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      n[C] a substance that is formed naturally in the earth, such as coal, salt, stone, or gold ¶ a chemical that your body needs to stay healthy
      A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure.
      It is different from a rock, which can be an aggregate of minerals or non-minerals and does not have a specific chemical composition.
      The exact definition of a mineral is under debate, especially with respect to the requirement a valid species be abiogenic, and to a lesser extent with regard to it having an ordered atomic structure.
      The study of minerals is called mineralogy.
      Japan is a country with few mineral resources.
      Mineral water is water that comes out of the ground naturally and is considered healthy to drink.
      Bottled water is drinking water (e.g., well water, distilled water, mineral water, or spring water) packaged in plastic or glass water bottles.
      A healthy diet should supply all necessary vitamins and minerals.
      adj never having happened/existed before
      The accident has led to an unprecedented public outcry.
      The Turkish economy began an unprecedented period of growth.
      Our nation faces unprecedented uncertainty with great fiscal and economic challenges, and under the current Administration has suffered through the longest and most severe economic downturn since the Great Depression.
      But legal experts say this one is unprecedented: the appointment of a replacement senator by a governor facing criminal charges stemming from the appointment process itself.
      By making unprecedented investments in clean energy technology and nearly doubling fuel efficiency standards for cars and trucks, President Obama has laid the groundwork to dramatically reduce our dependence on foreign oil and help create new, good jobs in the clean energy economy.
      The Internet provides unprecedented opportunities for the collection and sharing of information from and about consumers.
      n[C] the way that you are standing ¶ an opinion that is stated publicly
      Monica took up a stance with her feet slightly apart, ready to catch the ball.
      Oh, here come the mummies. Which spell do I use? The hateful strike or the frenzy stance?
      Compare posture and stance.
      What is your stance on environmental issues?
      The President has adopted a tough stance on monetary policy.
      Sieda also called for Iran to reconsider its stance.
      Not shutting down a service doesn't equal not taking the proper stance on an issue. We've been very clear about our stance.
      n[U] the grain that bread is made from, or the plant that it grows on
      Wheat is a cereal grain now cultivated worldwide.
      In 2010, world production of wheat was 651 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize (844 million tons) and rice (672 million tons).
      Whole wheat bread or pasta is made from flour containing all the wheat grain, including the outer part.
      We seeded the field with wheat.
      The Wheat Field is a series of oil paintings executed by Vincent van Gogh.
      Okay, this cereal has lost all its molecular integrity. I now have a bowl of shredded wheat paste.
      This sandwich is an unmitigated disaster. I asked for turkey and roast beef, with lettuce and Swiss on whole wheat.
      All-Bran is a high-bran, high-fiber, wheat bran breakfast cereal.
      Last night I gave Sheldon my best come-hither look, and he responded by explaining how wheat came to be cultivated.
      v[IT] move quickly to avoid sb/sth ¶ avoid doing sth
      also a noun
      He ran across the courtyard, dodging a storm of bullets.
      He made a sudden dodge to the right.
      I'll leave early to dodge the rush-hour.
      He gets smart accountants to help them dodge taxes.
      He bought another car as a tax dodge.
      When it comes to getting off work, she knows all the dodges.
      Dodge is a type of US car made by Chrysler.
      Dodgeball is a game in which players on two teams try to throw balls at each other while avoiding being hit themselves.
      v[IT] unable to breathe or talk clearly, or make sb do this
      Children can choke on peanuts.
      Some guy at another table starts choking.
      I felt as if there was a weight on my chest, choking me.
      Within minutes the room was full of choking smoke.
      Four people choked to death on the fumes.
      Chandler (choking up) Oh my God that's it, that's the ring! How much is it?
      The proposal really chokes Monica up.
      If you choke back tears or a strong emotion, you force yourself not to show your emotion.
      Cars are choking up our streets.
      n[C] sink ¶ a large round open container ¶ round valley ¶ a place where the Earth's surface is lower than in other areas
      I've cleaned the basin and scrubbed the bath.
      A pudding basin is a deep round bowl that is used in the kitchen, especially for mixing or for cooking puddings.
      Brush the rim of the lined pudding basin with water.
      A drainage basin or watershed (North American English usages) is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice converges to a single point at a lower elevation, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean.
      The rhino was found in Tibet's Zanda Basin.
      Project work will take place throughout the Lake Tahoe Basin.
      This is why the U.S. backed the apartheid regime in South Africa and its interests in controlling the Pacific basin.
      n[C] a false or wrong belief or idea
      To believe you have nothing more to learn is a dangerous illusion.
      It is an illusion that the Arctic is dark in winter.
      I was under the illusion that he was honest until he was caught stealing some money.
      I had no illusions about my talents as a tennis player.
      An optical illusion is something that tricks your eyes so that what you think you see is different from what is really there.
      A large mirror in the room created an illusion of greater space.
      Floor-to-ceiling windows can give the illusion of extra height.
      adv not completely
      He is deaf in one ear and partially blind.
      It is at least partially due to this book that I entered college as a biology major.
      Both sides of this debate are partially correct.
      He was partially buried, but survived without major injuries.
      A cloaking device is a theoretical or fictional stealth technology that can cause objects, such as spaceships or individuals, to be partially or wholly invisible to parts of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum.
      adj relating to the study of God and religion
      Frederick was a theological student in the university at Wilna.
      But serious regime change in the Middle East is in progress, and highly theological regimes stand a good chance of replacing the merely secular tyrants of the last fifty years.
      The authors are all strong scholars and come from diverse theological backgrounds.
      Appropriate interpretive method for each genre of the New Testament will be discussed. We will also seek to clarify the theological message of each document in light of its historical circumstances.
      This course is an in-depth study of the Jesus of history and the Christ of faith in light of current biblical scholarship with special attention to the theological perspectives of Matthew, Mark and Luke as reflected in their varying presentations of the Good News in these three "synoptic" Gospels.
      Compare theological and theoretical.
      n[CU] a space that is completely empty of all gas
      v[IT] clean using a ~ cleaner
      Monica is cleaning with a vacuum and then she cleans it with a dust buster.
      'Remember Twinkles?' 'He was a hamster! I am not going to vacuum up my baby!'
      If you need the vacuum, it's in my closet on the left-hand side. Ah, the garbage bags are next to the refrigerator.
      A vacuum flask, vacuum bottle, or Thermos, is a container which is used to keep hot drinks hot or cold drinks cold.
      If something is done in a vacuum, it is not affected by any outside influences or information.
      They don't just happen spontaneously in a vacuum.
      adj trained, designed, or developed for a particular purpose
      One should look for an entry level job, gain experience through internships, and watch for opportunities of specialized training or advanced education.
      Humanity's most brilliant chess master lost to Deep Blue, a $10 million specialized supercomputer programmed by a team from IBM.
      The hospital is unable to provide the highly specialized care needed by very sick babies.
      These tools are very specialized.
      Our bodies comprise more than 200 different specialized cell types.
      Semiskilled means possessing some skills but not enough to do specialized work.
      n[UC] a condition in which a part of sb's body is unable to do sth fully
      Department of Rehab clients must possess a physical or mental impairment that substantially impedes them from finding a job.
      The possibility that mild cognitive impairment is a precursor to Alzheimer's disease and a possible starting point for disease-modifying treatment is the subject of a broad research effort.
      As a person with a visual impairment and who uses screen magnification software, I find sans serif easier to read online.
      Likewise, a person with a hearing impairment will have needs that are dramatically different from someone who has an intellectual disability.
      Ah, memory impairment, the free prize at the bottom of every vodka bottle.
      I have experienced no cognitive or memory impairment from this practice.
      Compare disability, handicap, and impairment.
      adj based on reasons rather than emotions ¶ able to think calmly and sensibly ¶ able to make sensible judgments
      I would accept it. It would be the only rational view.
      Let's try to have a rational debate.
      Humans are emotional as well as rational, and strong negative emotions are very seductive.
      This illusion of truth prevents reasonable, rational, sensible choice, which is much needed in political and social decision making.
      On what plane of existence is there even a semi-rational link between these events?
      Well, the online description was completely misleading. They said eight slots, plus removable id. To any rational person, that would mean room for nine cards, but they don't tell you, the removable id takes up one slot. It's a nightmare!
      I give up. You can't have a rational argument with this man.
      v[T] bear, endure, put up with ¶ allow
      They have tolerated poor working conditions in order to finish the job.
      I won't tolerate lying.
      If plants or animals tolerate particular conditions, they are able to exist in those conditions.
      This plant prefers alkaline soil, though it will readily tolerate some acidity.
      If a person or their body can tolerate a food or other substance, it can use it without becoming ill.
      The body cannot tolerate such large amounts of radiation.
      v[IT] become unclear/indistinct
      n[C] a shape that you cannot see clearly ¶ sth that you cannot remember clearly
      Tears blurred her eyes.
      Her eyes blurred with tears.
      The street lights were blurred by the mist.
      Our vision was blurred.
      If the difference between two things blurs, or something blurs it, they become more similar, so that you are no longer sure that they are clearly different.
      "I just saw the blur of the tortoise as it passed in front of me. The days after the accident were a blur," said the little snail.
      "You're blurry, but you still look like Ursula," said Eric.
      Everything is a blur when I take my glasses off.
      "I think we're just blurry shapes to him now," said Chandler.
      My memories of childhood are only a blur.
      I don't remember much about last night, it was such a blur.
      n[U] extreme tiredness
      v[T] make sb extremely tired
      We were all suffering from fatigue at the end of our hiking.
      John's face was grey with fatigue.
      He was shivering with fatigue.
      He was suffering from physical fatigue.
      Driver fatigue is a major contributor to the road toll (after speeding and drink driving).
      Chronic fatigue syndrome is an illness that is thought to be caused by a virus, and which affects people for a long period of time. Its symptoms include tiredness and aching muscles.
      In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads.
      When you start to get fatigued, you start making mistakes.
      n[UC] the process by which a woman becomes pregnant, or the moment ¶ the time when sb creates a new idea/thing ¶ an idea that you have of sth in your mind
      I'd be more interested in the scene depicting Spock's conception.
      "Missy, If you're not attracted to the suitor, then the likelihood of conception will be reduced," said Sheldon.
      For some women, early symptoms of pregnancy begin in the first few weeks after conception.
      As early as two weeks after conception, hormonal changes may make your breasts tender, tingly or sore.
      Consumers and caregivers have helped shape this research from its conception.
      The plan, brilliant in its conception, failed because of inadequate preparation.
      He has absolutely no conception of how a successful business should run.
      adj coming before sth that is more important
      n[C] ~ action, event, measure etc
      Today's preliminary match features two great teams. AA versus... PMS.
      Leonard, why don't you start working on some preliminary website designs.
      I've been gearing up for school (which starts in two weeks), doing some preliminary reading and have even begun research on my first assignment as a grad student.
      You will receive preliminary test results (pass/fail) before you leave the testing center.
      This year, congress even slashed the funding for the preliminary study.
      The second day of the championships will begin at 10 a.m. tomorrow with the preliminaries followed by the finals round at 6.
      He began to speak intensely, without preliminaries.
      n[C] ~ butter is a brown paste made out of crushed ~ which you can spread on bread and eat
      Peanuts grow best in light, sandy loam soil.
      Peanuts are particularly susceptible to contamination during growth and storage.
      Is olive oil better than peanut oil?
      I love garlic flavored peanuts.
      If you say that a sum of money is peanuts, you mean that it is very small.
      A peanut is a very small or unimportant person.
      His contempt for other military leaders and politicians was boundless but his hatred for Chiang (who he referred to as "the Peanut") was acute.
      Stilwell thought Chiang was a coward who held back urgently needed resources and changed his mind with irrational speed. Chiang saw Stilwell as brusque, overbearing and power hungry.
      Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday American comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz.
      v[T] force sb to leave their country
      n[UC] the situation or sb who has been forced to live in ~
      Napoleon was first exiled in 1814.
      After an exile of ten years his uncle returned to France.
      Wanted in Rome on corruption charges, he now lives in self-imposed exile in Tunisia.
      He went into exile to escape imprisonment.
      There were many French exiles in England after the Revolution.
      Compare banish, exile, and expel.
      n[C] a short piece taken from a book, poem, piece of music etc, extract
      also a verb
      Please contact Dow Jones Reprints at 1-800-843-0008 or visit Article Excerpt BY RACHEL DODES.
      I've seen a short excerpt from the film on TV.
      Hawking says in his book "The Grand Design" that, given the existence of gravity, "the universe can and will create itself from nothing," according to an excerpt published Thursday in The Times of London.
      The following is excerpted from a speech given by Dr. Machado at the June 1987 New Horizons for Learning conference held at Pacific Lutheran University.
      We hear this in an excerpt from her famous poem, Kindness.
      Here is an excerpt from that diary that speaks of the horror he experienced.
      kəm'pækt 'kɔmpækt
      adj closely packed together ¶ small, but arranged so that everything fits neatly into the space available ¶ small and strong
      v[T] compress
      also a noun
      What a compact office! How did you fit so much into so little space?
      The kitchen was compact but well equipped.
      The compact design of Mac mini allows it to be stored easily.
      Leonard is a short compact-looking man.
      The compacted snow on the sidewalk turned to ice.
      Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format. The format was originally developed to store and play back sound recordings only, but was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM).
      The AMC Gremlin is a two-door subcompact car produced in the U.S., Canada and Mexico by the American Motors Corporation (AMC).
      Rachel is checking out her nose in her compact mirror.
      A compact is an agreement, often one that people make secretly.
      After they had made a compact on these conditions, Diarmaid went to Wales.
      n[U] middle part
      Wall Street was in the midst of a financial collapse.
      In the midst of this dilemma, I have to make some decisions about what is best for my health.
      Having spent a week in the midst of a cholera epidemic in Ecuador in 1991, I was skeptical.
      The location for Edoras was in the midst of a national park.
      In the midst of all that hustle, the voicemails on my phone started building up.
      A lot of people made the same assumption you did in the midst of the inflationary 1970s.
      n[C] an animal that hunts, kills and eats other animals
      In ecology, predation is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).
      If all else fails, an octopus can lose an arm to escape a predator's grasp and regrow it later with no permanent damage.
      The defendant is accused of being a sexual predator.
      Never be alone with any man. Never trust a man. Treat every man like a potential predator.
      The Predator film series is a science fiction horror film franchise.
      The MQ-1 Predator is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) built by General Atomics and used primarily by the United States Air Force (USAF) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).