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      n[C] the floor of entrance to a building or room ¶ the level at which sth starts to happen or have an effect
      Chandler opens the door, carries Monica across the threshold, stops, backs out, and lets go of Monica who is only holding on by his neck.
      Why do grooms carry brides over the threshold?
      "I just think that this was a really bad sign, you know. I mean, like the dog at the threshold," said Phoebe.
      "Uh, I'm guessing the threshold's clear now," said Joey.
      "I think that women just have a lower threshold of pain than men, that's all. I mean, come on, it's just a little wax," said Joey.
      A tax threshold is the level of income or profit at which you start to pay a tax.
      Hey, did either of you guys know that three dates with the same woman is the threshold for sex?
      n[U] the job or activity of writing news reports for newspapers, magazines, television, or radio
      Journalism is gathering, processing, and dissemination of news and information related to the news to an audience.
      Journalism applies to both the method of inquiring for news and the literary style which is used to disseminate it.
      The media that journalism uses vary diversely and include: content published via newspapers and magazines (print), television and radio (broadcast), and their digital media versions — news websites and applications.
      His many awards include Pulitzer Prizes for journalism and history.
      Putting together a story using such material is trash journalism.
      Joel Brinkley is a professor of journalism at Stanford University and a former New York Times foreign correspondent.
      Journalism is no longer a job for Superman. His alter ego Clark Kent is quitting the Daily Planet.
      v[I] meddle
      If you say that someone interferes in a situation, you mean they get involved in it although it does not concern them and their involvement is not wanted.
      I don't think your mother has the right to interfere in our affairs.
      It's unwise to interfere between husband and wife.
      Something that interferes with a situation, activity, or process has a damaging effect on it.
      Mom says I can get a job if it doesn't interfere with my homework.
      He was arrested for interfering (touch a child sexually) with young boys.
      Compare these words: interfere, meddle, and tamper.
      n[C] sb who sells things, esp on the street
      In a supply chain, a vendor, or a seller, is an enterprise that contributes goods or services.
      Generally, a supply chain vendor manufactures inventory/stock items and sells them to the next link in the chain. Today, the terms refers to a supplier of any good or service.
      Vendor finance is a form of lending in which a company lends money to be used by the borrower to buy the vendor's products or property.
      The square was full of food vendors.
      I know a hot dog vendor who picks his nose.
      Phoebe is being followed by some guy. As they pass a flower vendor, she turns around and the guy quickly picks up some flowers and continues following her.
      The vendor of the house wants to exchange contracts this week.
      Dennis went to the vendor machine to get chocolate milk.
      n[C] chemical/food that help plants and animals to grow
      Nutrients are the nutritional components in foods that an organism utilizes to survive and grow.
      Macronutrients provide the bulk energy for an organism's metabolic system to function, while micronutrients provide the necessary cofactors for metabolism to be carried out.
      Both types of nutrients can be acquired from the environment.
      Methods for nutrient intake are different for plants and animals.
      Plants take in nutrients directly from the soil through their roots and from the atmosphere through their leaves.
      Animals and protists have specialized digestive systems that work to break down macronutrients for energy and utilize micronutrients to carry out both metabolism and anabolism or constructive synthesis in the body.
      Organic nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamins.
      Inorganic chemical compounds such as dietary minerals, water, and oxygen may also be considered nutrients.
      Plants draw minerals and other nutrients from the soil.
      It applies a technique called hydroponics, where plants are grown in nutrient rich solutions instead of soil.
      A healthy diet should provide all your essential nutrients.
      If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to "spend" most of your calories on "essentials" to meet your nutrient needs.
      Manganese is a chemical element, an essential trace nutrient in all known forms of life.
      n[U] the system of having slaves ¶ the state of being a slave
      Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work.
      Slavery is officially illegal in all countries, but there are still an estimated 20 million to 30 million slaves worldwide.
      Ancient civilizations were based on slavery.
      Millions of Africans were sold into slavery between the 17th and 19th centuries.
      Many American abolitionists took an active role in opposing slavery by supporting the Underground Railroad.
      By 1860 the total number of slaves reached almost four million, and the American Civil War, beginning in 1861, led to the end of slavery in the United States.
      In 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves held in the Confederate States; the 13th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution (1865) prohibited slavery throughout the country.
      The crimes include murder, rape and sexual slavery.
      n[U] careful watch kept on sb
      Surveillance is the monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting them.
      The vast majority of computer surveillance involves the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet.
      Surveillance cameras are video cameras used for the purpose of observing an area.
      Biometric surveillance is any technology that measures and analyzes human physical and/or behavioral characteristics for authentication, identification, or screening purposes.
      Aerial surveillance is the gathering of surveillance, usually visual imagery or video, from an airborne vehicle—such as an unmanned aerial vehicle, helicopter, or spy plane.
      China Marine Surveillance (CMS) is the maritime surveillance agency of the People’s Republic of China.
      Corporate surveillance is the monitoring of a person or group's behavior by a corporation. The data collected is most often used for marketing purposes or sold to other corporations, but is also regularly shared with government agencies.
      The police have kept the nightclub under surveillance for several months because of suspected illegal drug activity.
      More banks are now installing surveillance cameras.
      The country's borders are kept under constant surveillance.
      Nina was placed under psychiatric surveillance.
      adj qualified or suitable to be chosen ¶ desirable and worthy of choice, esp for marriage
      H.R. 3590 is the only bill currently eligible to go to conference, but that doesn't mean it can't carry the text of H.R. 3692 when it does.
      I am eligible for the device, and am awaiting Medicare approval.
      Previous award winners are not eligible; Self-nominations will be accepted.
      To be eligible, households must meet certain income requirements.
      He will be eligible for release after a year behind bars.
      An eligible man or woman would be good to marry because they are rich, attractive, and not married.
      I can think of several eligible bachelors of my acquaintance.
      v[T] announce ¶ show clearly, reveal
      In 1994 the IMF belatedly proclaimed that Japan's long-term growth rate had dropped to 4%.
      The governor proclaimed that "we have left the dark times" as he proposed a $32 billion budget, a 3.7 percent increase over the previous year's spending.
      I was puzzled because, despite what the headlines proclaimed and the articles stated, I had not yet seen any such research.
      History has already proclaimed that tax cuts for the wealthy have had no effect on the economy.
      They continue to proclaim that evolution is "only a theory."
      He sent them out to proclaim the Gospel of the Kingdom of God.
      Compare acclaim, claim, counterclaim, disclaim, exclaim, proclaim, and reclaim.
      n[C] a small meal that you eat between meals or instead of a meal
      v[I] eat ~
      Some little snacks for everybody.
      Well, I feel like a snack.
      She goes over to the snack table, and Joey quickly runs over and pours her a cup of coffee.
      Chex Mix a type of snack mix that includes Chex breakfast cereal (sold by General Mills) as a major component.
      Granola is a breakfast food and snack food, popular in the Americas, consisting of rolled oats, nuts, honey, and sometimes puffed rice.
      Popsicle is a water-based frozen snack.
      Leonard set the snacks on the coffee table.
      A concession stand is a place where patrons can purchase snacks or food at a cinema, amusement park, fair, stadium, or other entertainment venue.
      Standing outside his team's bus on Sunday in Lige, Belgium, the Team BMC director John Lelangue chugged a mini-can of Coca-Cola Light, the European version of Diet Coke. Nearby, Ochowicz snacked on a peach while talking with reporters.
      If someone chugs something, they drink all of something in a glass or bottle without stopping.
      v[IT] pull with one or more short, quick pulls
      also a noun
      She gently tugged at his sleeve to get his attention.
      We tugged so hard that the rope broke.
      "I am this close to tugging on my testicles again," said Ross.
      If you tug something on, you pull a piece of clothing quickly onto your body.
      Monica tugged on a sweater.
      Phoebe removed the Band-aid with a sharp tug.
      A tugboat, tug boat, or tug is a small powerful boat which pulls large ships, usually when they come into a port.
      Many of us alumni who live abroad feel a tug at the heartstrings, realizing that the school is needy and we cannot abandon it.
      adj (food) pleasantly hard and dry ¶ (fruit and vegetables) firm and fresh ¶ (snow, leaves etc) firm/dry ¶ (cloth, paper etc) fresh and clean ¶ (weather) dry and cold ¶ (sounds, images etc) clear and sharp ¶ (manner) quick, precise and decisive
      n[C] potato chip
      v[IT] become ~ or make sth do this
      The bacon should be crisp and brown.
      They can all be served with a crisp green salad to provide a counterpoint to the soft textures of the pies.
      At home we build log fires, sweep up the crisp leaves on the porches and don big sweaters for mountain hikes.
      Her earrings match perfectly a small brooch on her crisp white shirt, a delicate touch to a plain blue suit.
      You can also put the dollar bills between two heavy books to get the wrinkles out, though this may not make them brand-new crisp.
      The crisp mountain air was refreshing as I drew in a lungful.
      I found the screen to be crisp, clear and vivid, though inferior to the superb Retina display on the current iPad.
      Romney was generally crisp and in command.
      Keogh's Shamrock and Sour Cream flavor potato crisp is available in a large sharing bag for 2.49.
      Cook the bacon until it begins to crisp.
      n[C] way out for water, steam etc ¶ means of releasing energy, strong feelings etc ¶ a store that sells goods of a particular make at reduced prices ¶ socket, power point
      Mayor instructed the AMC officials to immediately remove the encroachments on the drain and ensure proper outlet for water.
      "Well she better get here soon, the outlet stores close at 7," said Joey.
      "This switch thing has been driving me crazy. So, I turned it off and checked every outlet," said Monica.
      "This is not about people not caring that you're dead.This is about people not having a decent outlet for their grief," said Chandler.
      Kinko's is a chain of stores that provide a retail outlet for FedEx Express and FedEx Ground (including Home Delivery) shipping, as well as printing, copying, and binding services.
      v[IT] happen one after the other in a repeated pattern, or make sth do this
      adj happening or following one after the other ¶ every second ¶ used to replace another thing of the same type
      In alternating current (AC, also ac), the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current (DC, also dc), the flow of electric charge is only in one direction.
      Most farmers alternate their crops.
      Twist your body, alternating right and left stretches.
      It's a dessert with alternate layers of chocolate and cream.
      The service runs on alternate days.
      We recommend using an alternate browser (such as Internet Explorer, Safari, or Firefox) in order to download Adobe AIR and print your music.
      "You know what honey, you go ahead, we'll call her an alternate," said Rachel.
      n[UC] cloudy air near the ground which is difficult to see through (thicker than mist) ¶ a cloud of smoke or some other gas ¶ a state in which you feel confused and cannot think clearly
      also a verb
      Dense fog is covering roads in the south and visibility is very poor.
      Heavy fog forced drivers to slow down.
      The fog lifted (disappeared) in the afternoon.
      I once went from Dallas to Honolulu, 10 hours in a fog of cigarette smoke.
      The lack of information is what creates the fog of war that leads to bad decisions, such as dropping bombs on innocent civilians.
      The windscreen has fogged up.
      Steam has fogged the bathroom mirror.
      His brain is fogged by alcohol.
      Yeah, I pulled the tab and I just fogged his yeti ass!
      n[UC] guesses ¶ activity, business deal etc based on gusses
      Corruption was a topic of opposition media speculation, and it emerged as a campaign theme for the opposition during both the presidential and parliamentary elections of 2005.
      Speculation is the practice of engaging in risky financial transactions in an attempt to profit from short or medium term fluctuations in the market value of a tradable good such as a financial instrument, rather than attempting to profit from the underlying financial attributes embodied in the instrument such as capital gains, interest, or dividends.
      Speculation usually involves more risks than investment.
      Speculation is often associated with economic bubbles.
      Such financial regulation is often enacted in response to a crisis as was the case with the Bubble Act 1720 which was passed by the British government at the height of the South Sea Bubble to try stop speculation in such schemes.
      v[T] hide
      Just like Biden, Obama will struggle to conceal his arrogance and contempt.
      The charge of rape has been deliberately dragged in to muddy the waters and conceal the real issues.
      In turn, goblins conceal the secrets of their own magic from wizards.
      Look, this is still basically a small town. It would be very hard to conceal an actual affair, and if you were, you wouldn't be out in public with the guy.
      "Can you tell I'm perspiring a little?" "No. The dark crescent shaped patterns under your arms conceal it nicely."
      How do you feel about concealing a recording device in the cleavage of your ample bosom?
      Frisking (also called a patdown or pat down) is a search of a person's outer clothing wherein a person runs his or her hands along the outer garments to detect any concealed weapons.
      Compare conceal, reveal, and seal.
      n[CU] the act or process of changing sth into a different state or form ¶ a change in sb's (esp religious) beliefs
      IMAX's patented "DMR" conversion system takes films shot digitally or using 35mm film and enhances their resolution so that they can be projected onto IMAX's huge screens, reducing graininess.
      Accordingly, a conversion from EUR to AUD, EUR is the fixed currency, AUD is the variable currency and the exchange rate indicates how many Australian dollars would be paid or received for 1 Euro.
      What about conversion of textbooks to electronic format?
      In football, if the try or conversion is scored by kicking the ball through the uprights, the team gets an additional one point for their touchdown, bringing their total for that score from six points to seven.
      The cost of this huge territorial expansion was Augustus' own conversion to Catholicism.
      adj based on sensible reasoning ¶ legally/officially acceptable
      "Uh, that's definitely a valid question," said David.
      "No, it was a valid hypothesis," said Leonard.
      You don't have a valid driver's license - Okay that is it! Pull over right now!
      Your return ticket is valid for three months.
      We accepted several different approaches as valid.
      The original written contract was held valid.
      Is your passport still valid?
      v[I] make a choice/decision
      If you have savings and can afford a higher deductible, you might opt for a plan with lower monthly premiums.
      You may have your engine professionally steam cleaned or you may opt to do it yourself.
      If you opt in, Walmart will use your location to provide you with an app designed specifically for that store.
      If you opt in to receive offers, promotions or other information from Ganz, your information will be used to provide you with promotional offers for Ganz products that we believe may interest you.
      James has a contract that allows him to opt out after the 2013-2014 season or stay with the Heat for two more years.
      If students opt out of the service, they give their names to the cashier, who manually charges their accounts.
      Compare opt and option.
      adj much more than is reasonable/necessary
      April 17th. Excessive noise. Italian guy comes homes with a date.
      April 18th. Excessive noise. Italian guy's gay roommate brings home dry-cleaning.
      "Would you listen to that?" "I'd call that excessive."
      Do not use excessive force to overcome this resistance.
      For two people who claim to be no longer pair-bonded, Penny and Leonard spend an inordinate/excessive amount of time in each other's company.
      n[U] independence
      Autonomy is the capacity of a rational individual to make an informed, un-coerced decision; or, in politics, self-government.
      Those individuals with work autonomy and flexibility are more likely to remain in employment.
      While local autonomy was removed, the new funding model provided that public and separate school boards, each of which previously had the right to levy local property taxes were to have equal access to revenues on a per pupil basis.
      Xinjiang, officially Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China in the northwest of the country.
      The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), Tibet or Xizang for short, also called the Xizang Autonomous Region is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
      n[C] a product that is bought and sold ¶ sth that is useful/necessary
      In economics, a commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs.
      Economic commodities comprise goods and services.
      To be genuinely eco friendly, there are some household commodities you could consider.
      Time is a precious commodity.
      Commodity computing, or commodity cluster computing, is the use of large numbers of already available computing components for parallel computing to get the greatest amount of useful computation at low cost.
      It is computing done in commodity computers as opposed to high-cost supermicrocomputers or boutique computers.
      Commodity computers are computer systems manufactured by multiple vendors, incorporating components based on open standards.
      Such systems are said to be based on commodity components, since the standardization process promotes lower costs and less differentiation among vendors' products.
      adj following continuously
      This resulted in a tuition increase for the third consecutive year.
      According to this schedule, a total of 12 consecutive sessions with breaks in between will occur during the conference.
      Woods closed out 1999 with four consecutive victories, including the PGA Championship.
      Woods kicked off 2000 with his fifth consecutive victory, winning the Mercedes Championships.
      A girlfriend shall be deemed, quote, living with, unquote, Leonard, when she has stayed over for, A, 10 consecutive nights, or B, more than nine nights in a three-week period, or C, all the weekends of a given month plus three weeknights.
      "When can I sit with you again?" "When I've seen two consecutive negative throat cultures spaced 12 hours apart."
      Compare consecutive and sequential.
      n[U] the feeling that you need to eat ¶ lack of food =starvation
      phrv ~ for/after - want sth very much
      Hunger is the body's signal that levels of blood sugar are too low.
      It is usual to feel hunger during exercise.
      He died of hunger.
      If someone goes on (a) hunger strike, they refuse to eat as a way of protesting about something.
      She hungers for his love; he hungers after her body.
      "Oh my love my darling, I've hungered for your touch." (Unchained Melody, Righteous Brothers)