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      n[C] a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease ¶ any set of opinions, events, actions etc that are characteristic of a particular condition
      A syndrome, in medicine and psychology, is the collection of signs and symptoms that are observed in, and characteristic of, a single condition.
      Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
      Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is the common name for a group of significantly debilitating medical conditions characterized by persistent fatigue and other specific symptoms that lasts for a minimum of six months in adults (and 3 months in children or adolescents).
      Economy class syndrome (ECS) occurs on long flight, due to traveler's inactivity, gravity, and cramped seating, which slows down the blood flow through veins.
      Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a collection of emotional symptoms, with or without physical symptoms, related to a woman's menstrual cycle.
      Stockholm syndrome, or capture-bonding, is a psychological phenomenon in which hostages express empathy and sympathy and have positive feelings toward their captors, sometimes to the point of defending and identifying with them.
      Empty nest syndrome is a feeling of grief and loneliness parents or guardians may feel when their children leave home for the first time, such as to live on their own or to attend a college or university.
      Unemployment, inflation, and low wages are all part of the same economic syndrome.
      v[T] make an official examination of the accounts ¶ attend a course at university without intending to take examinations in it or get a credit for it
      also a noun
      Historically, the word 'auditing' has been derived from Latin word "audire" which means "to hear".
      Phoebe and Rachel are allowed to audit university classes.
      Auditing is a vital part of accounting. Traditionally, audits were mainly associated with gaining information about financial systems and the financial records of a company or a business.
      Audits by the IRS (Internal Revenue Service) of his tax records did not result in findings of wrongdoing.
      A first group consists of federal government employees in finance, internal audit, human resources, and information technology that have been granted departmental full time educational leave.
      Carrying out an annual audit can also be seen as helping keep staff on their toes and act as a deterrent against frauds that may be perpetrated against the business.
      adj calm and relaxed
      When Guan Yu drank to his host, Lu Su dared not raise his eyes, but Guan Yu was perfectly composed.
      He was pale but perfectly composed.
      He appeared very composed despite the stress he was under.
      The "green salad" or "garden salad" is most often composed of leafy vegetables such as lettuce varieties, spinach, or rocket (arugula).
      The salad leaves may be cut or torn into bite-sized fragments and tossed together (called a tossed salad), or may be placed in a predetermined arrangement (a composed salad).
      Every Apollo photograph appears to be perfectly composed, focused and exposed, despite the fact the astronauts used cameras without viewfinders and light meters.
      n[C] an animal, esp a large, dangerous one ¶ used for describing sth with a particular quality
      A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. Such animals are sometimes called draft animals or beasts of burden.
      "What's a 'niffle'?" "You usually find them on the 'heaving beasts'." (nipple, heaving breasts)
      While the Microsoft of today is a different beast from the peak of their awfulness, they're still a dictatorial monster of a company that issues edicts from a comfortable position of power over the market.
      The beast in someone is the part of someone's character that makes them experience hatred, strong sexual feelings, violence etc.
      The beast in Captain Haddock roared.
      Whiskey brings out the beast in him.
      When he's drunk he's a beast.
      n[C] a fixed idea about what sb/sth is like, esp one that is unfair/untrue
      also a verb
      He wanted to point out the racial stereotype that all Asian men have small penises, so he stood behind a curtain and said, "You can all come and have a look - but you have to line up and look one at a time."
      Male victims are also reluctant to report female offenders because of a sexual stereotype that suggests that males should consider themselves lucky to be sexually initiated by older women.
      Because it may fall into the cultural stereotype of boys and men as oppressors and sexual deviants, depending on its usages, caution should be taken to explore all facets of boyhood and manhood, including the positive.
      I know unemployment centers are sometimes stereotyped as places where bums hang out, not places for university grads, but it's simply not true.
      The lonely old lady is probably the most obvious stereotype.
      We all know how industrious the stereotype government worker is.
      n[C] a large fish with a triangular fin on its back ¶ sb who gets money by cheating people
      Modern sharks are the sister group to the rays.
      Sharks range in size from the small dwarf lanternshark, a deep sea species of only 17 centimeters in length, to the whale shark, the largest fish in the world, which reaches approximately 12 meters.
      Sharks are found in all seas and are common to depths of 2,000 meters.
      Sharks generally do not live in freshwater although there are a few known exceptions, such as the bull shark and the river shark, which can survive in both seawater and freshwater.
      Shark Tale is a 2004 American computer-animated comedy film produced by DreamWorks Animation. A family of criminally-inclined Great White Sharks has a problem with one of their sons, Lenny, who is a vegetarian.
      Jaws is a 1975 American thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on Peter Benchley's novel of the same name. In the story, a giant man-eating great white shark attacks beachgoers on Amity Island, a fictional summer resort town.
      A loan shark is a person or body that offers loans at extremely high interest rates.
      In the recent western world, loan sharks have been a feature of the criminal underworld.
      v[T] control/handle sth with skill ¶ influence sb or control sth in a clever/dishonest way
      You can integrate text with graphics and manipulate graphic images.
      If someone manipulates your bones or muscles, they skillfully move and press them with their hands in order to push the bones into their correct position or make the muscles less stiff.
      If you say that someone manipulates people, you disapprove of them because they skillfully force or persuade people to do what they want.
      Throughout her career she has very successfully manipulated the media.
      Rachel thought Julie was a manipulative bitch.
      "I suppose that Monica will have the manipulative shrew," said Chandler.
      Compare massage, manipulate, and maneuver.
      n[C] a small group of trees
      A grove is a small group of trees with minimal or no undergrowth, or a small orchard planted for the cultivation of fruits or nuts.
      The olive grove is still harvested, delivering 125 liters of oil this past year.
      On the hill just above was an old cottage and orange grove.
      Grove is a town in Allegany County, New York, United States.
      In the fictionalized town of Apple Grove, it's Mrs. Winter, Miss Philo and Honey B. Harrington who are the glue that keep the town together and in the know.
      A groove is a deep line cut into a surface.
      n[U] a field of science dedicated to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of the Earth
      n[s] the way in which people/things are arranged in an area
      Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography.
      Physical geography (or physiography) focuses on geography as an Earth science.
      Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society.
      Conventionally political geography adopts a three-scale structure for the purposes of analysis with the study of the state at the centre, above this is the study of international relations (or geopolitics), and below it is the study of localities.
      The origins of political geography lie in the origins of human geography itself and the early practitioners were concerned mainly with the military and political consequences of the relationships between physical geography, state territories, and state power.
      It's impossible to work out the geography of this city.
      v[IT] give part of your power/work to sb more junior
      v[T] choose sb to do a job for you or to represent you
      n[C] representative
      "A good manager knows when to delegate," said Chandler, "and I don't micro-manage," he added.
      He always delegates boring tasks to Nina, his assistant.
      If you are delegated to do something, you are given the duty of acting on someone else's behalf by making decisions, voting, or doing some particular work.
      The new manager was delegated to reorganize the department.
      Delegates have voted in favor of the motion.
      Proxy voting is a form of voting whereby some members of a decision-making body may delegate their voting power to other members of the same body to vote in their absence, and/or to select additional representatives.
      In delegated voting, the proxy is transitive and the transfer recursive. Put simply, the vote may be further delegated to the proxy's proxy, and so on.
      A delegate to Congress is a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives, who is elected from a U.S. territory or from Washington, D.C., to a two-year term.
      v[T] break, smash ¶ raid, arrest ¶ demote
      adj broken ¶ bankrupt
      n[C] a statue of the head and shoulders of sb ¶ woman's breasts
      Monica bust (past tense and past participle bust/busted) Paul's watch this morning.
      Phoebe and Joey busted the door down.
      Monica and Chandler were busted for possession of bombs at the airport.
      The sergeant was busted to private.
      My laptop is bust again.
      The company went bust after only a year in business.
      The White House has had a bust of Winston Churchill since the 1960's.
      "I couldn't find anything in the shop in my bust size," said Busty Lady.
      I bust my butt (try extremely hard to do something) getting to work every day on a bike riding 8 miles each way to my employment.
      The trip to Paris will probably bust our budget.
      A ball buster is a woman who challenges the virility (typically male quality) of a man.
      n[C] sb whose job is to repair vehicles and machines
      n[pl] the way sth works or is done
      That old woman was being scammed by her mechanic.
      In the time it's taken me to get back on my feet I have worked as a photographer, bicycle mechanic, sign installer, and even built furniture on call of an office once.
      You're a plumber, he's a car mechanic, I'm an electrician, she's a daughter of billionaire; we all have a bright future.
      The exact mechanics of how payment will be made will be decided later.
      Scientists such as Galileo, Kepler, and especially Newton, laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics. It is a branch of classical physics that deals with particles that are either at rest or are moving with velocities significantly less than the speed of light.
      Mechanics has its origins in Ancient Greece with the writings of Aristotle and Archimedes.
      adj relating to drawing ¶ explicit, vivid
      Graphic design is the art of communication, stylizing, and problem-solving through the use of type, space and image.
      Graphic designers use various methods to create and combine words, symbols, and images to create a visual representation of ideas and messages.
      A graphic designer may use a combination of typography, visual arts and page layout techniques to produce a final result.
      He kept telling us about his operation in the most graphic detail while we were eating lunch.
      These instructions are a pictographic representation of the least imaginative way to assemble these components. This, right here is why Sweden has no space program.
      A video card (also called a video adapter, display card, graphics card, graphics board, display adapter, graphics adapter or frame buffer and sometimes preceded by the word discrete or dedicated to emphasize the distinction between this implementation and integrated graphics) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor).
      v[IT] use sth, esp effectively ¶ organize/position soldiers, military equipment etc
      If you've deployed BitLocker on Windows 7 with no preboot authentication, you might want to check with your legal counsel to get their position on whether or not this meets internal and/or regulatory requirements to encrypt hard drives.
      The unit was deployed to France in July 1918 and worked out of a converted infantry barracks in Toul, roughly eight miles from the front lines. The hospital treated 17,438 casualties, though only 350 lives were lost.
      Forest firefighters carry around fire shelters, and if they get caught in a fire they take out the fire shelters, open it up and get in them. They call this "deploying" their fire shelters.
      The attack was so sudden that the deployed companies of the 10th had barely time to discharge their pieces once before the rebels were almost upon them.
      The Hunter, originally developed in the late 1980s, was deployed during the U.S. mission in Kosovo.
      n[C] sb who starts their own business, esp when this involves risks
      Entrepreneur is a loanword from French. It is defined as an individual who organizes or operates a business or businesses.
      Management skill and strong team building abilities are often perceived as essential leadership attributes for successful entrepreneurs.
      According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation.
      The behavior of the entrepreneur reflects a kind of person willing to put his or her career and financial security on the line and take risks in the name of an idea, spending much time as well as capital on an uncertain venture.
      British entrepreneur Karren Brady has an estimated net worth of £82 million.
      Due to an illness, Kate persuades Ana to take her place and interview 27-year-old Christian Grey, an incredibly successful and wealthy young entrepreneur in Seattle.
      Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin is an American computer scientist and internet entrepreneur who, together with Larry Page, co-founded Google, one of the most profitable Internet companies.
      William Henry "Bill" Gates III is an American business magnate, philanthropist, investor, computer programmer, and inventor.
      Warren Edward Buffett is an American business magnate, investor and philanthropist.
      adj foreign ¶ interestingly unusual/different, excitingly strange ¶ of or involving striptease
      "Marcel is an illegal exotic animal. I'm not allowed to have him in the city. If they find him, they'll take him away from me," said Ross.
      "Are you aware that possession of an illegal exotic animal is punishable by up to two years in prison and confiscation of the animal?" asked Luisa.
      "This way I'm just you know, the exotic, generous stranger. That's always fun to be," said Phoebe.
      So, Missy, have you ever met a man from the exotic subcontinent of India?
      You, my exotic young friend, are my star.
      "I really, really enjoyed it. Very exotic," said Phoebe.
      Mimi was an exotic dancer and heroin addict.
      So many exotic dancers are into drugs or are problem drinkers.
      adj ≠horizontal ¶ having a structure in which there are top, middle and bottom levels
      n[C] sth ~, as a line, surface, position etc
      The Otis Elevator Company is the world's largest manufacturer of vertical transportation systems, principally elevators and escalators.
      Production of the Mac is based upon a vertical integration model in that Apple facilitates all aspects of its hardware and creates its own operating system that is pre-installed on all Macs.
      "The scene is a struggle, it's a race. Also, what you did was horizontal. Don't be afraid to explore the vertical. And don't learn the words. Let the words learn you," said Leonard.
      Content is organized in verticals, along timelines and themes.
      In some verticals, like shopping search, other third party players may have significant market share, gained through offline distribution and branding (for example, yellow pages companies), or gained largely through arbitraging traffic streams from the major search engines.
      You can adjust them to almost-vertical and almost-horizontal angle.
      The first vertical format double-size stamp was issued.
      adj very small in amount/degree, or as small as possible
      However, this hypothesis is based on minimal evidence.
      Although symptoms are minimal, there are a few things you can do to see if you are infected.
      That means any increase would be minimal, perhaps as little as $10 per student, which barely begins to cover cost increases.
      Then, with a minimal amount of instruction, you can empower your clients to easily manage their own sites themselves.
      The game requires no reading and minimal counting skills, making it suitable for young children.
      Okay, I found the perfect solution. We get off the train at the next stop in Oxnard. We then take the 1:13 train back to Union Station. We take a cab back to the apartment, get my flash drive and then race to San Luis Obispo, we assume the lights are with us, minimal traffic, we'll meet the train.
      v[IT] talk in a quiet voice that is difficult to hear, often because you are complaining about sth
      As Mr. Waltham leaves he mutters to Jack: "I could kill you with my thumb, you know."
      "My God in heaven," muttered Leonard.
      "Shoot," I muttered as I peeled the scotch-tape off of my white wood door.
      "Oops," she muttered, crouching to pick it up without dropping anything else.
      Characters "murmur" 199 times, "mutter" 49 times, and "whisper" 195 times. Christian and Ana also "gasp" 46 times.
      Compare mutter and stutter.
      n[U] a feeling of very strong dislike/disapproval
      v[T] cause ~
      "The idea of eating veal fills me with disgust," said Phoebe.
      There are no words strong enough to express my disgust and horror.
      The thought of dissecting a frog disgusts me.
      I would be too disgusted to even be in the same room as him let alone marry this punk.
      Penny slamed the door in disgust.
      If you describe something as gross, you think it is very unpleasant.
      n[CU] a secret plan by a group of people to do sth bad/illegal ¶ the planning
      A conspiracy of silence, or culture of silence, describes the behavior of a group of people of some size, as large as an entire national group or profession or as small as a group of colleagues, that by unspoken consensus does not mention, discuss, or acknowledge a given subject.
      Co-workers avoid criticizing a colleague, for example pilots do not report another pilot's alcohol problem: "There is a conspiracy of silence among macho men: 'Don't rat on your buddy.'"
      According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first use of the phrase "conspiracy theory" occurred in a 1909 article in The American Historical Review.
      The best-known example in the recent past is the Kennedy assassination conspiracy literature, though similar material exists concerning the September 11 attacks, the crash of TWA Flight 800, and the spread of AIDS in the black community.
      There is good reason why conspiracy theorists have so much fun with the Abraham Lincoln/JFK question (based on some spooky similarities in both men's presidencies and assassinations).
      adj having a lot of influence
      In 2005 he was named one of Time Magazine's 100 Most Influential People.
      Network studies can identify informal leaders or highly influential individuals, who do not necessarily have a formalized leadership position.
      Star Trek has been very influential in their lives.
      Noam Chomsky is known throughout the world for his highly influential writings on language and politics.
      A guru is a Hindu religious teacher or leader, or a respected and influential teacher or authority.
      How about one of the most beguiling and influential couples of the 20th century? Hewlett and Packard.
      n[U] the state/feeling of being separated
      Libya's Colonel Quaddafi, accused of aiding terrorism by the US and in international isolation, in his communication, also urged Muslim aid groups to offer all assistance.
      The Catriona Jeffries Gallery is the only commercial art space worth visiting in Canada, according to dealers. It sits in splendid isolation (far from everything and looks impressive) on the eastern side of Vancouver.
      Retirement can often cause feelings of isolation.
      He works in isolation but I have no doubts about his abilities.
      Living in isolation in a tiny part of his giant castle, the duke wouldn't speak directly to staff members and communicated by passing notes through little slots cut into the walls of his rooms.
      n[CU] a strong desire to achieve sth ¶ goal, aim
      Penny had a burning ambition to be a movie star.
      The primary ambition of doing Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is to earn traffic to your website.
      On 24 March 1603 James achieved his lifelong ambition when Queen Elizabeth I died and he inherited the throne of England.
      The Scottish lord Macbeth, chooses evil as the way to fulfill his ambition for power.
      Owen actually harbored an ambition to become Secretary General of the United Nations.
      He always had an ambition to do something to change the lives of the poor.
      n[C] a picture, image, or representation of sth ¶ an idol
      An icon (from Greek "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from Eastern Christianity and in certain Eastern Catholic churches.
      iCon: Steve Jobs is a 2005 biography of Steve Jobs by Jeffrey Young.
      One of the most notable icon designers, Susan Kare was quoted saying "good icons should be more like road signs than illustrations, easily comprehensible, and not cluttered with extraneous detail".
      To open a new file, click on the icon at the top of the screen.
      Raccoons are known for their intelligence and ability to get out of any jam. Their cunning and survival skills make them one of the icons of the American wilderness.
      Marilyn Monroe and James Dean are still icons for many young people.