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      adj relating to an empire or the ruler
      After World War II, JASDF (Japan Self-Defense Force) was planted in 1954, as an unified form of Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service.
      The RAAF (Royal Australian Air Force) traces its history back to the Imperial Conference held in London in 1911, where it was decided aviation should be developed within the armed forces of the British Empire.
      In imperial China the role of the astronomers who could accurately predict eclipses was of the greatest importance.
      The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.
      The metric system is an internationally agreed decimal system of measurement that was originally based on the mètre des Archives and the kilogramme des Archives introduced by France in 1799.
      Empirical evidence or study relies on practical experience rather than theories.
      adj dirty and smelling bad
      v[T] make sth dirty
      n[C] an action in a game that is against the rules
      This leads to digestive upsets. The person may pass fatty, foul-smelling feces or even drops of oil.
      I woke up with a foul taste in my mouth. Did someone put fowl feces in my mouth?
      The polite refined ladies of Jackson were transformed into brassy, sassy, foul-mouthed cartoon rednecks.
      Foul language is offensive and contains swear words or rude words.
      There's too much foul language on TV these days.
      I'm sick of his foul mouth.
      Penalty for dogs fouling the pavement - $500
      "To foul one's own nest" means to harm one's own interests or bring disadvantage upon oneself.
      The boss really dislikes Rachel. She certainly fouled her own nest when she spread those rumors about him.
      Foul play is unfair or dishonest behavior during a sports game, or a synonym for crime.
      In soccer, a professional foul is a cynical offense in which a player deliberately balks or fells an opponent who is advancing on goal.
      A player can be sent off the pitch for committing a foul on an opponent that prevents a clear goal-scoring opportunity.
      Michael Owen was sent off for fouling David Beckham.
      If someone is in a foul mood or temper, they're in a very bad temper and likely to get angry.
      Foul weather is stormy and windy, with a lot of rain or snow.
      The spring was foul this year it was cold and wet for weeks.
      If someone foul up something, they do something wrong or spoil something by making mistakes.
      The BBQ stalls are responsible for fouling up the air for miles around.
      Everything was just fine until the new director came along and fouled things up.
      If X fall/run foul of sb/sth, X gets into trouble with them.
      Compare foul and fowl.
      v[I] fall in price etc suddenly and by a large amount ≠soar ¶ sit or fall down heavily, flop
      also a noun
      Iron ore prices have slumped to $US104 a tonne in recent days.
      New orders fell by 19 percent, and revenues slumped by 23 percent.
      "Oh, yeah," Joey said, and slumped in the Barcalounger.
      Ryan made a frustrated sound and slumped back on the couch.
      In sports, a slump is a period in which a player or team performs below par (less well than usual).
      We all know that Wes Craven has been in a slump lately.
      In economics, a slump is a recession.
      In the US, V-shaped, or short-and-sharp contractions followed by rapid and sustained recovery, occurred in 1954 and 1990-91; U-shaped (prolonged slump) in 1974-75, and W-shaped, or double-dip recessions in 1949 and 1980-82.
      n[UC] the fact of including or being included, or sb/sth that is included
      I can use it as space for me to add ideas for possible inclusion as I'm writing.
      He would need to have a serious second half of the season renaissance to justify inclusion in the 2012 squad.
      That statement is undeniably true and thus may merit inclusion in Wikipedia.
      Some words are too infrequent to be worthy of inclusion in the dictionary.
      It certainly wasn't mainstream 15 years ago, because it didn't warrant inclusion in the 1995 edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED).
      These are the criteria for inclusion on this list: First, the story has to have had a considerable influence on international hockey.
      Second, it has to have had either a major immediate impact or a long-lasting significance on the game.
      n[C] any reptile that has a hard shell covering its body
      Turtles are reptiles characterised by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.
      "Some kid told me about the sea turtle and, if you blow bubbles in its face, it chases ya!" said Joey.
      "Well, Davey's still pining after LaPooh, but you know, he's a tough little turtle," said Rachel.
      "What are you doing here, weird turtle-man?" Chandler asked.
      Monica bought Chandler a pink turtleneck sweater.
      Tortoises are a family of land-dwelling reptiles.
      Terrapin is a term used in English for several smaller species of turtle living in fresh or brackish water.
      If a ship or boat turns turtle, it turns upside down.
      adj ~ wine is good quality wine ¶ a ~ car is old, but kept in good condition
      n[C] all of the wine produced in a particular year, or the year it was produced
      The fragrance opens with the luxury and exuberance of a vintage champagne.
      A vintage year is a year when something of very good quality was produced.
      2011 was a vintage year for pop albums so it is hardly surprising that the genre has elbowed rock aside as the nation's favorite.
      A vintage car is, in the most general sense, an old automobile, and in the narrower senses of car enthusiasts and collectors, it is a car from the period of 1919 to 1930.
      Such enthusiasts have categorization schemes for ages of cars that enforce distinctions between antique cars, vintage cars, classic cars, and so on.
      This year's vintage will be the best in many years.
      Any Russian writer of recent vintage (time) was welcomed and helped by Aleksey.
      "This is just vintage (typical) Rachel," said Ross.
      v[IT] replace or balance the effect of sth bad ¶ pay sb money because they have suffered an injury or loss
      No other success can compensate for failure in the home.
      Nothing can compensate for the loss of one's health.
      Chandler and Joey weren't compensated by the insurance company for their loss.
      If you are compensated or reimbursed for any part of the costs of having a student living with you, you cannot deduct any of your costs.
      She was awarded $4,385 to compensate for her injury and for the resulting expenses.
      If you reimburse someone for something, you pay them back the money that they have spent or lost because of it.
      n[C] a loose-fitting outer garment
      A robe is distinguished from a cape or cloak by the fact that it usually has sleeves.
      There are various types of robes, including: a gown worn as part of the academic regalia of faculty or students, or the attire of a judge or barrister.
      A bathrobe, dressing gown or housecoat is a robe.
      "Loose the robe," said the director.
      Ross takes his robe off and he enters the tanning booth.
      Rachel enters wearing a robe.
      Why do you people hate sleep? (Notices Howard) Are you wearing my robe?
      n[C] a large pile of earth, stones etc ¶ small hill
      Pack your mound of sand into a round, level base that is 2-3ft in diameter.
      A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
      Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds, or kurgans, and can be found throughout much of the world.
      You must be prepared to produce a mound of paperwork to document your income and assets.
      The castle stands on a high mound just outside the village.
      Compare hill, mound, mount, and mountain.
      v[T] examine ¶ officially visit a school etc to check that everything is correct and legal
      "I gotta get to work, I got a big dinosaur bone to inspect," said Chandler.
      Phoebe and Rachel's apartment, everyone minus Ross are arriving to inspect the damage.
      Visibly shaking, she got out to inspect the damage.
      It will also help to have your car regularly inspected by a trusted mechanic.
      We ensure that reservoirs are regularly inspected and essential safety work is carried out.
      The most important are the right to inspect records and the right to seek correction of records.
      n[U] small balls of ice that fall like rain
      v[IT] call sb in order to attract their attention
      Hail is distinct from sleet, though the two are often confused for one another.
      Hail consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice, each of which is called a hailstone.
      Sleet falls generally in cold weather while hail growth is greatly inhibited at cold temperatures.
      So much hail fell that the ditches were filling up, with water and hail, leaving the side of the road looking like it had snowed.
      If it hails, small balls of ice fall like rain.
      If the soldiers were divided into 3 ranks of 30 each, with each rank lined up one in front of the next (squatting, kneeling and standing) and each rank fired 10 seconds after the preceding rank then the soldiers could, as a group, send a hail of bullets off towards the enemy every 10 seconds.
      The idea, coming after the Westminster expenses scandal and in the midst of pay freezes across much of the country, immediately ran into a hail of criticism.
      If a person, event, or achievement is hailed as important or successful, they are praised publicly.
      Hailed as a masterpiece from its first publication, Revolutionary Road is the story of Frank and April Wheeler, a bright young couple who are bored by the banalities of suburban life and long for the extraordinary.
      If you hail a taxi, you wave at it in order to stop it because you want the driver to take you somewhere.
      Shall we hail a taxi?
      Someone who hails from a particular place was born there or lives there.
      Rajesh and Priya Koothrappali hail from India.
      n[U] the act of keeping sth in its original state or in good condition ¶ the act of making sure that sth is kept ¶ the degree to which sth has not been changed or damaged by weather, age etc
      It is also a tool for the preservation of the environment and our cultural heritage.
      We will continue to ensure the preservation and conservation of the mount as we have always done.
      The idea of some super national Union of States for the preservation of peace is a very old one indeed.
      It is now in a good state of preservation after some restorations and repair works by the local people.
      A renovation and refurbishing of the Blue Room was initiated in the early 1990s by the Committee for The Preservation of the White House (with Clinton designer Kaki Hockersmith) and completed in mid-1995.
      Self-preservation is behavior that ensures the survival of an organism. It is almost universal among living organisms. Pain and fear are parts of this mechanism.
      n[U] a chemical element with chemical symbol H
      With an atomic number 1, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table.
      Hydrogen atoms are so reactive that they combine with almost all elements.
      A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power.
      Hydrogen vehicles include hydrogen fueled space rockets, as well as automobiles and other transportation vehicles.
      The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, or by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors.
      Widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy.
      As of November 2013 there are demonstration fleets of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles undergoing field testing including the Chevrolet Equinox Fuel Cell, Honda FCX Clarity, Hyundai ix35 Fuel Cell and Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-Cell.
      n[C] sb whose job is to look after sheep
      v[T] lead or guide a group of people somewhere
      There was once a young Shepherd Boy who tended his sheep at the foot of a mountain near a dark forest.
      A shepherdess is a female shepherd.
      A German shepherd, or Alsatian, is a large brown and black dog, often used for guarding buildings and in police work.
      Cottage pie or shepherd's pie is a meat pie with a crust of mashed potato.
      Rachel made half an English Trifle, and half a shepherd's pie.
      The tour guides shepherded the rest of the group onto the bus.
      adj innumerable, numerous
      In the past three decades, hundreds of people have died in land wars; countless others endure fear and uncertainty.
      There are countless testimonies to the effect that science fiction influences people to go into science and engineering careers, and directly inspires invention.
      There are countless groups on Facebook.
      You'll find countless little ways to make your writing more effective.
      "Geology isn't a real science!" yelled Sheldon, who got hit by countless paintball pellets.
      v[T] frighten or threaten
      It's a quarter to two when I arrive, greatly relieved that I'm not late as I walk into the enormous and frankly intimidating glass, steel, and white sandstone lobby.
      I tuck one of the escaped tendrils of my hair behind my ear as I pretend she doesn't intimidate me.
      Actually, it's his tone of voice, rather than the threat, that intimidates me.
      He not only assaulted a young women but then used his family and school connections to intimidate her into retracting the charges.
      You're not going to intimidate me into backing down.
      Okay. I understand your impulse to try to physically intimidate me. I mean, you can't compete with me on an intellectual level so you're driven to animalistic puffery.
      n[C] a committed member of a political party ¶ a member of an armed group that fights against an enemy that has taken control of its country
      also an adjective
      In multi-party systems, the term "partisan" is used for politicians who strongly support their party's policies and are reluctant to compromise with their political opponents.
      A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity.
      The initial concept of partisan warfare involved the use of troops raised from the local population in a war zone (or in some cases regular forces) who would operate behind enemy lines to disrupt communications, seize posts or villages as forward-operating bases, ambush convoys, impose war taxes or contributions, raid logistical stockpiles, and compel enemy forces to disperse and protect their base of operations.
      The Soviet partisans were members of a resistance movement which fought a guerrilla war against the Axis occupation of the Soviet Union during World War II.
      n[U] a feeling of sympathy and caring for sb who is suffering
      This teaches us a compassion for the poor.
      It was the casual laughter and lack of compassion that I disliked.
      More often than we realize, the child may feel compassion for the adult.
      They blame the victim rather than show compassion for people.
      He cries out to Jesus, "Have compassion on me!"
      adj loyal ¶ accurate ¶ able to be trusted
      A faithful friend is a sure shelter.
      People suffer the trauma of being made redundant, thrown on to the scrap heap after years of faithful service.
      I know for sure that my boyfriend is faithful to me as much as I am to him.
      I could better than any other, perhaps, give you a faithful account.
      Euro Truck Simulator is a faithful reproduction of driving trucks on the European road.
      My faithful old Peugeot 306 travelled many thousands of kilometers.
      n[C] ≠professional
      An amateur (French "lover of", from Old French and ultimately from Latin "lover") is generally considered a person attached to a particular pursuit, study, or science in a non-professional or unpaid manner. Amateurs often have little or no formal training in their pursuits, and many are autodidacts (self-taught).
      Since amateurs often do not have formal training, some amateur work may be considered sub-par.
      For example, amateur athletes in sports such as basketball, baseball or football are regarded as having a lower level of ability than professional athletes.
      "I've sort of been maintaining my amateur status so that I can waitress in the Olympics," said Rachel.
      A rookie is a person in his or her first year of a sport, or someone who is new to a profession, training or activity such as a rookie police officer, rookie pilot, a recruit, or occasionally a freshman.
      v[IT] become healthy and strong again, or come back into use, activity, fashion etc, or make sb/sth do this ¶ perform play again
      Unconsciousness caused me to slump to the floor; they quickly revived me.
      Our failing hopes revived.
      On July 25th it was suddenly revived.
      The Holy Roman Empire was an attempt to revive the Western Roman Empire dissolved in 1806, at the behest of Napoleon.
      The Fed ramped up its effort to revive the economy with its commitment to buy as much as USD 300 billion of long-term U.S. Treasury securities in the next few months and hundreds of billions of dollars more in mortgage-backed securities.
      Originally, the show was a hit for ITV in the early Seventies, but it is the BBC that is reviving it, with the help of American backers.
      Compare revive and survive.
      n[U] the fact of being unable to do sth
      These dogs also have an inability to look to their owners for direction, especially when they're scared or distracted.
      I'll return to this question later. For now, note the "quantum indeterminacy," our inability to predict the final location of any single photon.
      Habitual multitasking eventually leads to an inability to relax, to turn off, or to focus on anything for very long.
      But that simply takes us right back to your inability to read and your comprehension problem.
      No, we were annihilated by our own incompetence and the inability of some people to follow the chain of command.
      Sheldon intends to act on this by not speaking to you, feigning an inability to hear you when you speak, and otherwise refusing to acknowledge your existence.
      You use otherwise to indicate that other ways of doing something are possible in addition to the way already mentioned.
      You know, both selective mutism and an inability to separate from one's mother can stem from a pathological fear of women.
      Many people experience bladder shyness, the inability to pass urine.
      adj situated near or next to sth
      The board, sitting in an adjacent room, consists of the chair, County Judge Shelley Kravitz, County Judge Andrew Hague, and the county supervisor of elections, Penelope Townsley.
      Self-parking is located adjacent to the hotel for a maximum fee of $16 per night.
      Many of the Bay's remaining marshes are adjacent to developed urban areas with minimal or no natural upland buffer zones.
      When two adjacent angles form a straight line, they are supplementary.
      I had no choice. I couldn't sleep knowing that just outside my bedroom was our living room, and just outside our living room was that hallway, and immediately adjacent to the hallway was... this.
      It's the right ingredients, but in the wrong order. In a proper sandwich, the cheese is adjacent to the bread to create a moisture barrier against the lettuce.
      n[C] a plant or animal which has the same genes as the original from which it was produced
      v[IT] also a verb
      In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.
      Dolly was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer.
      Okay, what do we start with? Maybe splicing some genes, clone a sheep, perhaps grow a human ear on a mouse's back?
      I'm not going to watch the Clone Wars TV series until I've seen the Clone Wars movie. I prefer to let George Lucas disappoint me in the order he intended.
      In computing, a clone is a hardware or software system that is designed to mimic another system.
      Phone cloning is the transfer of identity from one cellular device to another.
      A video game clone is either a video game (or series) which is very similar to or heavily inspired by a previous popular game or series.
      n[UC] a system of organization in which people or things are divided into levels of importance ¶ the group of people who control an organization
      A hierarchy (from Greek "rule of a high priest", "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items in which the items are represented as being "above," "below," or "at the same level as" one another.
      An organizational chart is the diagram of a hierarchy within an organization, and is depicted in tree form below.
      Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review.
      The U.S. Catholic Church hierarchy, as compared to the local clergy, actively discouraged the use of immigrant languages, so as to favor integration, and the British Catholic hierarchy strongly favored the sole use of English in Canada.
      Some use the term "Anarchy" to refer to a society without a publicly enforced government.
      A monarchy is a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in a single individual (the monarch).
      Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is officially recognized as the civil Ruler and official policy is governed by officials regarded as divinely guided, or is pursuant to the doctrine of a particular religion or religious group.