LearnTest 1Test 2Test 3Up

      n[CU] a substance containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen ¶ foods such as rice, bread, and potatoes that contain ~
      Carbohydrates are sugars and starches, which provide energy for humans and animals, and cellulose which make up many plant structures.
      Found in fruits and dairy products, simple carbohydrates are more easily digested by the body.
      Eating cabohydrates doesn't make you put on weight,as long as you exercise enough.
      But eating less sugar and fewer starchy carbohydrates could be beneficial in the long run.
      "People order cheesecake and I bring it to them." "So, you kind of act like a carbohydrate delivery system."
      You shouldn't keep your bread in the refrigerator. Staleness is caused by crystallization of the starch molecules, which occurs faster at cool temperatures.
      Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily.
      Pastry is a major type of bakers' confectionery. It includes many of the various kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, sugar, milk, butter, shortening, baking powder, and eggs.
      adj belonging to or typical of a very large city
      I can say that Toronto is a very metropolitan, multicultural city so it's natural some of that diversity be reflected in the team.
      We tested 223 samples of various rice products that we bought from stores in the New York metropolitan area and online retailers.
      She is the only living artist to be given a showing at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art.
      Tel Aviv is the business and cultural capital of Israel, with a metropolitan population of over 2 million.
      "Since you intend to remain in this lawless metropolitan area, statistics suggest that you will succumb to tragic and gruesome ends before we meet again. Live long and prosper," said Sheldon on his laptop screen.
      Compare metro, metropolis, and metropolitan.
      v[IT] fight sb by holding them and pulling or pushing them ¶ take, pull, or hold sth with difficulty
      Monica and Rachel wrestle on the couch for a little while until Monica gets the upper hand and pulls Rachel off of the couch by her sock.
      Monica removes Rachel's sock and starts beating her with it. This leads to wrestling on the floor.
      The first organized national wrestling tournament took place in New York City in 1888, and wrestling has been an event at every modern Olympic Games.
      Canvas is the mat that forms the floor of the ring in which boxers or professional wrestlers compete.
      Elizabeth wrestled the map from Jack's hands.
      When you wrestle with a difficult problem, you try to deal with it.
      I have been wrestling with this problem for quite some time.
      Compare tackle and wrestle.
      adj looking or facing in the direction that is behind you ¶ not developing quickly, normally, and successfully
      I looked backwards over my shoulder.
      Your shirt is on backward.
      It will take decades to bring this backward country into the modern age.
      A backward child has difficulty in learning.
      If someone takes a backward step, they do something that does not change or improve their situation, but causes them to go back a stage.
      Although I bent over backwards (make a great effort) to please her, my wife was still very critical of me.
      v[T] reveal
      The magician opened the box, disclosing the contents to the audience.
      Agencies will often disclose any information that does not require protection.
      The new rules require a company to disclose the name of the audit committee financial expert serving on the audit committee.
      In addition to this, the patent must disclose the' best' way of implementing the invention.
      A spoiler is a comment which discloses plot details of a book, play, video game, or film, or is intended to distract attention from a rival.
      "You don't know where I am. My physical body is safely ensconced in a secure, undisclosed location," said Sheldon-bot.
      v[T] take an organ, piece of skin etc from one person's body and put it into another ¶ move sb/sth to a different place ¶ move a plant from one place and plant it in another place
      also a noun
      Excuse me, but the problem is not solved. If your head had been accidentally amputated, and we transplanted a dog's head in its place, would that be "problem solved"?
      Focus is important. Was Michael DeBakey a wedding planner in between heart transplants? Did Alexander Fleming moonlight as a hair dresser?
      A grad student forgot to take out one of his piercings. Now he's on a transplant list waiting for a nipple his size.
      He had to have a kidney transplant within 24 hours.
      A suitable transplant donor has been found.
      The transplanted kidney was failing.
      His body rejected the transplant.
      Marriage had transplanted Emily from London to New York.
      The plants should be grown indoors until spring, when they can be transplanted outside.
      adj relating to tragedy ¶ causing great sadness
      It's this tragic love story between Cathy and Heathcliff.
      Oh, yes, born alone, die alone. It's a tragic human condition.
      One of the test monkeys slipped on a banana peel and broke his neck. It was both tragic and hysterical.
      War is a tragic waste of human life.
      The tragic story of Trayvon Martin's death has ignited a great deal of debate about the Stand Your Ground law that seems to allow the defense claimed by his attacker, George Zimmerman.
      The tragic experience of my family and community under Hitler makes me alert to the suffering of other peoples denied their human rights today - including the Palestinians.
      Compare comedy, comedian, tragic and tragedy.
      n[CU] sth that is very large, wide, and solid ¶ the fact of being large
      also a verb
      You can refer to a large person's body or to their weight or size as their bulk.
      King Kong heaved his huge bulk off the rock.
      Despite his bulk he moved swiftly.
      You can refer to something's bulk when you want to emphasize that it is very large.
      We looked up at the great dark bulk of the statue.
      The bulk of something is most of it.
      The bulk of the population lives in cities.
      The bulk of the work has already been done.
      Because we're such a large family we find it cheaper to bulk buy foods we eat a lot of.
      For us, bulk buying means buying in large quantities from big-box stores like Costco or Walmart in an effort to save money.
      It's usually cheaper to buy in bulk.
      Chandler's office buys toilet paper in bulk to keep down costs.
      If someone or something bulks up or bulks out, they become bigger or heavier.
      He bulked out the document with lots of diagrams.
      n[C] a large room/hall
      Does your wife often go to a beauty salon or a beauty saloon?
      Do you intend to buy a salon model or a saloon model of car for your family?
      One is bound to be confused if both spellings are being used to refer to same type of establishments these days, and it is not difficult to find a hair salon alongside a hair saloon. Let us take a closer look and found out differences between salon and saloon.
      If one looks up a dictionary, he finds that a saloon is a room or establishment, where alcoholic beverages are served over a counter.
      On the other hand, a salon (as in beauty salon) is a shop where hairdressers and beauticians work and, where people go to avail beauty treatments and other services.
      Saloon is also a word that is used to describe a type of car. A saloon in US means a sedan.
      Between the two words, difference is just of one letter 'o' that is suggestive of the words coming from a single source.
      In fact this is the case as both salon and saloon come from the French Salon that refers to a large room.
      Some say that these words have come from Italian Salone that also means a large hall.
      For a long time to come, both salon and saloon were used interchangeably to refer to a large room or hall.
      It was in the 19th century that saloon came to be reserved for a public bar while salon was chosen to refer to a shop or establishment for hair and body care.
      Thus we came to have hair and beauty salons and the word is still in vogue for beauty parlors.
      A beauty salon is the same as a beauty parlor.
      A hair salon is the same as a hair dresser's.
      A saloon or a sedan is a car with seats for four or more people, a fixed roof, and a boot or trunk that is separated from the rear seats.
      A saloon is a place where alcoholic drinks are sold and drunk.
      No one has disputed the significant contribution of women in the cultural history of salons, but what is often overlooked in mainstream publications on the topic is that many of these salon hostesses and attendees were lesbian, bisexual, or gay.
      Before the end of the 17th century, these gatherings were frequently held in the bedroom: a lady, reclining on her bed, would receive close friends who would sit on chairs.
      n[C] a sharp pointed object on the heel of a rider's boot which is used to make a horse go faster ¶ sth that encourages sb to do sth
      also a verb
      "We're not wearing cowboy hats, Sheldon. It looks ridiculous." "And I suppose my boots and spurs are ridiculous, too?"
      The manager said that the team's win on Saturday would be a spur to even greater effort this season.
      A spur-of-the-moment decision or action is made or done suddenly without planning.
      "You bid $800?" "It was a spur-of-the-moment thing."
      Lower taxes would spur investment and help economic growth.
      The administration may put more emphasis on spurring economic growth.
      Rising consumer sales have the effect of spurring the economy to faster growth.
      Criticism can be of great use; we may not like it at the time, but it can spur us on to greater things.
      v[IT] show respect to a god ¶ admire and love sb very much
      n[U] the activity/feeling
      In the various regions of India, Hindus worship different gods and observe different religious festivals.
      Krishna is a deity worshipped across many traditions of Hinduism.
      To the south is Professor Loomis and the Geology Department. All we have to do is move quickly over this ridge, the rock-worshipping pasty-faced bastards won't know what hit them.
      A synagogue is a building used by Jews for religious worship or teaching.
      In Judaism and Christianity, the Sabbath is the holy day of the week that is used for resting and worshipping God. For Jews this day is Saturday and for Christians it is Sunday.
      They bowed their heads in worship.
      We're in an era of fitness and health worship.
      Ross absolutely worships Rachel.
      n[C] the border of a country ¶ limits to which sth extends
      It wasn't difficult then to cross the frontier between Austria and Hungary.
      Nepal has frontiers with both India and China.
      Many were attracted to the American frontier by cheap land and a hunger for adventure.
      Space is the final frontier for us to explore.
      The scientists' work will push back the frontiers of physics.
      Daniel Boone is an American pioneer, explorer, and frontiersman.
      The guys are playing a fantasy card game set in a magical frontier town.
      n[U] ability to read and write
      Literacy encompasses a complex set of abilities to understand and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture for personal and community development.
      In a technological society, the concept of literacy is expanding to include the media and electronic text, in addition to alphabetic and number systems.
      The literacy rate there is the highest in India.
      Computer literacy is becoming essential nowadays.
      Community Technology Network (CTN) improves digital literacy in the Bay Area's most disadvantaged neighborhoods.
      For President Obama, Mr. Bryant focuses on the establishment of local financial literacy councils for cities, counties and states.
      n[U] a powerful illegal drug that is very addictive
      Cocaine is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.
      The name comes from "coca" and the alkaloid suffix "-ine", forming "cocaine".
      Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant.
      Cocaine dependence (or addiction) is psychological dependency on the regular use of cocaine.
      Cocaine dependency results in physiological damage, lethargy, psychosis, depression, akathisia, and fatal overdose.
      "The box says kitchen." "So? Do cocaine smugglers write cocaine on the box?"
      Dr. Amy Farrah Fowler's been studying the neurobiology of addiction in lower animals. She is this close to getting a starfish hooked on cocaine.
      Dr. Cooper, are you on crack (cocaine)?
      Compare caffeine, cocaine, heroin, and morphine.
      n[C] a large piece, part, or amount of sth
      Everybody's sitting on the couch and Monica is eating a chunk of cake.
      "Hey Mon, you might wanna make some more lasagna too, because someone might have happened to have a huge chunk of it," said Joey.
      "I was 4 years old and I was on the swing and then all of a sudden my hair got tangled in the chain. And to get me out my mom had to cut a big chunk of my hair," said Rachel.
      "I don't want to see you lose a chunk of that pretty blond hair!" The lurker threatened Phoebe.
      The rent takes a large chunk out of my monthly salary.
      Perhaps this restaurant's now a front for organized crime. For all we know, the mobster sauce contains actual chunks of deceased mobsters.
      Will you cut up hot dogs into little chunks and mix them in with the sauce?
      Sir, I'm flattered that you invited me, and I really want you to like me, but I don't think this trip is the way to do it. And I can't return these things if there's chunks of duck all over them.
      adj infectious
      An illness that is catching is easily passed to other people.
      An emotion or feeling that is catching spreads quickly among people.
      Rhino the Hamster could be seen running around in his hamster ball with catching enthusiasm.
      Bolt is a 2008 American computer animated road-comedy-adventure film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios.
      The author's lively storytelling and catching enthusiasm make it an engaging, perhaps even inspiring, read.
      Julia's laughter was catching.
      Millions dead from catching disease.
      Some of Facebook's 67 million users are bored. And Facebook fatigue seems to be catching.
      n[C] a sudden violent or illegal seizure of government ¶ a surprising and successful action
      A coup d'état, also known as a coup, a putsch, or an overthrow, is the sudden and illegal seizure of a government.
      The phrase coup d'État is French, literally meaning a "stroke of state" or in practice a "blow against the state". In French the word "État" is capitalized.
      He lost her position in a boardroom coup (a sudden change of power among senior managers in a company).
      Steve Jobs attempted management coups twice at Apple Inc.; first in 1985 when he unsuccessfully tried to oust John Sculley and then again in 1997 which successfully forced Gil Amelio to resign.
      A coup de grâce (French for "blow of mercy") is a death blow to end the suffering of a severely wounded person or animal.
      Examples of coup de grâce include shooting the heart or head (typically the back of the skull) of a wounded, but still living, person during an execution or by humanely killing a suffering, mortally wounded soldier, in war, for whom medical aid is not available.
      n[U] right/duty of taking care of sb/sth ¶ imprisonment while awaiting trial
      Guardianship can be given to anyone who is incapable mentally or physically on behalf of themselves. Custody is more on parent-child or adult-minor case.
      Guardianship is limited in its range of decision-making while custody has the superior authority in decision-making especially on complicated matters.
      It is usually the mother who is awarded custody.
      The couple will retain joint custody of their daughters.
      If a witness in a court case is being held in protective custody, they are being kept in prison to prevent them from being harmed.
      He will be remanded in custody until his trial.
      n[C] a signal for sb to do sth
      v[T] give sb a signal to do sth
      With interest rates, the smaller banks will take their cue from the Federal Bank.
      She stood nervously in the wings waiting for her cue. With a nod of his head, the drummer cued the lead singer in.
      Our success was the cue for other companies to press ahead with new investment.
      Carol said Susan would be back very soon and, right on cue (happening exactly the right moment), she walked in.
      A cue stick (or simply cue, more specifically pool cue, snooker cue, or billiards cue), is an item of sporting equipment used to strike a ball, usually the cue ball.
      Yeah, I hate wedding receptions. I wish the bride and groom would take a cue from Bilbo Baggins, slip on the ring, disappear and everyone goes home.
      All right, come on, just try it my way. Pretend you're sad to see him go. I'm gonna lead you in. His unique genius is our best hope for bringing peace to a vast and troubled galaxy. That's your cue.
      Compare clue, cue, hint, and hue.
      n[U] flashes, of very bright light in the sky caused by electricity
      adj very fast/sudden
      The experiment's purpose was to uncover then unknown facts about the nature of lightning and electricity.
      If you're referring to the work of Benjamin Franklin, he did not "discover electricity," he merely used a kite to determine that lightning "consists" of electricity.
      A bolt of lightning struck the roof of the building.
      A lightning conductor, or a lightning rod, is a long thin piece of metal on top of a building that attracts lightning and allows it to reach the ground safely.
      Everybody was kung-fu fighting / Those cats were fast as lightning / In fact it was a little bit frightning / But they fought with expert timing
      "Kung Fu Fighting" is a disco song written and performed by Carl Douglas and composed and produced by Biddu. It was released as a single in 1974.
      A lightning bug, or a firefly, is a type of beetle that produces light from its body.
      Germany quickly overran much of Europe and was victorious for more than two years by relying on a new military tactic called the "Blitzkrieg" (lightning war).
      v[T] form ¶ illegally copy
      n[C] a place where metal is heated and shaped into objects
      v[I] move forward steadily/gradually
      If someone forges an object out of metal, they heat the metal and then hammer and bend it into the required shape.
      A forge is a hearth used for heating metals, or the workplace ("smithy") where the hearth is located.
      If one person or institution forges an agreement or relationship with another, they create it with a lot of hard work, hoping that it will be strong or lasting.
      In 1776 the United States forged an alliance with France.
      The company wanted to forge alliances with other motor manufacturers.
      Someone stole Monica's credit card and forged her signature.
      Napoleon's soldiers forged through the snow.
      Just 100 meters from the finishing line, one horse forged ahead, leaving the others behind.
      If you forge ahead with something, you continue with it and make a lot of progress with it.
      She forged a new career for herself as a porn star.
      n[C] a particular type of art, writing, music etc
      Genre (from French, "kind" or "sort") is the term for any category of literature or other forms of art or entertainment, e.g. music, whether written or spoken, audial or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria.
      The term "genre" is much used in the history and criticism of visual art, but in art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly.
      A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
      The basic genres of film can be regarded as drama, in the feature film and most cartoons, and documentary.
      Music can be divided into different genres in several ways.
      Funk is a music genre.
      Bossa nova is a genre of Brazilian music.
      n[U] probability
      There was very little likelihood of me getting the job.
      This shouldn't affect the likelihood of you getting the job.
      The likelihood of infection is minimal.
      In all likelihood the vase was made in the seventeenth century.
      Taking regular exercise reduces the likelihood of a heart attack.
      Is there any likelihood of us getting our money back?
      Compare chance, likelihood, and probability.
      adj toward a higher position/level ¶ more than a number/amount
      The road climbed upward.
      Share prices have risen sharply upward.
      Often a small positive change will lead to an upward spiral of positive communication.
      They'll also cost you upward of $400 or more to start.
      Excelsior is a Latin adjective meaning "higher" or "loftier", used in English as an interjection with a poetic meaning of "ever upward".
      adj relating to any Christian church that is not Roman Catholic
      n[C] a member of a ~ church
      Protestantism is one of the major divisions within Christianity.
      It has been defined as "any of several church denominations denying the universal authority of the Pope and affirming the Reformation principles of justification by faith alone, the priesthood of all believers, and the primacy of the Bible as the only source of revealed truth" and, more broadly, to mean Christianity outside "of an Orthodox or Catholic church".
      The Protestant movement has its origins in Germany and is popularly considered to have begun in 1517 when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses as a reaction against medieval doctrines and practices.
      The various Protestant denominations share a rejection of the authority of the pope and generally deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation.
      The exact origin of the term protestant is uncertain, and may come either from French protestant or German Protestant.
      However, it is certain that both languages derived their word from the Latin: protestantem, meaning "one who publicly declares/protests", which refers to the protest against some beliefs and practices of the early 16th century Roman Catholic Church.