "like" or "as".
      No, I don't want you to buy me a hat, I'm saying I am a hat - It's a metaphor!
      "And you're afraid you won't be able to fill his shoes." "No, I'm afraid I won't be able to make love as well as him." "I was going for the metaphor." "Yes and I was saying the actual words."
      "The mind is an ocean" and "the city is a jungle" are both metaphors.
      Their relationship is a metaphor for the failure of communication in the modern world.
      The divided family remains a powerful metaphor for a society that continued to tear itself apart.
      n[C] a single thin piece of thread, wire, hair etc ¶ one of the different aspects of sth ¶ sandy shore
      v[T] make sb/sth be left on the shore and unable to return to the water
      Mike reached out and brushed a strand of hair away from Phoebe's face.
      Rachel tucked a strand of hair behind her ear.
      Chandler's dad wore a single strand of pearls around his neck.
      You can keep all the different strands of a lie in your minds, remember them and make them convincing.
      At the end, all the different strands of the story are brought together.
      Why do whales and dolphins strand themselves on Beaches?
      If you are stranded, you are prevented from leaving a place.
      Joey hangs up the phone and strands Ross in the bathroom.
      Compare strand and streak.
      adj difficult to see, hear, smell, taste etc ¶ very small/slight ¶ near to losing consciousness
      v[I] lose consciousness, pass out
      also a noun
      Rachel could see the faint glow of a lamp through the curtains.
      The sounds of music grew fainter in the distance.
      A faint smell of gunpowder still hung in the air.
      It had a faint taste of custard but nothing particularly strong.
      Her memories of her grandfather were very faint.
      I had the faint hope to meet you on your way down here.
      Rachel suddenly felt faint.
      The dieter was faint from hunger and cold.
      Many people in the crowd fainted in the heat.
      She took one look at the syringe and fainted away.
      She fainted at the sight of blood.
      She fell down in a faint.
      n[C] sth that exists as a single and complete unit
      A file is a named entity, managed and contained by the file system.
      The single largest tax paying entity into the US treasury is Exxon.
      The Government or any other entity wishing to include copyrighted materials in a publication must seek permission from any copyright owner.
      The term "public entity" means a business or organization. It is a legal term and is often used in cases and in the courtrooms.
      It's not uncommon for a public entity to have an individual's Social Security number, income statements, bank account numbers, driver's license number and even credit card information.
      v[T] give a name/title to ¶ select and set aside for sth ¶ mark, point out
      adj chosen for a job but not yet officially doing it
      Li Na was designated (as) sportswoman of the year.
      Some of the rooms were designated as offices.
      Bicycles must not be brought into residences at any time, except to specifically designated areas.
      The different types are designated by the letters A, B and C.
      A public entity that employs 50 or more persons shall designate at least one employee to coordinate its efforts to comply with and carry out its responsibilities under this part.
      Rachel had an interview with the director designate.
      n[U] fairness, right judgement ¶ a law term ¶ sum of assets
      n[pl] company shares that can be bought and sold on a stock market
      The equity of the referee's decision was accepted by everyone.
      Equity was developed two or three hundred years after the English common law system did to introduce fairness into the legal system.
      The law courts or "courts of law" were the courts in England that enforced the king's laws in medieval times.
      If decisions by the judges were regarded as unfair, then litigants could directly appeal to the King, who, as the sovereign, was seen as the 'fount of justice' and responsible for the just treatment of his subjects.
      Eventually, the king regularly delegated resolving these petitions to the Chancellor.
      Equity, as a body of rules, varied from Chancellor to Chancellor until the 17th century, after which only lawyers were appointed Chancellor.
      In accounting and finance, equity is the residual claimant or interest of the most junior class of investors in assets, after all liabilities are paid; if liability exceeds assets, negative equity exists.
      This definition is helpful in understanding the liquidation process in case of bankruptcy.
      At first, all the secured creditors are paid against proceeds from assets.
      Afterwards, a series of creditors, ranked in priority sequence, have the next claim/right on the residual proceeds.
      Ownership equity is the last or residual claim against assets, paid only after all other creditors are paid.
      The US equities market (relative to others) is huge in size, immersed in liquidity, highly efficiency, with acclaimed transparency.
      He joined the firm in 1988 in the equities arbitrage department and ran that department from 1992 until 2000.
      In 2000, he became co-chief operating officer of the equities division and in 2002 became co-head of the equities division and a member of the Goldman Sachs Management Committee.
      n[C] a fungus (a plant that have no flowers, leaves, or green coloring, such as a ~ or toadstool)
      v[I] grow and develop very quickly
      A toadstool is a wild fungus that is similar to a mushroom and is often poisonous.
      Mushrooms and truffles are relatives of each other in the fungus kingdom. Both are highly prized ingredients for food recipes, although truffles, due to their rarity, are much more so.
      Although mushrooms are more prevalent, they are complementary ingredients to dishes due to their variety in shape and flavors.
      Although both are from the fungus family, there are a number of differences between mushrooms and truffles, ranging from where and how they are located to how much they cost to how they are used in various recipes.
      Termitomyces albuminosus is a long-stemmed mushroom grown in Yunnan province, China. Its Chinese name is 鸡枞.
      When immature and white - this mushroom may be known as common mushroom, button mushroom, white mushroom, cultivated mushroom, table mushroom, and champignon mushroom.
      When immature and brown - this mushroom may be known variously as Swiss brown mushroom, Roman brown mushroom, Italian brown, Italian mushroom, cremini or crimini mushroom, brown cap mushroom, or chestnut mushroom.
      Magic mushrooms are a type of mushroom which contain a drug and may make the person who eats them believe they are seeing things which are not real.
      A mushroom cloud is an extremely large cloud caused by a nuclear explosion.
      New blocks of flats and offices mushroomed on the edge of Baoding.
      v[IT] grip, grasp ¶ grab, snatch
      also a noun
      Rachel runs up clutching an envelope.
      Monica and Rachel's, Chandler enters clutching his phone.
      Chandler and Monica are lying in the bed together talking. There's an awkward air between them. They are both clutching the covers in from of them.
      The lights come back on, and Rachel and Paolo are making out. Ross clutches his chest.
      If something clutches at your heart, you suddenly feel fear or nervousness.
      He knew that trying the alternative medicine was just clutching at straws.
      In a vehicle, the clutch is the pedal that you press before you change gear.
      A "stick shift" has a manual transmission the driver shifts manually using a clutch.
      Put it into first gear and let the clutch out slowly.
      The driver at the traffic lights was riding (keep in a state between full engagement and disengagement) his clutch.
      If someone is in another person's clutches, that person has captured them or has power over them.
      Not even death gets you out of the clutches of the IRS (Internal Revenue Service).
      A clutch bag or clutch is a woman's strapless purse (handbag) that is carried in the hand.
      A clutch of something is a small group of similar things.
      n[C] a narrow piece of leather, cloth etc
      v[T] fasten sb/sth with one or more ~
      My camera strap has broken.
      The purse comes with detachable straps.
      Rachel clutched the strap of her beach bag.
      Make sure the passengers are strapped in before driving off.
      Are the kids strapped into their car seats?
      Clip on your safety strap (seat/safety belt, seatbelt), Andy!
      v[T] reduce sth to the smallest amount/degree ¶ make sth seem much less important than it really is
      To minimize discomfort, each tent is equipped with air conditioning and a private bathroom.
      One can minimize pancreatic digestive activity by first not feeding the patient for several days.
      For the time being, we may be stuck with on-site storage, but we can take important steps to minimize the risks.
      Many of these problems could've been minimized by sensible planning.
      I would not minimize the inevitable losses to employers and employees and to the general public through such conflicts.
      He minimized the value of her contribution to his research so that he got all the praise.
      v[IT] give sth such as money, goods, blood to help a person/organization
      Oh, Joey, please tell me you're only donating your time.
      "Remember that sweater I gave you for your birthday?" "And that's how you bought it?" ""No, that's what I was wearing when I donated."
      I used to get paid for all kinds of medical stuff, remember? Let's see, well I don't wanna donate sperm again. Maybe they want like some of my blood or spit or something?
      I can't seem to find the monkey I donated last year. He's a capuchin, answers to the name Marcel.
      I'm gonna be one of those people collecting donations.
      I would like to make a pledge. I would like to donate $200.
      We took the money we were gonna spend on a wedding and we donated it to a children's charity.
      Others donated secondhand clothes.
      The appeal for people to donate blood was not very successful.
      adj of great value, worth a lot of money ¶ highly valued, dearly loved
      adv very
      A precious metal is a valuable metal such as gold or silver.
      A precious stone (gem) is a valuable stone, such as a diamond.
      Why can't we savor the precious moments?
      Every moment is precious. Besides, somebody had to ride in that other taxi with the rest of your luggage, and your friends don't really seem to care too much that you're leaving.
      Damn it woman, we're losing precious time!
      You are so precious (cute), I could just take you home.
      You call her and tell her that when we were kids her precious (used to show that you are annoyed that someone seems to care too much about someone or something) little Frannie tried to undress me several times.
      I never touched your precious computer!
      We give ourselves precious little time to start from scratch. Be patient, and appreciate the process of growth.
      n[C] a mark/fault that makes sth imperfect ¶ a mistake/fault in sth that makes it ineffective ¶ a fault in sb's character, weakness
      v[T] cause sth to have a ~
      This vase would be perfect but for a few small flaws in its base.
      The vase is in excellent condition except for a few small flaws in its base.
      A design flaw caused the engine to explode.
      A security flaw let outsiders grab more than a dozen of Mark Zuckerberg's private photos and post them on a photo-sharing site.
      That flaw was fixed in a day.
      So I have a flaw! Big deal! Like Joey's constant knuckle-cracking isn't annoying? And Ross, with his over-pronouncing every single word? And Monica, with that snort when she laughs?
      There's a fatal flaw in your reasoning.
      Sherlock Holmes' reasoning can't be flawed.
      Diamonds are still valuable, even when they are flawed.
      n[C] a hollow container for shaping sth
      v[T] shape sth by putting it into a ~
      n[U] a green/black substance that grows on food that has been kept too long in warm, wet air
      v[I] grow ~
      A mould (also spelled mold) is a hollow container that you pour liquid into. When the liquid becomes solid, it takes the same shape as the mould.
      When a cook looks at a jelly mould, she knows the shape of the jelly she will turn out of it.
      If someone fits into or is cast in a mould of a particular kind, they have the characteristics, attitudes, behavior, or lifestyle that are typical of that type of person.
      If you say that someone breaks the mould, you mean that they do completely different things from what has been done before or from what is usually done.
      It's not automatically a bad thing for a writer to step out of his mould, to publish something surprising.
      You can also melt down your old crayons and mold into new fun shape crayons.
      To mould someone or something means to change or influence them over a period of time so that they develop in a particular way.
      The director tries to take young women and mold them into porn stars.
      You should boil the water first to kill any bacteria or mold that may be present.
      In that humidity range, mold cannot survive.
      Mushrooms and mould are both fungi.
      n[C] first public appearance
      v[I] perform or be introduced to the public for the first time
      We also previewed a clip from the debut song.
      With a possible September or October debut, that model is expected to sport a 7.85-inch screen (pricing is anyone's guess, but somewhere between $249 and $349 seems likely).
      Within two weeks of the iPhone's 2007 debut, Apple sold 700,000 units.
      When Jobs debuted the iPhone, it marked a huge change in the way phone makers and carriers developed a device.
      The show debuted two years after the movie of the same name hit the big screen.
      adj able to deal with people in a sensitive way that does not upset/offend them, tactful ¶ relating to the profession/skill of preserving/creating friendly relationships between countries
      A diplomatic bag or pouch is a bag or container in which mail is sent to and from foreign embassies.
      Diplomatic bags are protected by law, so that they are not opened by anyone except the official or embassy they are addressed to.
      The diplomatic corps is the group of all the diplomats who work in one city or country.
      Diplomatic immunity is the freedom from legal action and from paying taxes that a diplomat has in the country in which he or she is working.
      The diplomatic service or foreign service is the government department that employs diplomats to work in foreign countries.
      We all get awkward clients every now and again, and we have to be very diplomatic with them.
      n[C] a group of items that are kept together ¶ a set of parts that can be put together in order to make sth
      n[U] clothes and equipment needed for a sport or used by a soldier
      Cyclists should carry a bike repair kit.
      A 35 liter pack, properly packed, takes roughly three of everything (pants, shorts, shirts, t-shirts), plus a week's worth of underwear and socks, boots, hiking sandals, first aid kit, duct tape, locks and sewing kit.
      I got my passport, fresh socks, and a snake bite kit.
      "Oh look, look there's Ross' old makeup kit!" "Clown kit!"
      A drum kit is a set of drums and cymbals.
      A tool kit is a special set of tools that are kept together and that are often used for a particular purpose.
      A software development kit (SDK) is typically a set of software development tools that allows for the creation of applications for a certain software package, software framework, hardware platform, computer system, video game console, operating system, or similar development platform.
      It may be something as simple as an application programming interface (API) in the form of some files to interface to a particular programming language or include sophisticated hardware to communicate with a certain embedded system.
      Common tools include debugging aids and other utilities often presented in an integrated development environment (IDE).
      Find model cars and plastic model car kits from a vast selection of Models & Kits.
      I had been taught how to swim in full kit, but not everyone could do so.
      If someone or something is kitted out with clothes or equipment, they are provided with the clothes or equipment needed for an activity.
      We were all kitted out to go cycling.
      v[T] make a small hole in/through sth, using a sharp-pointed object
      Steam the yam until it can easily be pierced with a fork.
      Emily had Ross' ear pierced on Sunday.
      A bullet entered his chest and pierced his heart.
      If sound or light pierces something, you suddenly hear or see it.
      Monica and Phoebe's shrieks pierced the air.
      The beam of the searchlight pierced the darkness.
      v[T] scatter small drops of liquid or small pieces of sth
      n[C] a small amount of sth ¶ a light rain
      Peel, cut, and sprinkle a little salt on them.
      "Yeah, I have powder!" "Good, sprinkle some of that on your legs, it'll absorb some of the moisture and then you can get your pants back on."
      FRIENDS is liberally sprinkled with (with a lot of something) jokes.
      We will sprinkle rose pedals on the bed and make love.
      We've only had a few sprinkles (of rain) recently.
      n[C] a general area of activity/interest/thought ¶ a country ruled by a king/queen
      The idea belongs in the realm of science fiction.
      First, in the realm of political economy, Republicans favor small government and unbridled capitalism, looking to the market to solve our domestic problems.
      Second, in the realm of foreign policy, Republicans favor big government and unbridled activism, looking to the military to prolong the American Century.
      Third, in the realm of culture, Republicans have spoken in defense of so-called traditional values, making much of their putative opposition to abortion and the defense of traditional marriage.
      This discovery has opened up a whole new realm of research.
      I suspect it's also within the realm of possibility that Romney will have exceeded George W. Bush's 2004 total of votes.
      The Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) was passed in the United Kingdom on 8 August 1914, four days after it entered World War I. It gave the government wide-ranging powers during the war period, such as the power to requisition buildings or land needed for the war effort, or to make regulations creating criminal offences.
      n[CU] an advantage or good feature of sth ¶ quality of deserving praise
      v[T] deserve
      Each of these approaches to teaching has its merits.
      We need to assess the merits of these approaches before making our decision.
      The great merit of gold is precisely that it is scarce.
      There's no merit in giving away what you don't really want.
      All students are selected solely on merit (because they are good).
      The winners are ranked in order of merit.
      One further point in this section merits attention.
      n[CU] love ¶ an exciting and often short relationship, affair ¶ the feeling of excitement and adventure ¶ a story about love, or has brave characters and exciting events
      v[IT] talk about things in a way that makes them seem more exciting than they really are, exaggerate
      Historians believe that the word "romance" developed from French meaning "verse narrative" - referring to the style of speech, writing, and artistic talents within elite classes.
      The word was originally an adverb from Latin meaning "of the Roman style."
      The connecting notion is that European medieval tales were usually about chivalric adventure, not combining the idea of love until late into the seventeenth century.
      The word "romance" has also developed with other meanings in other languages such as the early nineteenth century Spanish and Italian definitions of "adventurous" and "passionate", sometimes combining the idea of "love affair" or "idealistic quality."
      The romance had gone out of their relationship.
      I felt as though all the romance had gone out of my marriage.
      Hemingway's romance with his nurse inspired him to write 'A Farewell to Arms'.
      Emily married Ross after a whirlwind romance (a very sudden and exciting one).
      It was just a holiday romance.
      Office romances are usually a bad idea.
      There was an air of romance about the old castle.
      Ross loves the romance of moonlight boat ride.
      Rachel loves reading romances.
      Captain Haddock was romancing about the past.
      If you want to be loved and romanced (behave in a romantic way toward someone) by your sweetheart, love and romance them first.
      n[U] politeness
      n[C] sth you do or say to be polite
      adj provided free of charge
      It's a matter of common courtesy to acknowledge letters.
      He didn't even have the courtesy to call and say he couldn't come.
      On entering the royal presence, he exchanged courtesies with the King, then sat down to one side.
      If you say that one thing happens courtesy of another or by courtesy of another, you mean that the second thing causes or is responsible for the first thing.
      He received a deep cut on his left hand, courtesy of Mike's ice skate.
      All pictures supplied courtesy of the Justice and Police Museum and Historic Houses Trust of NSW.
      The hotel provides courtesy shuttle service from the airport.
      n[C] ass ¶ an unburned end, as of a cigarette ¶ the larger/thicker end of sth ¶ a large round container
      v[IT] hit sb/sth with the top of the head
      Susan grinned, pinching Carol on the butt.
      I'm Al Pacino's butt double. He goes into the shower, and then I'm his butt.
      Sam, get your butt over here!
      You never see any trash, not even a cigarette butt on the ground; people really care about the city here.
      He wakes up and sees that a cigarette butt has set the trash can on fire.
      A stock, also known as a shoulder stock, a buttstock, or simply a butt is a part of a rifle or other firearm, to which the barrel and firing mechanism are attached, that is held against one's shoulder when firing the gun.
      A water butt or rain barrel is a large barrel for collecting rain as it flows off a roof.
      If someone or something is the butt of jokes or criticism, people often make fun of them or criticize them.
      Ross is still the butt of cruel jokes about his lesbian wife.
      He butted his head against the wooden table.
      As Obama and Romney butted heads on the screen, members of the audience expressed their views about the candidates' stances on the issues.
      If you say that someone is butting in, you are criticizing the fact that they are joining in a conversation or activity without being asked to.
      Don't butt in like that when I'm speaking.
      They don't want outsiders butting in on (become involved in a private situation that does not concern you) their decision-making.
      "Butt out" is used to tell someone rudely that you do not want them to be involved in a conversation or situation.
      v[I] become very successful or very strong and healthy
      His business thrived after he married Ms. Bye Foo May.
      This type of plant thrives in cool conditions.
      These traditions continued to thrive.
      Many businesses thrived while William Jefferson Clinton was President of the United States.
      If you say that someone thrives on a particular situation, you mean that they enjoy it or that they can deal with it very well, especially when other people find it unpleasant or difficult.
      I wouldn't want that much pressure, but she seems to thrive on it.
      Some people seem to thrive on stress.