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      n[C] an offical count, esp one of a population
      The word is of Latin origin; during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service.
      A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population, sometimes as an intercensal estimate.
      The first census after the American Revolution was taken in 1790, under Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson; there have been 22 federal censuses since that time.
      Norfolk County Council is conducting its traffic census throughout November and a spokesman admitted there had been complaints about the exercise being carried out at busy times.
      A national census is taken every ten years.
      Compare census and consensus.
      v[T] make sb feel less confident/hopeful, demoralize, dishearten ¶ try to stop, prevent
      If it isn't well received, don't be discouraged.
      You should not let one failure discourage you.
      I know you're discouraged, but there is going to be a better way and things will work out.
      The bad weather didn't discourage people from coming to Phoebe and Mike's wedding.
      And that time women were discouraged from speaking in public to groups of men and women.
      Smokers should pay enough to discourage smoking; gas should be taxed enough to discourage driving.
      n[C] underground railway system, subway
      A metro system is a rapid transit train system. In some cases, metro systems are referred to as subways or undergrounds.
      As of 2010, there are approximately 160 metro systems in the world.
      The first metro system, the London Underground, was opened in 1863.
      In most of Britain, a subway is a pedestrian underpass; the terms Underground and Tube are used for the London Underground, and the Tyne and Wear Metro, mostly overground, is known as the Metro.
      Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems.
      The Moscow Metro is one of the busiest metro systems in the world and is the busiest in Europe.
      Most run on conventional steel railway tracks, although some use rubber tires, such as the Montreal Metro and Mexico City Metro and some lines in the Paris Métro.
      n[CU] great intelligence, ability, or skill ¶ sb who is much more intelligent/skillful than other people
      It wasn't until 1912 that a second stroke of genius (a very clear idea) fueled the product's popularity.
      In a flash of pure genius, I realized the answer to the problem.
      I believe that the game is a complete work of genius.
      Monica is a genius at designing food that is both healthy and delicious.
      That woman has a genius for organization.
      You don't have to be a genius to see that it's not going to work.
      Ramanujan was said to be a natural genius by the English mathematician G. H. Hardy, in the same league as mathematicians such as Euler and Gauss.
      Well, I mean, Howard's never gonna go to space again, but Sheldon will always be a genius.
      n[U] quality/state of being popular
      J. K. Rowling's books have grown in popularity recently.
      She enjoys huge popularity with the readers.
      The movie doesn't deserve its popularity.
      The popularity of instant messaging (IM) has soared.
      The president's popularity has declined considerably.
      At the peak of its popularity in the late nineties, the band sold ten million albums a year.
      adj poisonous and harmful to people, animals, or the environment
      Aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.
      The name dioxin refers to a group of highly toxic chemicals that have been linked to heart disease, liver disease, human reproductive disorders, and developmental problems.
      Pennsylvania has many of those huge storage pits for the toxic waste that is a byproduct of the process.
      Apparently if you heat a Teflon pan too hot it will emit enough toxic gas to kill any bird who happens to be unfortunate enough to be in the same room.
      Energy doesn't have to be dirty or toxic.
      Some acid dyes are toxic whereas others are nontoxic.
      n[C] a large mass of land surrounded by sea
      Continents are generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, with up to seven regions commonly regarded as continents.
      These are from largest in size to smallest: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.
      Dinosaurs evolved when most continents were joined in a single land mass.
      People sometimes use 'the Continent' to refer to the continent of Europe except for Britain.
      'Continental breakfast' is light breakfast typically consisting only of coffee and rolls with jam.
      Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
      n[U] very great sadness
      His parents were stricken with grief.
      They were overcome with grief.
      The grief they felt over his death was unbearable.
      If something comes to grief, it fails. If someone comes to grief, they fail in something they are doing, and may be hurt.
      I've seen friendships come to grief and some of the most awful bigotry displayed.
      Very often he has taken risks with finance. Sometimes he has come to grief, but has had enough to fall back on.
      Some peoples say 'Good grief' when they are surprised or shocked.
      Good grief, not those "31,000 scientists, 9,000 with Ph.D.s deny global warming" gag again.
      v[T] {formal} use
      Not knowing how to properly collect, maintain and utilize the information can be devastating.
      Hopefully Twitter app devs and other instant messaging clients will utilize the API in a similar manner.
      Many hospitals will utilize these new technologies as a way to differentiate themselves from the other hospitals in the region and that hopefully drive business their way.
      To what extent has Iran attempted to utilize Islam in an effort to expand its influence?
      Minerals can be absorbed and utilised by the body in a variety of different forms.
      The Aspire 5670 will utilize ATI's Mobility Radeon X1600 GPU and Avivo high-def acceleration.
      SSDs utilize flash memory for data storage rather than the spinning platters found in conventional hard disk drives.
      v[IT] {formal} fully understand
      I didn't fully comprehend this until I had my first baby.
      You really have to be here to fully comprehend.
      Laura gasped, hardly able to comprehend that she didn't call Joey.
      She failed to comprehend the seriousness of the situation.
      The infinite distances of space are too great for the human mind to comprehend.
      Foreign visitors struggle to comprehend the complexities of British hierarchy.
      Compare apprehend, comprehend, and reprehend.
      n[UC] attitude/opinion, usu influenced by emotion ¶ gentle feelings such as sympathy, love, etc
      The next day the polls showed a substantial shift in public sentiment against him.
      You see, Arab popular sentiment is anti Israeli.
      Thank you, but your sentiments may be premature.
      "I don't see why we should change our plans just because of her." "My sentiments exactly (I agree)."
      Oh, don't get me wrong, I appreciate the sentiment. It's just that I have a pretty sensitive tushy.
      That's a fairly labored metaphor, but I appreciate the sentiment behind it.
      Don't say that I have no sentiment! This is a movie stub from our first date! This is an eggshell from the first time you made me breakfast in bed! This is from the museum the first time we were together. Ok, maybe I exchange gifts sometimes, but I keep the things that matter!
      There's no room for sentiment in business.
      Bonne douche. It's French for "good shower." It's a sentiment I can express in six languages.
      n[U] great size, importance, or effect
      n[C] the degree of brightness of a star ¶ the force of an earthquake
      Coughlin clearly recognizes the magnitude of the situation, too.
      The clients didn't seem to appreciate the magnitude of the problem.
      They hadn't grasped the magnitude of the task we were facing.
      The apparent magnitude of a celestial body is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere.
      Stars of the first magnitude are visible to the naked eye.
      The Richter magnitude scale (often shortened to Richter scale) was developed to assign a single number to quantify the energy that is released during an earthquake. The scale is a base-10 logarithmic scale.
      No one could have predicted beforehand the magnitude of the earthquake which was to occur in San Francisco.
      n[C] a law that has been formally approved and written down ¶ a formal rule of an institution/organization
      A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a state, city, or country.
      Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. The word is often used to distinguish law made by legislative bodies from case law, decided by courts, and regulations issued by government agencies.
      As a source of law, statutes are considered primary authority (as opposed to secondary authority).
      Ideally all statutes must be in harmony with the fundamental law of the land (constitutional).
      Unless specifically provided by statute, no person would have an entitlement to have the Government of the US communicate or provide materials in any language other than English.
      In England at the end of 1948, the Statute Book printed by authority consisted of the twenty-four volumes of The Statutes: Second Revised Edition and the thirty-three volumes of Public General Acts published annually since 1920, making in all fifty-seven volumes.
      The following powers and duties of the UCL Council are laid down by Statute (established by law) (Statute 6)...
      Under the statutes of the university, they had the right to fire Ross.
      A statue is a large sculpture of a person or an animal, made of stone or metal.
      v[I] take a long time to leave/disappear
      A more detailed analysis shows that the eyes linger longer on the paper version (275 ms on paper versus 231 ms on the iPad).
      Many students lingered for a while after class.
      And in case I didn't hear it, as her hand lingered on my shoulder, she said it again, "God bless you."
      The scent of her lavender perfume lingered on in the bedroom.
      The very nice, balanced acidity helps this wine to linger quietly on your palate for quite some time.
      Monica and Richard kissed, lingered over it some moments.
      They lingered over a sensational meal for what seemed like hours.
      She said she would never see him again, but doubts still linger about her honesty.
      His face lingered in her memory.
      I spent a month at Li Jiang and could happily have lingered on.
      She surprised all the doctors by lingering on (continue to live) for several years.
      n[U] a feeling of great anger and shock
      n[C] an event/action that produces the feeling
      v[T] make sb very angry and shocked
      These murders have provoked outrage across the country.
      There is widespread public outrage over the massacre.
      The question now is whether public outrage at the Libor scandal and other financial misdeeds will lead to fundamental reforms of the financial sector.
      She was trembling with outrage.
      No one has yet claimed responsibility for this latest bomb outrage.
      After all, it's a moral outrage that some people have to use the bus while cars remain parked and unused.
      We are outraged by the denial of the request, which comes not only from us but from so many people around the world.
      Compare outrage and outrageous.
      n[UC] the state of being unable to pay your debts
      n[U] a complete lack of good qualities
      Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay the debts it owes to creditors. In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order, often initiated by the debtor.
      Bankruptcy is not the only legal status that an insolvent person or other entity may have, and the term bankruptcy is therefore not a synonym for insolvency.
      In some countries, including the United Kingdom, bankruptcy is limited to individuals, and other forms of insolvency proceedings (such as liquidation and administration) are applied to companies.
      In the United States, bankruptcy is applied more broadly to formal insolvency proceedings.
      In a law firm bankruptcy, partners are last in line; the firm's banks and creditors would be first to be repaid.
      Before filing for bankruptcy in July 2009, GM had 91,000 employees in the United States.
      I routinely file bankruptcies for young debtors to discharge credit cards so they can focus on paying off the student loans.
      Dr. Woolhandler, who has also conducted extensive research on medical-related bankruptcies, cautioned that expanding coverage would not be meaningful if the coverage is not generous enough.
      The massacre laid bare the moral bankruptcy of the regime.
      v[T] find and bring back sth
      Ross has retrieved his keyboard and is about to debut "The Sound."
      Rachel goes over and retrieves her note.
      Ross retrieves his jacket and sees that not only has Emily arrived, but also she has seen Rachel take her place on the plane.
      The number of records retrieved is shown at the top of the list.
      To retrieve a situation is to make a situation satisfactory again after there has been a serious mistake or problem.
      Rachel is shocked as Monica tries to retrieve what she just said.
      UN officials are trying desperately to retrieve the situation.
      Information retrieval is the activity of obtaining information resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources. Web search engines are the most visible IR applications.
      n[U] petrol
      Gasoline or petrol is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines.
      In North America, the term gasoline is often shortened in colloquial usage to gas.
      Elsewhere petrol is the common name in the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, India, Australia and in most of the other Commonwealth countries.
      Spark ignition engines are designed to burn gasoline in a controlled process called deflagration.
      In Finland, Sweden, and Norway, 95 RON (Research octane number) is the standard for regular unleaded gasoline and 98 RON is also available as a more expensive option.
      In the US, octane ratings in unleaded fuels can vary between 86 and 87 AKI (91-92 RON) for regular, through 89-90 AKI (94-95 RON) for mid-grade (European premium), up to 90-94 AKI (95-99 RON) for premium (European super).
      n[C] the baby of a wild animal such as a lion, wolf, or bear
      The lioness carries her cub to a safe place.
      The curiosity of one bear cub ended up almost killing its mom.
      A Cub Scout is a member of the section of the worldwide Scouting movement for young persons, mainly boys aged about 7 to 11.
      A den mother is a woman who supervises a den of Cub Scouts.
      A cub player is a member of certain sports teams.
      A cub is a novice or learner, particularly in newspaper reporting.
      adj in or from the hottest parts of the world ¶ weather that is ~ is very hot and wet
      Guava is a tropical fruit.
      Vanilla is a substance made from the seeds of a tropical plant, which is used to give flavor to sweet foods.
      Tequila is a strong alcoholic drink made in Mexico from a tropical plant.
      One third of the remaining tropical forest has been degraded by selective logging.
      "Hi, welcome to our tropical Christmas party. You can put your coats and sweaters and pants and shirts in the bedroom," said Rachel.
      The tropics is a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. It is limited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere.
      n[U] the process of trying to achieve sth ¶ when sb chases/follows sb/sth
      n[C] an activity that you enjoy
      He is engaged in the ruthless pursuit of wealth.
      Ross leaps out of his chair and runs out of the door, with Chandler in hot pursuit.
      Ross starts to scream and run away. He stops in front of the window of Central Perk to check the pursuit and notices Phoebe and Rachel inside looking at him.
      Ben runs upstairs with Ross in pursuit.
      We met in an outdoor pursuits center where we had access to a climbing wall.
      Shopping was becoming more of a leisure pursuit.
      n[UC] sweet food eaten at the end of a meal
      Joey's not a friend. He's a stupid man who left us his credit card. Another drink? Some dessert? A big screen TV?
      "So, would you like any dessert?" "No! No dessert, just the check, please."
      Well, I was thinking maybe a romantic dinner with candles and wine and then going back to my place for dessert.
      Monica said I could make dessert this year!
      Beef in a dessert? There is no way!
      I think we have to tell Rachel she messed up her dessert.
      In the United Kingdom and most Commonwealth countries, pudding can be used to describe both sweet and savory dishes. However, unless qualified, the term in everyday usage typically denotes a dessert; in the UK, "pudding" is used as synonym for a dessert course.
      In the United States and Canada, pudding characteristically denotes a sweet milk-based dessert similar in consistency to egg-based custards, instant custards or a mousse.
      v[I] (volcano) suddenly throw out smoke, fire, rock and lava ¶ break out ¶ (spots etc) suddenly appear on the skin
      The volcano erupted thousands of years ago, killed but perfectly preserved an entire civilization.
      Mount Vesuvius in Italy erupted in 79 AD. The eruption buried the town of Pompeii in piles of ash preserving the history of the town.
      As everyone crouches, a ripping noise erupts from the assemblage.
      Both Phoebe and Monica erupt in celebration.
      Phoebe throws something onto the smoldering fire. Suddenly the bucket erupts in flames.
      The eruption of civil war can readily invite external intervention.
      A rash has erupted all over Phoebe and Ryan's back.
      At the end of the week, their backs erupted in small red spots.
      n[UC] a public sale where goods are sold to the person who offers the highest price
      v[T] sell sth at an ~
      Bidding on eBay's auction-style listing is called proxy bidding and is essentially equivalent to a Vickrey auction, with some exceptions.
      eBay allows sellers to donate a portion of their auction proceeds to a charity of the seller's choice.
      The Charity Event, they're holding a silent auction (held without an auctioneer. People place their bids on sheets of paper), Rachel is looking at one of the items.
      Mr. Thompson is announcing the winners of the silent auction.
      Their house was sold at auction.
      This week 4 of her paintings were put up for auction.
      The Army is auctioning off a lot of old equipment.
      v[I] move slowly/quietly, usu to avoid being noticed ¶ (plants) grow along the ground, up walls, etc
      n[C] an unpleasant person ¶ a kiss-ass
      Don't yell - let's creep up on them and scare them.
      We crept up the stairs, trying to avoid the ones that creaked.
      The traffic kept creeping forward a few inches and then stopping.
      Ivy is creeping up the walls of the building.
      The creeping Thistle is probably our most common thistle species. It grows almost anywhere on open grassland and roadsides with a preference for open ground.
      Fog was creeping into the valley.
      If something creeps in or creeps back, it begins to occur or becomes part of something without people realizing or without them wanting it.
      Suspicion began to creep into her mind.
      If a rate or number creeps up to a higher level, it gradually reaches that level.
      The sales figures keep creeping up.
      He was a real creep - he was always staring at me in the canteen.
      His glassy stare made my flesh creep (make one feel strong dislike/fear), like a caterpillar creeping down my arm.
      If someone or something gives you the creeps, they make you feel very nervous or frightened.
      Making coffee for the boss again? You creep!