LearnTest 1Test 2Test 3Up

      n[C] a book or document written by hand before printing was invented ¶ the original copy of a book or article before it is printed
      A manuscript is any document written by hand, as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way.
      Before the arrival of printing, all documents and books were manuscripts.
      In publishing and academic contexts, a manuscript is the text submitted to the publisher or printer in preparation for publication, regardless of the format. Until recently a typescript prepared on a typewriter was usual, but today a digital file with a printout, prepared in manuscript format is most common. Manuscripts are normally required by publishing companies before being published.
      In 1994, Bill Gates bought something that not many can brag about: one of Leonardo da Vinci's manuscripts.
      The manuscript, which Gates bought for $30.8 million, is the only Leonardo manuscript still in private hands.
      J. K. Rowling was delighted when the manuscript was accepted for publication.
      She sent the 223-page manuscript to her publisher.
      n[UC] an area of soft wet land
      A marsh is a type of wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
      Marshes can often be found at the edges of lakes and streams.
      White water lilies are a typical marsh plant in European areas of deeper water.
      Swamps are wetlands that have trees and are usually found along river flood plains and poorly drained basins.
      Shrek, a solitary ogre, finds a surprise when fairy tale creatures are sent to live in his swamp by the evil Lord Farquaad.
      Marshes, on the other hand, are treeless wetlands that are characterized by the growth of luscious plants, such as cattails, reeds, and grass.
      Marshmallow is a sugar candy that, in its modern form, typically consists of sugar, whipped to a spongy consistency, molded into small cylindrical pieces, and coated with corn starch.
      adj relating to the voice or done with the voice ¶ outspoken
      n[C] the part of a piece of music that is sung
      Vocal folds are also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds.
      Vocal cords vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation.
      You say that people are vocal when they express strong opinions publicly.
      Hugo's mother, Joanne, is a vocal supporter of the campaign and believes that two years is too long to wait.
      He was a vocal opponent of the plan.
      The lead vocal was split to several tracks with different EQ settings for different parts of the song.
      Warren' s brother has replaced Sean on vocals giving them more of an early L.A. punk sound.
      "Because" is a song written by John Lennon and recorded by the Beatles in 1969.
      It features a prominent three-part vocal harmony by Lennon, McCartney and George Harrison, overdubbed twice to make nine voices in all.
      n[UC] a flower or the flowers on a tree or bush
      also a verb
      How sadly beautiful, the cherry tree was covered in blossom.
      The pear trees looked beautiful in (full) blossom.
      The peach trees are just beginning to blossom.
      If someone or something blossoms (out), they develop good, attractive, or successful qualities.
      Rachel's blossomed out in her new school.
      "Set another place for Thanksgiving. My entire family thinks I have VD," said Joey.
      "Tonight, on a very special blossom," said Chandler.
      adj lacking in integrity; immoral; dishonest ¶ containing errors
      also a verb
      The word corrupt when used as an adjective literally means "utterly broken".
      The word was first used by Aristotle and later by Cicero who added the terms bribe and abandonment of good habits.
      "When I grow up I want to be an official," the schoolgirl replied. "What kind of official?" the interviewer asked. "A corrupt official because corrupt officials have a lot of things."
      We occasionally get a corrupt data download and you will see some strange results.
      Young prisoners are being corrupted by the older, long-term offenders.
      If all porn is bad then centuries of it have corrupted us all (I understand why some people would agree it has).
      n[C] an icy small Solar System body
      A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, heats up and begins to outgas, displaying a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail.
      Comet nuclei range from a few hundred metres to tens of kilometres across and are composed of loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles.
      Comets have a wide range of orbital periods, ranging from several years to several millions of years.
      Comets are distinguished from asteroids by the presence of an extended, gravitationally unbound atmosphere surrounding their central nucleus.
      As of July 2013 there were 4,894 known comets, and this number is steadily increasing.
      As of August 2014 there are 5,186 known comets, a number which is steadily increasing.
      Halley's Comet is going to come back in 2061.
      v[IT] break sth into very small pieces ¶ weaken in strength and influence
      n[U] a pudding
      "That's the way the cookie crumbles", or "that’s the way the ball bounces", means that bad things sometimes happen and there is nothing you can do to prevent it, so it is not worth becoming upset about it.
      Rachel crumbled the biscuits to make trifle.
      If something, especially something made of stone or rock, is crumbling, small pieces are breaking off it.
      Why did the Roman Empire crumble? There were many reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire.
      Ross' determination crumbled (away) as soon as he saw Rachel.
      A crumble, also known as a brown betty, is a dish of British origin that can be made in a sweet or savory version.
      A crumb is a very small piece of dry food, especially bread or cake.
      If you crumple something such as paper or cloth, or if it crumples, it is squashed and becomes full of untidy creases and folds.
      Compare these words: crumb, crumble, and crumple.
      v[T] show sth clearly
      adj obvious
      n[C] list of passengers/goods on a ship etc
      Phoebe manifested an unwillingness to sit and talk to Ross.
      The workers chose to manifest their dissatisfaction in a series of strikes.
      Musical talent usually manifests itself in childhood.
      Her manifest lack of interest in her studies has provoked severe scolding.
      "There has been no manifest error of assessment or misuse of powers," said the official.
      A manifest or ship's manifest is a document listing the cargo, passengers, and crew of a ship, aircraft, or vehicle, for the use of customs and other officials.
      The customs authorities may require cargo carrying vessels or vehicles to provide information on the manifest such as its consignor, consignee, quantity of goods, origin, destination and value.
      n[U] the right to stay permanently in a teaching job ¶ the period of time during which sb holds an important job ¶ the legal right to live in a house or use a piece of land
      A tenured professor is one who has a permanent job contract in a higher institution of learning after a probationary time frame of six or seven years.
      Under the tenure systems adopted as internal policy by many universities and colleges in the United States and Canada, some faculty positions are with tenure and some are not.
      The tenured positions are considered senior positions and have job titles such as Professor and Associate Professor.
      Academic tenure is primarily intended to guarantee the right to academic freedom: it protects teachers and researchers when they dissent from prevailing opinion, openly disagree with authorities of any sort, or spend time on unfashionable topics.
      Thus academic tenure is similar to the lifetime tenure that protects some judges from external pressure.
      Prominent examples include William Howard Taft's tenure as Chief Justice of the United States and Herbert Hoover's work on government reorganization after World War II.
      Leasehold is a form of land tenure or property tenure where one party buys the right to occupy land or a building for a given length of time.
      Ross bought a bottle of Israeli champagne after he got tenure.
      He had been granted tenure at the university.
      He was one of the few lecturers in the department who had tenure.
      n[CU] a film or television program that is based on a book or play ¶ the process of changing sth to make it suitable for a new situation
      The creative team for "The Hobbit," the long-awaited live-action film adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkien' s novel about the diminutive fantasy hero Bilbo Baggins, has shrunk.
      The television adaptation of the stage play was not successful.
      His musical accomplishments include 1999's The Civil War and some of the songs in the 1995 stage adaptation of Victor/Victoria.
      They specialize in the adaptation of industrial buildings for housing.
      Evolution occurs as a result of adaptation to new environments.
      The Aztec calendar was an adaptation of the Mayan calendar.
      v[T] make sb angry/annoyed ¶ cause a reaction/feeling
      I am not easily provoked, but your behavior is intolerable!
      He was sensitive and easily provoked.
      If you provoke the dog, it will bite you.
      The dog would not have attacked if it hadn't been provoked.
      The report is likely to provoke discussion of this issue.
      My goal is to surprise you, provoke you, and make you see the world in a different way.
      n[C] part of a circle or a curved line ¶ a flash of light formed by the flow of electricity between two points
      also a verb
      In geometry, a circular arc is a segment of a circle.
      In the above diagram, a circular sector is shaded in green. Its curved boundary of length L is a circular arc.
      A minute of arc, arcminute, or minute arc, is a unit of angular measurement equal to 1/60 of one degree.
      The ball rose in a high arc and fell behind the boundary line.
      In Engineering, an arc or arch is a bowed or curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight.
      An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).
      Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point.
      They were bright red streaks, maybe 200 or 300 of them, and they arced up and then vanished.
      n[U] a fine cloth made with patterns of many very small holes ¶ a thick piece of string used for tying shoes or edges of a piece of clothing
      v[T] tie
      "So, I'll get candles and my mom's lace tablecloth," said Monica.
      "We can cut around the stain, add a little lace to make an attractive throw," said Alice.
      Monica's holding two frilly lace nighties.
      Your shoe laces are undone.
      Tie up your shoelaces, Betty.
      She sat on the steps and laced up her boots.
      I have a good pair of skates, but no matter how tightly I lace them, my ankles wobble.
      To lace food or drink with a substance such as alcohol or a drug means to put a small amount of the substance into the food or drink.
      Fun Bobby likes coffee laced with Irish whiskey.
      Mikes' dad laced his mother's food with sleeping pills.
      v[I] travel regularly to and from work
      n[C] the journey
      I live in The Bronx and commutes (in).
      I commute from The Bronx to Manhattan 5 days a week.
      I commute by subway.
      It's at least an hour's commute to work.
      My commute takes an hour.
      I have a long daily commute, and I like to use that time to listen to audiobooks or podcasts.
      If you commute something for/into something else, you exchange one thing for another.
      If a death/prison sentence is commuted to a less serious punishment, it is changed to that punishment.
      n[C] a group of actors etc who regularly perform together ¶ a group of things ¶ a set of clothes
      In 1998, Master Lu performed in an instrumental ensemble with Aboriginal performers.
      Eine kleine Nachtmusik (Serenade No. 13 for strings in G major), K. 525, is a 1787 composition for a chamber ensemble by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
      Session musicians are instrumental and vocal performers who are available to work with others at live performances or recording sessions. Usually such musicians are not permanent members of a musical ensemble and often do not achieve fame in their own right as soloists or bandleaders.
      It also features some most interesting fusions of culture and style, including an ensemble of Indian, African, Brazilian, and Cuban percussionists.
      The arrangement of the furniture formed a pleasing ensemble.
      She bought a dress and matching hat, gloves and shoes - in fact the whole ensemble.
      I'm sure you can imagine how stressful it's been trying to coordinate this ensemble.
      A pair of white shoes will complete the striking ensemble.
      "This entire ensemble once belonged to my dead grandmother," said Amy.
      n[C] a glass building used for growing plants
      A greenhouse is a glass building in which you grow plants that need to be protected from bad weather.
      Greenhouses can be divided into glass greenhouses and plastic greenhouses.
      Greenhouses allow for greater control over the growing environment of plants.
      The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions.
      A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range.
      The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.
      v[T] look at or consider sth thoughtfully ¶ consider possibility that something is true
      The queen stood contemplating her image in the mirror.
      "You're only 65, way too young to be contemplating retirement," said the official.
      It's awful to contemplate the possibility of the immortality of the world's worst assholes.
      Animals don't contemplate their existence; they just eat, poop, and procreate.
      The thought that Snow White might be dead was too terrible to contemplate.
      v[T] attach a group or organization to a larger one
      also a noun
      In 1957, Canterbury College became the first Anglican college in the world to affiliate with a Roman Catholic University.
      The Peace Congress is affiliated to the World Peace Council and is a founding member of the Canadian Peace Alliance.
      If you affiliate yourself to/with something, you join or become connected with a larger group or organization.
      He fled Germany after the war, and in the 1960s and 1970s affiliated himself with the communist movement.
      On February 25, 1962, the Korea Taekwondo Association became the 27th affiliate to join the Korea Amateur Sports Association.
      n[U] the activity of fighting a war ¶ any violent struggle or conflict
      Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
      Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
      Biological warfare (also known as germ warfare) is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, smallpox, and fungi with intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
      Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as armed civilians or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
      Asymmetric warfare is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differs significantly.
      Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations and covert operations during wartime.
      Various techniques in psychological warfare are aimed at influencing a target audience's value system, belief system, emotions, motives, reasoning, or behavior.
      The attack raised fears of gang warfare between the area's South Asian and Caribbean gangs because residents identified the car-borne assailants as black.
      n[U] an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are controlled by private owners with the goal of making profits in a market economy
      Capitalism is an economic system and a mode of production in which trade, industries, and the means of production are largely or entirely privately owned.
      Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets and wage labor.
      The history of capitalism can be traced back to early forms of merchant capitalism practiced in Western Europe during the Middle Ages.
      Much of the history of the past five hundred years is concerned with the development of capitalism in its various forms.
      The transition from the feudal organization of society to early forms of capitalism happened in periods differing from country to country.
      The Pew Research Center survey released in December 2011 uncovered this startling finding: More 18- to 29-year-old Americans have positive views of socialism than of capitalism.
      Apple is not the pinnacle of capitalism. It's the pinnacle of the marriage of Silicon Valley innovation with strategic Asian mercantilism.
      n[C] an example, pattern or model
      Big data will change the paradigm of the industry.
      If Republican voters wanted a paradigm shift in Washington, they had a candidate in Governor Perry who was inclined to fight for one.
      The results of the 2012 elections represent a paradigm shift in U.S. energy policy.
      Since the 1960s, paradigm has been used in science to refer to a theoretical framework, as when Nobel Laureate David Baltimore cited the work of two colleagues that really established a new paradigm for our understanding of the causation of cancer.
      An inflectional paradigm is a class of words with similar inflection rules.
      Penny! Hold on. Just to clarify, because there will be a discussion when you leave, is your objection solely to our presence in the apartment while you were sleeping, or do you also object to the imposition of a new organizational paradigm.
      I was going to characterize it as the modification of our colleague slash friendship paradigm with the addition of a date like component.
      But our society has undergone a paradigm shift. In the Information Age, Sheldon, you and I are the alpha males.
      It's unbelievable. It's paradigm-altering.
      v[IT] guess ¶ buy and sell stocks etc in the hope of making a large profit
      If you speculate about something, you guess about the possible causes or effects of something, without knowing all the facts or details.
      There was no point speculating about the possibility of Ross and Rachel getting back together.
      "Mm, it's hard to say. I can only speculate based on the data I collected watching my parents' marriage implode. In that case, the woman dives into religion, while the man dives into a bottle-blonde bartender who tries to buy my love with action figures," said Sheldon.
      Archaeologists speculate that people first reached the islands over 10,000 years ago.
      "We can only speculate as to this man's identity," said Sherlock.
      I become a millionaire by speculating in stocks; I used to be a billionaire.
      n[U] failure, death, destruction or any very bad situation that cannot be avoided
      v[T] make sb/sth certain to fail, die, be destroyed etc
      I have been told that animals can sense impending doom, and will behave strangely right before a significant natural event - such as a tornado, earthquake, or tsunami.
      Such a default would spell doom for the country's banks, which own massive quantities of Spanish government bonds that would suddenly become worthless.
      Sixteen million people met their doom (died) in World War 1.
      Doom and gloom, or gloom and doom, is a deeply pessimistic outlook or feeling.
      The movie, 2012, was filled with doom and gloom.
      A Doom is a traditional English term for a painting or other image of the Last Judgment in Christian eschatology when Christ judges souls to sends them to either Heaven or Hell.
      Doom is a series of first-person shooter video games developed by id Software.
      "We're doomed. They're gonna take 50 bucks a month out of our accounts for the rest of our lives," said Chandler.
      Sometimes, somebody is doomed from birth.
      If we don't take control of our financial future, we are doomed to be completely dominated by the Chinese.
      Doom (typeset as DOOM in official documents) is a 1993 science fiction horror-themed first-person shooter (FPS) video game by id Software.
      Justice League: Doom is an animated direct-to-video superhero film.
      n[UC] sth that is intended to show your respect or admiration ¶ indication of the effectiveness of sth ¶ money given by one country or ruler to another
      A tribute act (performer) is a music group, singer, or musician who specifically plays the music of a well-known music act.
      Most tribute acts are groups (tribute band or tribute group) and are tributes to a group.
      If you pay (a) tribute to someone or something, you express your admiration or respect for them.
      To celebrate 50 years of Bond movies, we pay tribute to the man who started it all.
      Kennedy paid tribute to the many volunteers, like Rhodes-Hughes, who had assisted his campaign.
      Floral tributes are arrangements of flowers that are usually made up to be given/displayed at a funeral.
      It was a tribute to his teaching methods that so many students passed the test.
      A tribute (from Latin "contribution") is wealth, often in kind, that one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
      The medieval Mongol rulers of Russia likewise only expected tribute from the Russian states, which continued to govern themselves.
      adj having doubts
      I'm sceptical of what I read in the proposal.
      I'm extremely sceptical as to whether the plan would succeed.
      Skeptical is a nicer, or perhaps another way of saying "I don't really believe or feel certain" e.g. "I am feeling skeptical about his ability as a manager, let alone being promoted to the directorship."
      Suspicious means someone or something with questionable intention or nature. e.g. "The man in the elevator with us earlier really looked strangely suspicious. Have you seen him before?"
      Both the words "skeptical" and "cynical" refer to a doubtful mood. Skeptical means "having reservations." The main meaning of cynical is "believing the worst of people."