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      v[IT] talk too proudly about your abilities, achievements, or possessions ¶ have sth good, often an attractive feature that other people admire
      n[C] sth that you like telling people because you are proud of it
      She's always boasting about her children's success at school.
      She boasted that her son was a genius.
      She's always boasting about how much money her husband has made.
      She's inclined to boast of her success.
      Their house boasted the latest money-consuming technology.
      This is no idle boast (false statement). The magnificent wooden structure is believed to have been built about 1819.
      "Boast" and "brag" are synonyms.
      If someone bloviate, they discourse (make a long formal speech) at length in a pompous or boastful manner.
      n[CU] emotional shock producing a lasting harmful effect ¶ injury
      There's no greater emotional trauma that can be experienced by a woman than an assault rape.
      A dear friend of mine, who is also healing from childhood trauma, has recently opened her blog for public viewing.
      The 17-year-old male was transported to hospital and pronounced dead there, police said, while the second teen struck was taken to a Toronto hospital trauma unit with serious injuries.
      The patient suffered severe brain trauma.
      I refuse to let Leonard experience the same childhood trauma I did.
      I'm a big boy. I'm not traumatized by some random comment from some random woman.
      A tumor is a mass of diseased cells which might become a lump or cause illness.
      Turmoil is a state of excitement or uncontrolled activity.
      n[C] a large group of musicians playing many different instruments and are led by a conductor
      An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.
      A smaller-sized orchestra for the 20th century (of about fifty musicians or fewer) is called a chamber orchestra.
      A full-size orchestra (about 100 musicians) may sometimes be called a "symphony orchestra" or "philharmonic orchestra".
      The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO), founded in 1904, is the oldest of London's symphony orchestras.
      A podium is a small platform that a person stands on when giving a speech or conducting an orchestra etc.
      n[CU] a message believed to have come from God ¶ a surprising piece of information ¶ sth that is surprisingly good, enjoyable, or useful ¶ making known sth that was secret/hidden
      The Book of Revelation, often known simply as Revelation or the Apocalypse, is the final book of the New Testament.
      Then came the startling revelation that Microsoft may also adopt an open source browser engine.
      Joey's acting ability was a revelation to us all.
      It was the second national-security revelation to come to light in the two days after President Barack Obama won re-election.
      Deep Throat is the pseudonym given to the secret informant who provided information to Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of The Washington Post in 1972 about the involvement of United States President Richard Nixon's administration in what came to be known as the Watergate scandal.
      Thirty-one years after Nixon's resignation and eleven years after Nixon's death, Deep Throat was revealed to be former Federal Bureau of Investigation Associate Director Mark Felt.
      Prior to Felt's revelation that "I was the guy they called Deep Throat" and Woodward's confirmation, part of the reason historians and other scholars had so much difficulty in identifying the real Deep Throat is because no single person seemed to truly fit the character described in All the President's Men.
      n[C] a serious promise
      v[IT] make a ~
      "Have you written your vows yet?" "I'd like to buy a vow.' 'Sweetie, you know I have no sense of humor when it comes to the wedding."
      Chandler is getting help writing his vows from Joey and Ross.
      I'm supposed to be writing my vows and all I have is this!
      Are we allowed to lie in the vows?
      So we both finished our vows.
      "You vowed that you would never smoke again!" "You vowed you would lose weight!" "Call it even?"
      n[C] sb who has never had sex ¶ sb who has never done a particular activity before
      adj in a natural/original state
      According to the Bible, Mary (18 BC - 41 AD), also known as Saint Mary or Virgin Mary, was a Jewish woman of Nazareth in Galilee.
      Of course I have! What do you think; I'm some 30 year old virgin?
      "Ok, you caught me, I'm a laundry virgin," said Rachel.
      In North America, Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known, and top-quality extra-virgin oils from Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece are sold at high prices, often in "prestige" packaging.
      The route will be through virgin territory.
      Unlike the national parks of North America, the 15 National Parks in the UK are not large, virgin wilderness areas owned by public bodies.
      Virgin Group Ltd. is a British multinational branded venture capital conglomerate founded by entrepreneur Richard Branson.
      n[C] charge for passing across a bridge or along a road, or a service
      n[U] suffering, deaths or damage ¶ the sound of a bell ringing with slow regular strokes
      v[IT] ring slowly and repeatedly, or make a bell etc do this
      A tollhouse or toll house is a building with accommodation for a toll collector, beside a tollgate on a toll road or canal.
      A toll-free, Freecall, Freephone, 800, 0800 or 1-800 number is identified by a service access code, from a dialing prefix range similar to a geographic area code, such as "800".
      "Neselé Toulouse." "Nestlé Toll House?" "Agh, you Americans always butcher the French language."
      Buildings collapsing can cause high death tolls.
      Haiti's government has estimated the death toll at 230,000 and says more bodies remain uncounted.
      If you say that something takes its toll or takes a heavy toll, you mean that it has a bad effect or causes a lot of suffering.
      A funeral toll is the slow ringing of the church bell. It's also called a knell.
      For Whom the Bell Tolls is a novel by Ernest Hemingway published in 1940. It tells the story of Robert Jordan, a young American in the International Brigades attached to a republican guerrilla unit during the Spanish Civil War.
      n[C] the people from whom one is descended ¶ an earlier form from which sth modern has developed
      We actually evolved from a common ancestor to apes, not monkeys.
      That's the way we inherited it from our common ancestor.
      James's ancestor, Robert II, had become King of Scots in 1371.
      The only method used in Canada and by its ancestor English and French governments for capital punishment was hanging.
      Babbage's invention was the ancestor of the modern computer.
      My family is the history of heart disease. There's a cave painting in France of one of my ancestors doing this (clutches his chest).
      n[CU] sth that is done in order to complete sth else, or to be certain that an earlier action was effective ¶ a book, film, article etc that comes after another one that has the same subject or characters
      NIAID is sponsoring a follow-up study with larger numbers of infants in Buenos Aires.
      Brian Schmidt would do the follow-up work on any supernovae that might be found.
      A follow-up question is a question that you ask immediately after another question.
      I'll try to answer follow-up questions, time permitting.
      The Heart of Change is the follow-up to John Kotter's enormously popular book Leading Change.
      After the diagnosis and follow-up treatment, Amanda's perspective on life changed radically.
      Sheldon goes to the bathroom at eight a.m. with optional follow-ups at one forty-five and seven ten high-fibre Fridays.
      adj not supporting/helping either side in a argument, contest, war etc ¶ without strong feeling ¶ (of colors) not strong ¶ without electric charge ¶ neither acid nor alkaline/base
      n[U] the position of the gears of a car when no power is being sent from the engine to the wheels
      Switzerland has historically maintained a neutral status since 1815.
      The modern day Turkish Army is one of the few notable armies that stayed neutral during World War II.
      Neutral territory is territory belonging to no particular sovereign state.
      Being direct and disapproving is key, don't try to be neutral or polite when you tell him that his behavior is unacceptable.
      Neutral color is a description sometimes used to characterize the color gray.
      Cooler colors in the blue family and neutral tones will downplay everything you don't want showing up in these snapshots.
      Neutral wire is a conductor that provides a low impedance (resistance of an electric circuit to the flow of alternating current) path to earth.
      Mounted photos can also be stored in archival plastic sleeves, or neutral pH paper.
      Neutral (usually abbreviated "N") is the state where no gears are selected for a motor vehicle's transmission.
      If the accelerator becomes stuck, hook your toe under it to free it. If it does not become free, shift your vehicle into neutral and brake gently to slow down.
      n[C] a mass of diseased cells which might become a lump or cause illness
      Neoplasm (from Ancient Greek "new" and "formation, creation"), tumor or tumour is an abnormal mass of tissue as a result of abnormal growth or division of cells.
      In modern medicine, the term tumor means a neoplasm that has formed a lump.
      In the past, the term tumor was used differently to refer to a lump of any cause.
      Tumors may be benign, pre-malignant or malignant (cancer).
      But due to the size of the tumor or perhaps the regular shape of the tumor typically our traditional CyberKnife treatment simply would have taken too long.
      Calling it a developmental disorder is like calling a brain tumor a headache.
      v[IT] make water pass through a toilet
      v[T] clean sth by pouring a lot of water over/through it, rinse
      v[I] turn red in the face
      also a noun and an adjective
      Chandler emerges, without flushing by the way.
      Please flush the toilet after you've used it.
      The toilet won't flush!
      There is the sound of a flushing toilet and Coma Guy emerges from the bathroom.
      He was found trying to flush cocaine down the toilet.
      When eating food that is high in salt like processed foods, potatoes chips, pretzels and canned foods all we have to do is drink a lot of water to flush a lot of the salt out of your system.
      Rachel flushed crimson with embarrassment.
      There was a slight flush on her cheeks.
      A flush of embarrassment rose to her cheeks.
      A hot flush is a sudden hot feeling in the skin which women often experience at the time of their menopause.
      A flush of something is a large number of things that happen or arrive at the same time.
      If you flush people or animals out of a place where they are hiding, you find or capture them by forcing them to come out of that place.
      The terrorists were flushed from their hiding places and shot.
      If one object or surface is flush with another, they are at the same height or distance from something else, so that they form a single smooth surface.
      The light fittings should be flush with the ceiling.
      I want the door to be flush with the wall.
      I got a flush (a poker hand such as Q♣ 10♣ 7♣ 6♣ 4♣).
      A straight flush is a hand that contains five cards in sequence, all of the same suit, such as Q♣ J♣ 10♣ 9♣ 8♣ (a hand that meets the requirements of both a straight and a flush).
      "Relax, Ross, relax. You're looking a little flushed," said Chandler.
      Chandler turns to look at Monica, who has the biggest hair ever, is flushed and in a sweat, and is decidedly sniffing her armpits.
      n[C] the line of hair above an eye
      To raise your eyebrows is to make your eyebrows go higher to show surprise or disapproval.
      Ross raises one of his eyebrows as if he was intrigued.
      The teacher smiles, but her eyebrows go up.
      You ever realize Captain Crunch's eyebrows are actually on his hat?
      When someone frowns, their eyebrows become drawn together, because they are annoyed, worried, or puzzled, or because they are concentrating.
      He is approximately 183cm (6') tall with brown eyes, bushy eyebrows, and a skinny build.
      v[T] open/spread out ¶ gradually make sth known
      v[I] become spread/open out ¶ be gradually made known
      Rachel hands Phoebe the napkin in her left hand and they both unfold and read them.
      Phoebe unfolded her plans to Joey.
      Spring flowers unfolded everywhere.
      Suddenly the magnificent landscape unfolded before me.
      As the story unfolds, we learn more about Monica's childhood.
      Chandler watched the one-woman play called "Why don't you like me: a bitter woman's journey through life" unfold.
      adj,adv done by sb alone
      n[C] a piece of music, dance etc that is performed by one person
      v[I] perform a ~
      She was the first black man to fly solo across the Atlantic. Oh, wait a minute, I read the wrong one.
      A solo album, in popular music, is an album headlined by a current or former member of a band.
      A solo album may feature simply one person performing all instruments, but typically features the work of other collaborators; rather, it may be made with different collaborators than the artist is usually associated, though just how different that group is varies widely.
      He has relocated to Nevada to work on his next solo album.
      He soloed brilliantly on the album.
      I quit the company, determined to go solo (work for myself).
      He grew up in the UK and he's very famous with piano solo pieces in Korea.
      I love to sing solo or in groups.
      The trainee pilot flew his first solo today.
      n[U] the state/quality of being loyal
      n[pl] a feeling of support for sb/sth
      Loyalty is the quality of staying firm in your friendship or support for someone or something.
      Loyalties are feelings of friendship, support, or duty towards someone or something.
      Speculators and Oil companies will always go for the best price, they have no loyalty to the USA.
      Loyalty programs are structured marketing efforts that reward, and therefore encourage, loyal buying behavior – behavior which is potentially beneficial to the firm.
      In marketing generally and in retailing more specifically, a loyalty card, rewards card, points card, advantage card, or club card is a plastic or paper card, visually similar to a credit card, debit card, or digital card that identifies the card holder as a member in a loyalty program.
      Loyalty cards are a system of the loyalty business model.
      In the United Kingdom it is typically called a loyalty card, in Canada a rewards card or a points card, and in the United States either a discount card, a club card or a rewards card.
      Can mass advertising create brand loyalty for a product?
      n[C] a very large piece of land sticking out into the sea ¶ a short cloak
      Cape Horn is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile.
      In 1978, Naomi James became the first woman to sail solo around the world via Cape Horn.
      The Cape of Good Hope is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
      I feel like Superman without my powers. I have the cape, and yet I cannot fly.
      Joey's wearing an apron like a cape.
      Cloaks are often more simple in appearance than capes, and are often tailored to fit the body.
      n[U] a light silver colored metal that is used to make cans, aircraft parts etc
      Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
      Aluminum is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth's solid surface.
      The chief ore of aluminum is bauxite.
      Aluminum foil is aluminum prepared in thin metal leaves with a thickness less than 0.2 millimeters.
      The common 12-ounce-size aluminum can weighs 15 grams when empty.
      v[T] take sb's attention away
      Ross tried to distract Marcel with a banana.
      Nina escapes, fortunately so distracting Mr. Douglas, that he misses Chandler's expression of guilt.
      Monica becomes distracted by Marcel as he clambers all over her nice furniture.
      Gunther distracts Rachel from catching Monica and Monica slams into her, knocking her down. Monica then falls on top of her.
      "Well, next time you massage him, you should try to distract yourself," said Monica.
      Were you distracted by the possibility that Koothrappali might have intercourse with Penny tonight?
      Attention span is the amount of concentrated time on a task without becoming distracted.
      n[C] narrow passage, esp between/behind buildings
      Park Row, later called Crime Alley, was a historical landmark in Gotham City.
      Bruce visited Crime Alley and placed flowers on the ground where his parents were shot.
      Today's bowling alley is often a family center where people of all ages gather. It may offer a dining area, a video arcade and some pool tables as well as bowling lanes.
      The Bowling Alley Cat is a 1942 one-reel animated cartoon and is the 7th Tom and Jerry short.
      The camera pans through a bowling alley and stops at a bowling ball labeled "No. 8", which a smiling Jerry pops out of and then rappels down to the floor.
      Tom chases Jerry onto the bowling lane, but he slips when he hits the alley.
      "Be right up/down someone's alley" means "be exactly the type of thing that someone knows about or likes to do".
      Happily, Prof. Aoi found a job that was right up her alley.
      If you describe a situation as a blind alley or dead end, you mean that progress is not possible or that the situation can have no useful results.
      adj hopeful about the future ¶ thinking that things will be better, easier, or more successful than is actually possible
      I wish that I could be more optimistic, but the truth is that there is no hope on the horizon.
      Don't be so negative, downbeat and pessimistic! Try to stay positive, upbeat, and optimistic.
      Engineers are cautiously optimistic that some building equipment can be repaired, rather than needing to be replacement, according to the latest update.
      Based on development levels over the last 10 years, an optimistic estimate of the number of homes which will actually be delivered each year is 21,000.
      Comics are feeble attempts at humor featuring talking babies and anthropomorphized pets, found traditionally in the optimistically named "funny pages."
      v[I] move by jumping on one foot, or by making quick short jumps ¶ move somewhere quickly/suddenly
      also a noun
      Rachel tried to hop on her good foot while holding onto Ross.
      Several frogs were hopping about on the lawn.
      Hop in - I'll drive you home.
      Last week I hopped a plane with my family and jetted off to northern California to enjoy a little wine, sunshine and together time.
      "Well, I wasn't hopping mad (very angry, furious), you know," said Phoebe.
      With my feet tied together I could only move in little hops.
      While it's a short hop (trip) for England over to Stockholm and an even shorter trip for Germany to Amsterdam, Spain are flying half-way around the world to play Panama.
      "To catch someone on the hop" is "to do something when someone is not expecting it and is not ready".
      Western governments have been caught on the hop because explosions of social and economic frustration have been long predicted but have never happened.
      Hops are the female flowers of the hop plant, Humulus lupulus.
      They are used primarily as a flavoring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart a bitter, tangy flavor, though hops are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine.
      adj safe from a disease, because you cannot be infected by it ¶ not influenced/affected by sth ¶ protected/exempt from sth
      The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
      The immune system protects organisms from infection with layered defenses of increasing specificity.
      In simple terms, physical barriers prevent pathogens such as bacteria and viruses from entering the organism. If a pathogen breaches these barriers, the innate immune system provides an immediate, but non-specific response.
      If pathogens successfully evade the innate response, vertebrates possess a second layer of protection, the adaptive immune system, which is activated by the innate response. Here, the immune system adapts its response during an infection to improve its recognition of the pathogen.
      Acquired immune deficiency syndrome is the same as AIDS.
      I'm immune to smallpox as a result of vaccination.
      Her parents had criticized her so often that in the end she had become immune to it.
      Diplomats are immune from prosecution.
      n[C] a hard hat that sb wear to protect the head
      Joey is wearing a football helmet, and Chandler is spinning him around in one of the chairs and counting.
      Ground control to Major Tom. Commencing countdown, engines on. Take your protein pills and put your helmet on!
      Chandler's hotel room, he's sitting there with Joey who's talking about his helmet and running his hand through that feathery thing at the top.
      "Let me straighten out your helmet there," said Chandler.
      A combat helmet or battle helmet is a type of personal armor designed specifically to protect the head during combat.
      The Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) is the United States Army's current combat helmet. The ACH uses ballistic fiber such as Kevlar and Twaron.
      "You have a two-cylinder scooter with a basket in the front." "You still have to wear a helmet."
      Sheldon came out of his room this morning wearing his Darth Vader helmet and tried to choke Leonard to death with the force.
      n[U] the number of people who die ¶ the condition of being human and having to die
      n[CU] death
      In infant mortality rates, the black rate is more than double the white rate in the USA. And black women have a maternal mortality rate that's about four times that of white women.
      The United States ranks 41st in maternal mortality among nations.
      Most studies show an increase in mortality rates associated with obesity. Individuals who are obese have a significantly increased risk of death from all causes, compared with healthy weight individuals (BMI 18.5 to 24.9).
      Infant mortality was 14 deaths per thousand live births in 1996.
      Poor hygiene led to high mortality among children.
      His uncle's death forced Kim Fat III to face the fact of his own mortality.
      As mentioned above, light oils tend to be more toxic than heavier oils, which can lead to mortalities of marine plants and animals if there are sufficiently high concentrations in the water column.
      Compare these words: casualty, fatality, morality, and mortality.
      You talk about mortality as a statistic.
      Casualty is a word often use in combat or accident situations to refer to people who have been killed or injured.
      Fatality refers specifically to a death.