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      n[CU] protection or shelter from danger, trouble, unhappiness etc
      Thousands of refugees need refuge.
      They took refuge in the embassy.
      The cave provided refuge from the storm.
      Home should be a refuge against the pressures of work.
      All too often, they get bored, and seek refuge in shopping and chatting.
      dik'teit 'dikteit
      v[IT] say words for sb else to write down ¶ tell sb exactly what to do and how to behave
      v[T] determine
      n[C] a rule or principle that people must obey
      The teacher dictated a passage to the class.
      What right has one country to dictate the environmental standards of another?
      Circumstances dictated that they played a defensive rather than attacking game.
      You can't dictate to people how they should live.
      I refuse to be dictated to by you.
      Commonsense now dictates that it would be wise to sell a few shares.
      The value of a diamond is determined by its exact quality as defined by the 4C's: Cut, Color, Clarity and Carat. Of the 4C's,the cut is the aspect most directly influenced by man. The other three are dictated by nature.
      We have followed the dictates of our consciences and have done our duty.
      n[C] sb who supports the activities of an organization ¶ a customer, esp a regular one
      She's a philanthropist (a rich person who gives a lot of money to help poor people) and patron of the arts.
      One restaurant patron commented that the steak was the best he had ever eaten.
      I am a library patron but I am also a book buyer.
      The patron saint of a place, an activity, or a group of people is a saint who is believed to give them special help and protection.
      Isn't this the point where the world-weary barkeep absent-mindedly wipes down the bar and coaxes the woes out of the troubled patron?
      adj not broken, damaged, or spoiled ¶ complete
      Most of the interiors remain intact and in fine condition.
      You must keep intact all copyright notices for the Work and give the Original Author credit.
      Her face was relatively intact but her torso was destroyed.
      Rambo is a hero who always escaped by the skin of his teeth, emerging miraculously intact after each cliff-hanging episode.
      The first American steam engine was not made in America at all, but imported intact from England.
      We have to make sure the state institutions stay intact.
      adj badly damaging/destroying ¶ very shocking/upsetting ¶ very impressive/attractive
      Acid rain has a devastating effect on the forest.
      The oil spill has had devastating consequences for local wildlife.
      That would be a devastating and horrendous thing to happen.
      Long-term unemployment can be devastating.
      The diagnosis was devastating.
      Helen had a devastating beauty that few men could resist.
      n[C] sb who has been sent to a foreign country by a religious organization to teach the people there about a particular religion
      He spent 15 years as a missionary in Africa.
      I once read about a woman missionary who loved her clothes but when she went on the mission field realized she had to get control of them.
      The early church grew westward, following the path of missionaries dispatched by Smith.
      The missionary position is a position for sexual intercourse in which the man lies on top of the woman and they are facing each other.
      He had a kind of missionary zeal for the missionary position.
      n[C] organized journey/voyage with a particular aim ¶ trip
      n[U] promptness
      We are hoping to mount the first manned expedition to Mars by 2020.
      Scott died while he was on an expedition to the Antarctic in 1912.
      Forty-three members of the expedition were killed.
      The British agreed to a joint expedition with the American.
      Finally, the great expedition (the people, vehicles, animals etc taking part in an expedition) set off for the long journey to the Holy Land.
      They have gone on a fishing expedition and cast their nets far and wide.
      We will deal with your order with the greatest possible expedition.
      n[C] a small metal/wooden cupboard with a lock
      A changing room, locker room, dressing room (usually in a sports, theater or staff context) or changeroom (regional use) is a room or area designated for changing one's clothes.
      A very loud alarm would sound when the shed or locker is opened.
      It wasn't unusual for a rookie to go to his locker, put on his helmet, and find his head suddenly covered in shaving cream.
      We had several hours to wait for our train, so we left our bags in a luggage locker, and went to look around the town.
      "Does NASA know you're using that thing as a napkin holder?" "They still think it's in a secure locker at Jet Propulsion Laboratory."
      Raj was taking a shower in the locker room.
      One time while Bernadette was in gym class, Tammy Bodnick stole all her clothes and left an elf costume in her locker.
      n[C] sth that could be dangerous or cause damage/accidents
      v[IT] risk, venture
      Smoking is a serious health hazard.
      Broken glass is a hazard to bare feet.
      Wet roads are a hazard to drivers.
      An occupational hazard is something unpleasant that you may suffer or experience as a result of doing your job or hobby.
      I don't know. I'm only hazarding a guess.
      The policy hazarded the islands and put the lives of the inhabitants at risk.
      Compare hazard and handicap.
      v[T] be disloyal to a person, country, company etc ¶ show unintentionally, give away
      In wartime many people accused of betraying their country were executed.
      For years he betrayed Britain's secrets to Russia.
      Judas betrayed Jesus to the authorities.
      When I tell someone I will not betray his confidence (tell a secret which he has trusted me with) I keep my word.
      His comments betray a lack of understanding.
      Her voice betrayed the worry she was trying to hide.
      v[I] put one or both knees on the ground
      The woman came and knelt before him. "Lord, help me!" she said.
      When his life was ruined, his family killed, his farm destroyed, Job knelt down on the ground and yelled up to the heavens, "Why god?"
      As I knelt on my bathroom floor, looking at my freshly uncluttered cupboard, I started to get excited.
      Rachel Corrie, a 23-year-old American woman, was crushed and killed Sunday as she knelt in front of an Israeli Army bulldozer preparing to tear down a Palestinian home in Rafah, in southern Gaza.
      They knelt by the bed and prayed.
      With a sudden impulse she knelt beside him in the grass and, Leaning over, kissed his forehead.
      This is our year. With those guys out, the entire Physics Bowl will "kneel before Zod." "Zod?" "Kryptonian villain, long story."
      n[U] a feeling of having lost all hope
      v[I] feel ~
      He can contrast Obama's era of despair with his era of prosperity.
      In his writing, despair and hope wrestle like the Oak King and the Holly King.
      It vividly illustrates how women have turned despair into prosperity and bravely nurtured hope to cultivate a bright future.
      Heart broken and despaired, she wanted to abandon her children because she felt like she had nothing to give them, no way to support them and no hope for their future.
      "Don't despair! We'll find a way out!" said Indiana.
      He is the despair of all his teachers.
      His teachers despair of him.
      I despair at the financial policies of this government.
      n[C] sth that connects, fastens, strengthens or supports
      v[T] support sth, usu with a ~
      The miners used special braces to keep the walls from collapsing.
      A brace is a metal device that can be fastened to a child's teeth in order to help them grow straight.
      Orthodontic retainers are custom-made devices, usually made of wires or clear plastic, that hold teeth in position after surgery or any method of realigning teeth.
      I'm Susie Moss; I used to wear a brace on my teeth.
      A brace is a device attached to a part of a person's body, for example to a weak leg, in order to strengthen or support it.
      She was diagnosed with scoliosis when she was 11, so severe that she wore a back brace for 18 hours every day.
      Braces or suspenders are a pair of straps that pass over your shoulders and fasten to your trousers at the front and back in order to stop them from falling down.
      Braces, curly braces, or curly brackets are { and }.
      Workers used steel beams to brace the roof.
      If you brace yourself against something or brace part of your body against it, you press against something.
      He braced his penis against the door so she couldn't open it.
      "Here we go. Ok, brace yourself," said Chandler.
      If you brace yourself for something unpleasant or difficult, you prepare yourself for it.
      You'd better brace yourself - I have some bad news.
      n[CU] a group of states that have joined together to form a country ¶ an organization made up of several smaller organizations
      A federation (from Latin "covenant"), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government.
      The European Union (EU) is a type of political union or quasi (partly) Federation.
      The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation.
      Russia, officially known as the Russian Federation, is a country situated in northern Eurasia.
      The International Tennis Federation (ITF) is the governing body of world tennis, made up of 210 national tennis associations or corresponding organizations of independent countries or territories.
      The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA /'fiːfə/; English: International Federation of Association Football or International Federation of Soccer) is the international governing body of association football (soccer), futsal and beach soccer.
      Futsal (Portuguese pronunciation: [fut'sal]) is a variant of association football that is played on a smaller field and mainly played indoors.
      n[C] a piece of metal, wood etc with one pointed edge and one thick edge
      v[T] fix sth in position with a ~
      Push a wedge under the door to keep it open while we're carrying the boxes in.
      Jerry is eating a wedge of cheese.
      The window doesn't stay closed unless you wedge it.
      I was so tightly wedged between two other passengers; I couldn't get off the train.
      If someone drives a wedge between two people who are close, they cause ill feelings between them in order to weaken their relationship.
      If you say that something is the thin end of the wedge, you mean that it appears to be unimportant at the moment, but that it is the beginning of a bigger, more harmful development.
      n[C] a very small group of atoms that form a particular substance
      A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
      Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge.
      However, in quantum physics, organic chemistry, and biochemistry, the term molecule is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions.
      Over the span of a century, a methane molecule traps 25 times the amount of heat compared to the most abundant greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
      In this case, each 'dot' is a nicotine molecule.
      Combine them and you get a molecule of water and some energy.
      n[C] a small part ¶ a division of a number
      Even so, the new initiatives would benefit only a small fraction of today's struggling young scientists.
      These investments are a fraction of what developed countries have pledged for protecting biodiversity in developing countries.
      What fraction of all the open source software has commercial restrictions?
      A fraction (from Latin "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.
      When spoken in everyday English, a fraction describes how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, one-half, eight-fifths, three-quarters.
      A common, vulgar, or simple fraction (examples: 1/2 and 17/3) consists of an integer numerator, displayed above a line (or before a slash), and a non-zero integer denominator, displayed below (or after) that line.
      It is said to be an improper fraction, or sometimes informally top-heavy fraction, if the absolute value of the fraction is greater than or equal to 1.
      Examples of proper fractions are 2/3, -3/4, and 4/9; examples of improper fractions are 9/4, -4/3, and 3/3.
      A decimal is a fraction that is written in the form of a dot followed by one or more numbers which represent tenths, hundredths, and so on.
      v[IT] strike together with a loud metallic noise, or make sth do this
      also a noun
      Joey and Richard's swords clashed.
      He held his glass up; I clashed my glass with his.
      If two armies, groups etc clash, they start fighting.
      Protesters clashed with police.
      If two people or groups clash, they argue because they have very different beliefs and opinions.
      He has clashed repeatedly with the team coach over training schedules.
      If one color or style clashes with another, the colors or styles look ugly together.
      I can't wear red - it clashes with my green pants.
      If two events clash, they happen at the same time in a way that is inconvenient.
      Monica and Chandler's wedding clashes with Joey's work.
      Inside government, there was a clash of views.
      Yesterday saw violent clashes between police and demonstrators.
      Several people were injured in violent clashes with the police.
      Clash of the Gods is a one-hour weekly mythology television series that premiered on August 3, 2009 on the History channel.
      Compare clash, crash, crush, lash, and lush.
      v[I] grow or develop successfully
      v[T] wave sth in your hand to make people notice it
      also a noun
      If something flourishes, it is successful, active, or common, and developing quickly and strongly.
      The economy is booming and small businesses are flourishing.
      If a plant or animal flourishes, it grows well or is healthy because the conditions are right for it.
      Most plants will flourish in the rich deep soils here.
      If you flourish an object, you wave it about in a way that makes people notice it.
      She walked quickly to the desk, flourishing her cheque book.
      If you do something with a flourish, you do in a showy way so that people notice it.
      The game ended with a flourish as catcher Derek Norris threw out pinch runner Xavier Avery trying to steal second base.
      Compare flourish, flounder, and thrive.
      adj showing that sb like or approve of sb/sth ¶ suitable and likely to make sth happen or succeed
      Biden's favorable rating is 33 percent, down 5 points from last week, while his unfavorable rating is 17 percent.
      Thirty-eight percent of white women have a favorable opinion of Palin, while 45 percent of white women with a college degree have an unfavorable opinion of her.
      Christopher had on the whole formed a favorable impression of his sister's friend.
      Having fallen noticeably dandruff on the shoulders of the suit is also not intended to give a favorable impression to the other party in any way.
      Rising temperatures have also created favorable conditions for the outbreak of diseases that harm the crop.
      If a loan, agreement, rate etc is favorable, the conditions of it are reasonable and not too expensive or difficult.
      The euro countries took advantage of the favorable interest rates offered by the common currency to get into even more debt.
      These various contacts were an effort to end the war for Germany under favorable terms for an armistice.
      n[C] a very large house
      A mansion is a large dwelling house. It derives through Old French from the Latin word mansio "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb manere "to dwell".
      The English word "manse" originally defined a property large enough for the parish priest to maintain himself, but a mansion is no longer self-sustaining in this way.
      'Manor' comes from the same root—territorial holdings granted to a lord who would remain there.
      Renaissance villas such as Villa Rotonda near Vicenza were an inspiration for many later mansions, especially during the industrialisation.
      In British English a mansion block refers to a block of flats or apartments.
      In many parts of Asia, including Hong Kong and Japan, the word mansion also refers to a block of apartments.
      During July/August 1789 a significant number of French country mansions (chateaux) were destroyed by the rural population as part of the Great Fear - a symbolic rejection of the feudal rights and restraints in effect under the ancient régime.
      v[I] do what sb asks you to do, obey
      It is important that we comply with all applicable employment and labor laws within each country where Newmont operates.
      The State of Illinois is required to comply with certain hiring criteria when selecting individuals for employment.
      Failure to comply with the regulations will result in prosecution.
      Washington and its allies accused Syria's Assad of failing to comply with a peace plan drawn up by former U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan.
      The cuts were intended to comply with EU deficit targets.
      It gave Google four months to comply with its recommendation.
      n[C] a branch or stick where a bird sits ¶ high seat or position ¶ a type of freshwater fish
      also a verb
      The men sit on this, which is just a beam supported at each end over a long hole, like a lot of sparrows on a perch.
      Emma watched the parade from her perch on her father's shoulders.
      There is a big difference in the taste of white perch and silver bass; white perch are very good; silver bass are a lot fishier tasting.
      Bolt and Mitten stopped to talk to a flock of pigeons perched on a wire.
      Angela, who was wearing a dress that accents her boobs, went over to the counter and perched on a high stool.
      "Fair enough," said Mr. Zelner, perching on the corner of the desk.
      n[C] a drawing that explains sth
      Maps, line graphs, bar charts, engineering blueprints, and architects' sketches are all examples of diagrams, whereas photographs and video are not.
      A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent.
      The word graph is sometimes used as a synonym for diagram.
      There are at least the following types of diagrams: graph-based diagrams, chart-like diagrams, and other types of diagrams.
      A Venn diagram or set diagram is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of sets.
      Her PowerPoint presentation includes a Venn diagram.
      The flow diagram shows the pathways of the energy that drives machines.
      The diagram above shows the relationship between the major biological groups.