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      adj clearly and fully expressed ¶ describing or showing sex or violence very clearly
      You should be explicit about your question.
      He is clear-eyed and explicit about the burdens and challenges that come with this responsibility.
      The more explicit you are with your call to action, the more likely you'll invoke the action, so think singular and call for your customer to do one thing.
      "Well, maybe Rachel thought that with all of your history it could be, you know, implicit," said Monica.
      Ross yelled at Chandler, "That's right! Your coming out is about to get real explicit!"
      The movie contains some very explicit love scenes and a highly explicit description of torture.
      n[U] a red-brown metal, or a chemical element with the symbol Cu
      Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity.
      Pure copper is soft and malleable; a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color.
      Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys.
      Copper and its alloys have been used for thousands of years.
      Numerous copper alloys exist, many with important uses.
      Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc.
      Bronze usually refers to copper-tin alloys, but can refer to any alloy of copper such as aluminium bronze.
      The alloy of copper and nickel, called cupronickel, is used in low-denomination coins.
      The US 5-cent coin called a nickel consists of 75% copper and 25% nickel.
      Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral.
      Copper, silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table, and they share certain attributes.
      In 2005, Chile was the top mine producer of copper with at least one-third world share followed by the United States, Indonesia and Peru.
      Copper is used to describe a reddish-brown color.
      It was an outfit that made her copper hair look even more coppery than usual.
      A cooper is someone who makes barrels.
      n[U] alloy of copper and tin
      n[C] a statue etc made of ~
      Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper and the addition of other metals (usually tin) and sometimes arsenic, phosphorus, aluminium, manganese, and silicon.
      The discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and more durable than previously possible.
      The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system.
      The earliest bronze artifacts have been found in the Majiayao culture site (between 3100 and 2700 BC), and from then on, the society gradually grew into the Bronze Age.
      Phelps earned his 19th Olympic medal (15 gold, 2 silver, and 2 bronze) in the 4x200 meter freestyle relay.
      She's a remarkable girl. The youngest appeals court judge in New Jersey and a two-time Olympic bronze medallist.
      Sheldon had a a bronze dagger.
      Raj's naturally bronzed complexion means he can pull off mustard yellow in a way most guys can't.
      Compare brass and bronze.
      n[CU] an unfavorable condition, or sth that places sb in an ~
      v[T] place sb in an ~
      If you are at a disadvantage, you have a problem or difficulty which makes it harder for you to be successful.
      Many women feel at a disadvantage when buying cars.
      One disadvantage of large amounts of RAM (that you don't need) is that suspending/hibernating times are considerably longer.
      If something is to your disadvantage or works to your disadvantage, it creates difficulties for you.
      The fact that it will be off-limits to Romney is an enormous disadvantage.
      And companies would use that to my disadvantage?
      CTN improves digital literacy in the Bay Area's most disadvantaged neighborhoods.
      It also applies if you were from a disadvantaged background and had to work against the system.
      To deny that someone could be disadvantaged because of their race is to underplay a horrible history of intentionally doing just that.
      n[C] an animal, bird etc that is caught by another animal and eaten ¶ victim
      also a verb
      Energy stored in plants is eaten by animals, giving them energy. And predator animals eat their prey, which gives the predator animal energy.
      Raptors are birds of prey, such as eagles and hawks.
      Characteristics commonly associated with carnivores include organs for capturing and disarticulating prey (teeth and claws serve these functions in many vertebrates) and status as a predator.
      At the beginning of World War 2, RAF fighters generally operated in groups of three. However it was discovered that in combat one pilot would become separated from the other two and fall easy prey to enemy fighters.
      The age of consent is presently at 16, which means that grown men can target young, impressionable and vulnerable 16-year-old girls as sexual prey.
      Cats prey on mice.
      The gang has been preying on foreign tourists.
      If something preys on your mind, you cannot stop thinking and worrying about it.
      The thought that he was responsible for Jerry's death preyed on Tom's mind.
      n[U] a hard smooth stone used for building and making statues (not granite)
      n[C] a small colored glass ball used by children in games
      The Taj Mahal is entirely clad in marble.
      White marble has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times.
      Various games can be played with marbles.
      "Firing" a marble meant that a player had to flick his marble from a stationary position of his hand.
      Once a player was able to land his marble within the hole, he would immediately fire his marble at his opponents' marbles.
      To lose your marbles means to go mad, or to start behaving in a crazy way.
      Penny steps on marbles which are all over the floor, screams and falls.
      Compare these words: alabaster, feldspar, granite, and marble.
      v[I] stumble ¶ amaze ¶ arrange so not straight, or at various times ¶ continue although hard
      also a noun
      She was staggered to hear her husband's affair.
      She picked up a large suitcase and staggered to the door.
      She staggered, lost her balance, and fell.
      He has no solution for the staggering (very shocking and surprising) $16 trillion debt the nation carries - a burden his policies increase minute by minute.
      The seats are staggered so you can see pretty well.
      Rachel and Ross stagger their work hours so one of them can be at home with Emma.
      It has also introduced staggered working hours and raised parking fees in downtown areas to ease the traffic pressure.
      The government staggered from one crisis to the next.
      He staggered on for another two years.
      Monica left the bar with a drunken stagger.
      n[C] ambassador, envoy, minister etc ¶ sb who is good at dealing with people, a tactful person
      Diplomats can be contrasted with consuls and attachés, who represent their state in a number of administrative ways, but who don't have the diplomat's political functions.
      His sister Ruth married the poet and diplomat Joel Barlow, and his half-brother Henry attained the position of justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
      As Henry Kissinger, the former U.S. diplomat, once said, "The Arabs can't make war without Egypt, and they can't make peace without Syria."
      "You'll need to be a real diplomat to convince Monica that Brenda did not steal her jeans," thought Chandler.
      The United States one hundred-dollar bill is a denomination of United States currency featuring statesman, inventor, and diplomat Benjamin Franklin on the obverse of the bill.
      n[C] a period of 1,000 years ¶ the time when a new 1000-year period begins
      A millennium (plural millennia) is a period of time equal to 1000 years. It derives from the Latin mille, thousand, and annus, year.
      The ISO 8601, employed in a number of contexts, uses the astronomical calendar, in which year counting starts at 0. Thus, when using this calendar, the millennium starts at x000 and ends at x999.
      There was a popular debate leading up to the celebrations of the year 2000 as to whether the beginning of that year should be understood (and celebrated) as the beginning of a new millennium.
      Historically, there has been debate around the turn of previous decades, centuries, and millennia.
      Well, there was no year zero and since each millennium has a duration of 1000 years, then the first millennium ran from the year 1 through the year 1000, and the second millennium logically runs from 1001 through 2000. The third millennium would not begin until 2001.
      adj violent and cruel ¶ direct and clear about sth unpleasant, not caring about sb's feelings
      The Taliban have a very brutal human rights record.
      A 65-year-old pastor was recently the victim of a brutal assault by Hindu militants in Rajasthan state, India.
      After the harrowing experience of losing his mother while solving a brutal murder in London's East End, young Sherlock Holmes commits himself to fighting crime.
      "I will put it to you with the brutal frankness," he said.
      He spoke with brutal honesty - I was too old for the job.
      In computer science, brute-force search or exhaustive search, also known as generate and test, is a very general problem-solving technique that consists of systematically enumerating all possible candidates for the solution and checking whether each candidate satisfies the problem's statement.
      adj of or belonging to a town/city
      "I'd probably get some municipal bonds, and then put the rest of the money in the bank, and live off the interest," said Ross.
      Municipal securities issuers are reminded that, whether or not the offering of their securities is exempt from Rule 15c2-12, the anti-fraud provisions of the federal securities laws apply to their official statements and other disclosures.
      It is important for issuers, including municipal securities issuers, to keep in mind that the federal securities laws apply in the same manner to the content of their web sites as to any other statements made by or attributable to them.
      It provided for the readjustment of the debt burden through the corporate and municipal bankruptcy acts and the farm relief act.
      You've also got something from the Pasadena Municipal Court.
      n[C] a private church or area of worship
      A chapel is a religious place of fellowship, prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution.
      "Oh my God! It's like a fairyland," said Mrs. Geller, looking around at the chapel.
      Judy and Andrea go to the front of the chapel.
      The parents are still fighting over the bill back in the chapel.
      Rockefeller Chapel is, by order, the tallest building on the campus of the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois.
      In the printing trade, a Chapel was the traditional name given to a meeting of compositors.
      The name originates in the early history of printing in Great Britain, when printing offices were controlled by churches (hence "chapel").
      v[T] soak ¶ fill a thing or place completely
      It's pouring down outside - I'm absolutely saturated.
      The continuous rain had saturated the soil.
      He had cut his leg badly, and his pants were saturated in blood.
      We lay on the beach, saturated in sunshine.
      Our culture is saturated with television and advertising.
      "Lucky me," Rachel said, her words saturated with sarcasm.
      Samsung and Google are taking a different approach with this launch, they're going to push this device to every carrier they can to try to saturate the market.
      Saturated fat is a type of fat found in meat, eggs, milk, cheese, etc, which is thought to be bad for your health.
      n[CU] likelihood, chance ¶ sth that is likely to happen or be true
      Probability is a measure of the likeliness that an event will occur.
      There is a 99% probability that Rachel will not have glaucoma.
      There is a high probability that it will snow tonight.
      The probability of getting all the answers correct is about one in ten.
      The insurance business is all about successfully calculating probabilities.
      A rise in interest rates is a probability in the present economic climate.
      Until yesterday, the project was just a possibility, but now it has become a real probability.
      Mistakes could and, in all probability (very probably), would occur.
      Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability, the analysis of random phenomena.
      The central objects of probability theory are random variables, stochastic processes, and events.
      If an individual coin toss or the roll of dice is considered to be a random event, then if repeated many times the sequence of random events will exhibit certain patterns, which can be studied and predicted.
      Two representative mathematical results describing such patterns are the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem.
      In probability theory, the law of large numbers (LLN) is a theorem that describes the result of performing the same experiment a large number of times.
      In probability theory, the central limit theorem (CLT) states that, given certain conditions, the arithmetic mean of a sufficiently large number of iterates of independent random variables, each with a well-defined expected value and well-defined variance, will be approximately normally distributed.
      In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution is a very commonly occurring continuous probability distribution.
      n[C] a line of pipes that are connected end-to-end for long-distance fluid or gas transport
      In January, the Obama administration denied a permit for the 1,700-mile-long Keystone XL oil pipeline, which would stretch from Canada's tar sands development to the U.S. Gulf Coast.
      XL pipeline will not be used for export only, it will be another source of crude for the refineries and hopefully help cut back on their foreign imports.
      From what I have read, the reason behind the keystone pipeline going all the way to the Gulf, is because a large number of the refineries in the Gulf are located in foreign trade zones, which allows Canada to export oil to the world without paying US taxes.
      The oil is going to be exported regardless if the pipeline is created, so the argument that by not building the pipeline less oil will be pumped into the world market, thus increasing the price of gas, is ridiculous.
      In computing, a pipeline is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one.
      If something is in the pipeline, it is being prepared and it will happen or be completed soon.
      I don't have any big events in the pipeline right now.
      adj empty inside ¶ sunken
      also a noun/verb
      The tree trunk was completely hollow.
      The entire digestive system from the mouth to the anal sphincter is a single,long,hollow muscular tube about 30 feet long.
      He has those dark sunken eyes and hollow cheeks that totally look like Skeletor's skull.
      A hollow sound is low and clear like the sound made when you hit something empty.
      This tree trunk sounds hollow.
      There was a hollow thump as the cars collided.
      Something that are hollow have no real worth or value.
      It was a hollow victory - he won the case but lost all his savings in legal fees.
      Will their good intentions become realities or are they just hollow promises?
      A hollow laugh or voice makes a weak sound and is without emotion.
      Mike let out a low, hollow laugh.
      She held the small bird in the hollow of her hand.
      Hollow out the cake and fill it with cream.
      The steps were hollowed by centuries of use.
      n[C] a handgun with a chamber that is integral with the barrel
      A pistol is a type of handgun.
      The most common types of pistol are the single shot, and semi-automatic.
      A machine pistol is an (fully) automatic pistol, mechanically similar to a semi-automatic pistol but where the trigger mechanism is designed so that it will continue to fire unless the trigger is released or the magazine is empty.
      There were two of them, both carrying pistols.
      He drew his pistol, aimed and fired.
      Runners are waiting for the starting pistol.
      A water pistol is a small toy gun which shoots out water.
      adj slightly wet
      n[U] ~ areas inside a building
      v[T] make sth ~
      The room smelled damp.
      Our clothes had got a bit damp.
      The rain had made the walls damp.
      Damp had stained the walls.
      Helen damped a hand towel and laid it across Susan's forehead.
      To damp down something means to make it calmer or less intense.
      Soft material damps down vibrations.
      I find my passion for wine damped.
      v[IT] cook slowly at a temperature near boiling, or make sth do this
      also a noun
      Bring to the boil then reduce to a simmer.
      Cover the pot and let the meat simmer for 1 hour over very gentle heat, making sure a few bubbles appear every now and then.
      Skim off the foam, then lower the heat and simmer gently, partially covered, for 45 minutes to 1 hour, or until the beans are beginning to soften.
      To simmer down means to become calm again after you have been very angry.
      If you are simmering with anger, or if anger is simmering in you, you feel very angry but do not show your feelings.
      My total outrage has come down to a simmer but I am not at the point of civility, yet.
      n[UC] standard measure, esp of width or thickness ¶ an instrument for measuring the size or amount of sth
      also a verb
      Wire gauge is a measurement of how large a wire is, either in diameter or cross sectional area.
      The gauge of a firearm is a unit of measurement used to express the diameter of the barrel.
      The standard gauge (also Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, UIC (track) gauge, International gauge or normal gauge) is a widely used railway track gauge.
      In engineering, a gauge or gage is a device used to make measurements or in order to display certain information.
      A bore gauge is a device used for measuring holes.
      The thermostat will gauge the temperature and control the heat.
      They're having a lecture. H-O gauge railroading. Half the size of O-gauge, but twice the fun. Very controversial topic.
      Unlike some people, I'm going in with an open mind. Who am I kidding? Of course we all know it's O-gauge or no gauge.
      You write your sins on a clay pigeon, they fire 'em up in the air, and you pulverize them with a 12-gauge shotgun full of our Lord's forgiveness.
      I snuck a look at him to gauge his reaction.
      v[T] take sb away illegally by force, usu in order to demand ransom in exchange for releasing them
      also a noun
      In 1756 the young son and daughter of an Ibo tribal elder in what is now Nigeria were kidnapped for the slave trade.
      They get the information, but when they deny having it, their daughter Betty is kidnapped.
      First off, Conan has his own ideas: he kidnaps Yasmina so that he can ransom her back to her people in return for the Afghuli prisoners.
      A kidnap plot by John Wilkes Booth fails when Lincoln fails to arrive as expected at the Soldiers Home.
      A 15-year-old girl named Janie Johnson found out she was kidnapped, and her biological parents are somewhere in New Jersey. She happened to look down at a milk carton one day, and she sees herself on a milk carton under the heading "Missing Child."
      A home invasion is an illegal and usually forceful entry to an occupied, private dwelling with violent intent to commit a crime against the occupants, such as robbery, assault, rape, murder, or kidnapping.
      v[IT] move/swing gently from side to side, or make sth do this ¶ influence or change sb's opinion
      n[C] the movement/power
      The trees were swaying gently in the breeze.
      Remember the latin hips. Shoulders stay still, and we sway.
      She swayed her hips seductively as she danced.
      She will not easily be swayed by argument.
      The sway of the ferry made me feel sick.
      The situation of India under British administration is far better than under the sway of the East India Company and its private interests.
      n[UC] urge ¶ stimulus ¶ a short electrical signal
      An impulse is a wish or urge, particularly a sudden one.
      She gave in to an impulse and took the money.
      If you do something on impulse, you suddenly decide to do it, without planning it.
      On impulse, Rachel picked up the phone and rang Mindy.
      An impulse purchase or impulse buying is an unplanned decision to buy a product or service, made just before a purchase. One who tends to make such purchases is referred to as an impulse purchaser or impulse buyer.
      Joey was an impulse buyer.
      The little pink designer lingerie had been an impulse buy.
      Its goal is to give an impulse to changes towards sustainable development in Latin America.
      In signal processing, an impulse is a brief input signal.
      Radio waves are converted into electrical impulses.
      The eye converts light signals to nerve impulses.
      In classical mechanics, impulse may be defined or calculated as the product of the average force multiplied by the time over which the force is exerted.
      The longer the club remains in contact with the ball the greater the impulse.
      n[U] the ability to do sth well ¶ legal authority
      Confidence in the competence and trustworthiness of the Japanese nuclear industry has been evaporating as fast as the water that once covered the highly radioactive fuel of the Fukushima reactors.
      RIM has displayed very little competence developing software or platforms since the iPhone launched in 2007, and there's little reason to believe that it will suddenly leapfrog Apple and Google in enough areas to matter.
      Programmers have to constantly update their knowledge to maintain their professional competence.
      Working overtime is now considered by most employers to be a basic competence.
      Many legal issues are within the competence of individual states rather than the federal government.
      If you refer to someone's incompetence, you are criticizing them because they are unable to do their job or a task properly.
      n[CU] the part of your mind that tells you whether your actions are right or wrong ¶ a guilty feeling about sth you have done or failed to do
      If you have a guilty conscience, you feel guilty about something because you know it was wrong.
      It was not my guilty conscience that made me offer to help.
      If you have a clear conscience, you do not feel guilty because you know you have done nothing wrong.
      I can face them all with a clear conscience.
      The cat's sad look pricked Rachel's conscience and she took her home.
      Ross felt a pang of conscience at having cheated on Rachel.
      A social conscience is "a sense of responsibility or concern for the problems and injustices of society."
      It's a movie with a social conscience.
      Emily's parents have no conscience at all about cheating.
      If you say that you cannot do something in (all/good) conscience, you mean that you cannot do it because you think it is wrong.
      I couldn't in all conscience tell Nina that her job was safe.
      If you have something on your conscience, you feel guilty because you know you have done something wrong.
      I don't want somebody's loss of job on my conscience.
      Prisoner of conscience (POC) is a term coined by Peter Benenson in a 28 May 1961 article ("The Forgotten Prisoners") for the London Observer newspaper. Most often associated with the human rights organisation Amnesty International, the term can refer to anyone imprisoned because of their race, sexual orientation, religion, or political views.