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      v[I] (of birds etc) remain in the air in one place ¶ stay somewhere ¶ stay at or near a particular level
      Many birds and insects can hover by moving their wings very quickly.
      Beautiful butterflies hovered above the wild flowers.
      I noticed several reporters hovering around outside the courtroom.
      They were hovering anxiously outside.
      Inflation is hovering at 13%.
      A hovercraft is a vehicle that is capable of moving over land or water while supported on a cushion of air made by jet engines.
      The :hover selector is used to select elements when you mouse over them.
      The :hover selector can be used on all elements, not only on links.
      n[U] the quality of having an independent authority over a geographic area
      Sovereignty is understood in jurisprudence as the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
      In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity.
      Iraq's sovereignty is its own.
      With the sovereignty of parliament it means that the courts duties only as far as ascertaining and giving effect to the will of parliament and by no means can they ever declare any acts of parliament as invalid.
      The concept of sovereignty has been discussed throughout history, from the time before recorded history through to the present day.
      It has changed in its definition, concept, and application throughout, especially during the Age of Enlightenment.
      The current notion of state sovereignty contains four aspects consisting of territory, population, authority and recognition.
      adj previously
      Thailand is formerly known as Siam.
      Ho Chi Minh City was formerly called Saigon.
      The European Union was formerly called the European Community.
      Formerly a comic-book artist and writer, Mr. Waxman earns his living doing photo retouching out of his apartment in Astoria, Queens.
      He was formerly the governor of Massachusetts from 2002 to 2006 and previously ran for the Republican presidential nomination in 2008.
      Super 8 Worldwide, formerly Super 8 Motels, is the world's largest budget hotel chain, with motels in the United States and Canada, as well as newer properties in China.
      n[C] an alcoholic drink made from a mixture of different drinks ¶ a mixture of several things
      Carol and Susan are in the bar sipping cocktails. Carol's favorite cocktail is Angel's Delight, Susan prefers La Vie En Rouge.
      The margarita is a cocktail consisting of tequila, triple sec (such as Cointreau) and lime or lemon juice, often served with salt on the rim of the glass.
      The Martini is a cocktail made with gin and vermouth, and garnished with an olive or a lemon twist.
      A typical grasshopper cocktail consists of equal parts green Crème de menthe, white Crème de cacao and fresh cream, shaken with ice and strained into a chilled cocktail glass.
      A cocktail dress is a dress that is suitable for formal social occasions.
      A cocktail party is a party, usually held in the early evening, where cocktails or other alcoholic drinks are served. People often dress quite formally for them.
      "When the transvestite lived here, you didn't care how he kept the place." "Because it was immaculate. I mean, you opened that man's closet, it was left to right evening gowns, cocktail dresses, then his police uniforms."
      A fruit cocktail is a mixture of small pieces of fruit.
      A seafood, shrimp, prawn or lobster cocktail is small pieces of fish, shrimps, prawns, or lobster served cold with a sauce and eaten as the first part of a meal.
      Common names for the species include "cocktail shrimp", "hardback prawn", "southern rough prawn", and the name preferred by the Food and Agriculture Organization, "southern rough shrimp".
      A Molotov cocktail is a simple bomb made by putting petrol and cloth into a bottle. It is exploded by setting fire to the cloth.
      v[T] cut or tear sth into small thin pieces
      also a noun
      Coleslaw is made with shredded cabbage.
      Finely shred the lettuce leaves.
      Her clothes were ripped to shreds and covered in blood.
      We were shredding top-secret documents.
      The skin across her chest was shredded as if she'd been whipped with barbed wire.
      Their case was torn to shreds by the defense lawyer.
      Within a year, other researchers had torn the theory to shreds.
      There is not a shred of doubt in my mind that we will win.
      You don't have a shred of evidence to prove your claim.
      v[IT] revolve ¶ take turns, or make sb/sth do this
      The Earth rotates round the sun.
      The Earth rotates on its axis once every 24 hours.
      The Earth rotates 360 degrees every 24 hours.
      Rotating the tires every few months helps them last longer.
      Employers may rotate duties to give staff wider experience.
      The post of chairman rotates among members of the committee.
      v[T] amaze, astound
      I am now going to say something that will astonish you.
      I have a feeling that some day that little island will astonish Europe.
      "You talked to Penny about our sex life?" "Leonard, it astonishes me how you continually fixate on the trivial. I lost a bet to Wolowitz."
      I won! This is astonishing. Not that I won the award, no one deserves it more. Actually, I guess I misspoke. It's not astonishing, more like inevitable.
      Do you really think death threats are an appropriate way to begin this conversation? Sometimes your lack of social skills astonishes me.
      adj ≠theoretical, hypothetical
      Empirical evidence (also empirical data, sense experience, empirical knowledge, or the a posteriori) is a source of knowledge acquired by means of observation or experimentation. The term comes from the Greek word for experience.
      All theories need to be backed up with solid empirical data.
      In science, an empirical relationship is one based solely on observation rather than theory.
      Empirical research is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience.
      A scientific theory is empirical, and is always open to falsification if new evidence is presented.
      Cognitive Psychology is an empirical science and depends on careful experimental procedures and paradigms to test theories about these mental processes.
      Imperial is used to refer to things or people that are or were connected with an empire.
      adj happening a lot and affecting many people
      also a noun
      Several of the players became seriously ill with the flu, which had reached epidemic proportions throughout North America and the world in 1918 and 1919.
      As the cholera epidemic rages in Haiti, the UN denies responsibility for introducing the disease despite mounting evidence.
      The return of the International AIDS conference to the U.S. marks a moment to celebrate the American leadership and efforts that have transformed the response to the epidemic, to remember the lives lost to this disease, and to recommit to the vision of an AIDS-free generation.
      A few years ago, the Canadian Global Public Health Information Network, looking for patterns in global health reports, spotted the onset of the SARS epidemic before the World Health Organization did.
      The current epidemic of obesity also has prehistoric roots.
      adj violent and angry ¶ intense
      The town was captured after a fierce battle with rebels at the weekend.
      Two hundred men were shot during fierce fighting at the weekend.
      A fierce animal or person is very aggressive or angry.
      Rachel turned around, looking fierce.
      Two fierce eyes glared at Ross.
      Fierce feelings or actions are very intense or enthusiastic, or involve great activity.
      He was a craftsman who took a fierce pride in his work.
      Fierce conditions are very intense, great, or strong.
      The climbers were trapped by a fierce storm which went on for days.
      We face fierce competition from overseas competitors.
      The plan met with fierce opposition.
      n[C] the opinion that you have about yourself, self-esteem ¶ the part of your mind with which you think and take action
      If someone has a large ego, they think they are very important and valuable.
      She has such an enormous ego - I've never known anyone so full of themselves!
      The occurrence left her with a badly bruised ego.
      I'm glad she got the job - she needed something to boost her ego.
      If you say that someone is on an ego trip, you are criticizing them for doing something for their own satisfaction and enjoyment, often to show that they think they are more important than other people.
      Rachel's life is just one big ego trip.
      Id, ego and super-ego are the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche.
      According to this model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends; the super-ego plays the critical and moralizing role; and the ego is the organized, realistic part that mediates between the desires of the id and the super-ego. The super-ego can stop one from doing certain things that your id may want to do.
      An alter ego (Latin, "the other I") is a second self, which is believed to be distinct from a person's normal or original personality.
      A person who has an alter ego is said to lead a double life.
      Superman's alter ego is Clark Kent.
      You can describe the character that an actor usually plays on television or in films as his or her alter ego.
      An alter ego is an intimate friend.
      Mrs. Reagan was widely regarded as the President's alter ego.
      She's my alter ego; we go everywhere together.
      adj intrinsic
      A quality that is inherent in something is a natural part of it and cannot be separated from it.
      An inherent quality is a basic or essential feature that gives something its character.
      Mountain climbing has an inherent risk of injury or death.
      There is always an inherent risk in the creation of new ETFs, particularly those based on relatively small commodity markets like PGMs.
      There is an inherent contradiction in the Bush administration's agenda of imperialism and spreading democracy, because the U.S.'s dominant position in the Middle East will only be threatened and weakened by the results of democratic elections in the region. This book was published too soon to mention it, but the recent Hamas victory in the Palestinian elections serves as proof of Hadar's argument.
      Rear-wheel-drive cars have inherent advantages in handling, cornering and weight distribution.
      v[IT] make fun of sb/sth, esp by mimicking them ¶ make sth seem completely useless
      adj not real, but intended to be very similar to a real situation etc
      also a noun
      See, there's always one guy. (Mocking) "If I had a wish, I'd wish for three more wishes."
      It is wrong to mock the disabled.
      The heavy steel door mocked our attempts to open it.
      Violent attacks like this mock the peace process.
      Find best value and selection for your mock leather jacket search on eBay.
      In my opinion I felt the mock test is not sufficient to prepare you for real exam.
      I'm revising for my mocks.
      v[IT] develop a mark to appear on the skin by hitting or knocking it, or make sth do this
      n[C] the mark.
      I bump into things, bruise my arms and legs and generally lose a sense of space when in that 48 hour span.
      Ross bruises like a peach.
      Don't drop the peaches; they bruise easily.
      I'm lucky; I am just covered in bruises after falling off my mountain bike.
      Sorry. I'm moving a little slow. I think I bruised my coccyx.
      The door opens. Rachel is standing there. Her coat is muddy and torn, her hair is disheveled and her face is bruised.
      Peter had a torn rotator cuff, a hairline fracture in his right forearm, and a severely bruised Adam's Apple.
      v[I] tremble
      n[C] tremble
      When you shiver, your body shakes slightly because you are cold or frightened.
      Rachel takes off her robe and starts to shiver.
      Monica walks over to where Chandler is bundled up in a big coat and shivering.
      I shivered at the thought of going into the dark house alone.
      I shivered with fear.
      A shiver went through me.
      n[U] the act of officially stopping sth for a period of time ¶ the equipment that makes a vehicle move smoothly when it goes over bumpy roads ¶ a liquid with very small pieces of solid matter floating in it
      The suspension of fighting is to take effect at 6 am on Monday.
      Someone's suspension is their removal from a job or position for a period of time or until a decision is made about them.
      Ross received a six-month suspension for dating Elizabeth.
      He appealed against his suspension.
      A sabbatical is a period of time during which someone such as a university teacher can leave their ordinary work and travel or study.
      A vehicle's suspension consists of the springs, shock absorbers etc, which give a smooth ride over uneven ground.
      The poor suspension gives a rather bumpy ride.
      An example of a suspension would be sand in water. The suspended particles are visible under a microscope and will settle over time if left undisturbed.
      This distinguishes a suspension from a colloid, in which the suspended particles are smaller and do not settle.
      A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that is supported from above by cables.
      The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean.
      v[T] make sb laugh or smile ¶ entertain
      She made funny faces to amuse the kids.
      It amused me to think back to my life in Hong Kong.
      I think he was highly amused by me, and our conversations.
      The kids amused themselves playing hide-and-seek.
      It's supposed to be that small. It's a pre-appetizer. The French call it an amuse-bouche.
      adj not strong, delicate
      Be careful with that vase - it's very fragile.
      Most of the exhibits are too fragile to be sent abroad.
      Launching a startup in today's fragile economy has its risks.
      He felt rather fragile for a few days after the operation.
      Dr. Green is now 69 and in fragile health.
      n[C] backbone ¶ a stiff sharp point on an animal or plant ¶ the edge of a book where all the pages are attached ¶ courage or determination
      Sadako told me a spine-chilling ghost story.
      An icy chill slid up my spine.
      I have lesions in my brainstem, cerebellum, cerebrum, upper and lower spine.
      He injured his spine in a riding accident.
      He sustained an injury to his spine when he fell off his bike.
      Thorns, spines, and prickles are needle-like structures in plants.
      I tripped into a mess of cactus spines, dragged myself up and screeched obscenities as I climbed higher.
      Spines in mammals include the prickles of hedgehogs and the quills of porcupines as well as the prickly fur of spiny mice.
      In bookbinding, a spine is the closed edge of the book along which the pages are bound.
      He'll never do it - he's got no spine.
      The coccyx is the small bone at the bottom of the spine.
      v[IT] slope at a particular angle, or tend to feel sth or want to do sth, or make sth do this
      n[C] a slope
      The land inclines gradually downward toward the Dead Sea.
      Mrs. Cooper inclined her head in prayer.
      The accident inclined me to reconsider my career.
      Rachel inclines to laziness, in other words, she's inclined to be lazy.
      Ross is inclined to trust Chandler.
      Phoebe's mother was an artistically inclined woman who was fond of pottery.
      We climbed quite quickly considering the steep incline covered in loose pieces of slate.
      n[C] a poor person of low social status who works on the land ¶ sb with rough unrefined manners
      Peasants typically made up the majority of the agricultural labor force in a pre-industrial society.
      The majority of the people in the Middle Ages were peasants.
      Farmers in China have been sometimes referred to as "peasants" in English language sources.
      However, the traditional term for farmer, nongfu, simply refers to "farmer" or "agricultural worker."
      Peasant women with scarves around their heads were working in the fields.
      Penny's ex-boyfriend, Kurt, is an absolute peasant.
      v[T] make clear by removing impurities or solid matter ¶ make sth clearer or easier to understand
      Clarified butter is milk fat rendered from butter to separate the milk solids and water from the butterfat.
      A clarifying shampoo can help remove those deposits, give your hair a fresh start, and restore shine.
      Senator, could you clarify your remarks?
      Reporters asked him to clarify his position (say exactly what his beliefs are) on health care reform.
      Thanks for clarifying your remarks.
      No problem, I hope that what I said clarified the situation.
      n[UC] an opinion formed beforehand, esp an unfavorable one based on inadequate facts
      also a verb
      Pride and Prejudice is a novel by Jane Austen, first published in 1813.
      We all have prejudices of some kind.
      Raj complained of racial prejudice at the university.
      Some companies are prejudiced against taking on employees who are over the age of 40.
      There is widespread prejudice against programmers over 35.
      A criminal record will prejudice your chances of getting a job.
      The newspaper reported his remarks, to the prejudice (to the harm/damage of) of his chances of being elected.
      The firm agreed to pay compensation without prejudice (without admitting guilt; without dismissing or detracting from an existing right or claim).
      n[C] a group of birds, sheep, or goats ¶ crowd
      v[I] gather together in a large group
      A flock of geese was seen just south of Orlando, Florida.
      The shepherd was bringing his flock down from the hills.
      He kept a small flock of sheep.
      People came in flocks to see the royal procession.
      "Oh, my flock! Oh no no, my flock, my flock is good, Yeah, my flock pretty much takes care of themselves by this point. Good flock. Flock, flock, flock," said Reverend Monica.
      Huge numbers of birds had flocked together by the lake.
      If the Jews abandon Obama and flocked behind Romney and conservative values they may be worth saving.
      v[T] stop opposition, esp by using force ¶ stop sth from being known/seen ¶ stop feelings from being expressed ¶ stop sth from growing/developing
      The threat to the Suez Canal caused the British to intervene in Egypt to suppress the revolt of the Egyptian army officers in 1882.
      That night Erno Gero called on military intervention from the Soviet Union to suppress the uprising.
      The dictator tried to suppress all criticism of him.
      Melissa thought of Ray-ray and suppressed a smile.
      State monopolies had suppressed all forms of economic competition.
      The medication effectively suppressed the pain.