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      n[CU] a substance made from plants and added to food to give it a particular flavor ¶ extra interest or excitement
      v[T] add ~ to sth
      A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, or vegetable substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
      Spices are distinguished from herbs, which are parts of leafy green plants also used for flavoring or as garnish.
      Spices were among the most demanded and expensive products available in Europe in the Middle Ages, the most common being black pepper, cinnamon (and the cheaper alternative cassia), cumin, nutmeg, ginger and cloves.
      The first versions of Windows Embedded 8 aren't due to reach general availability until March 2013, but Redmond added spice to its road map announcement by making a Release Preview of Windows Embedded 8 Standard available for download on Tuesday.
      The chicken is delicately spiced with kasbour (fresh green coriander).
      Millions have bought "Fifty Shades of Grey" to spice up their sex lives.
      n[UC] a wetland that is forested
      v[T] flood or soak sth with water
      A marsh is a type of wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
      Many swamps occur along large rivers, where they are critically dependent upon natural water level fluctuations.
      Other swamps occur on the shores of large lakes.
      Swamps and other wetlands have traditionally held a very low property value compared to fields, prairies, or woodlands.
      The back-up diesel generators for those three units were then swamped by the tsunami.
      Ms. Bao has been swamped with phone calls since the ad appeared.
      I'm swamped with work and can't spare a minute.
      n[C] a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
      You're the fifth psychiatrist I've seen.
      A psychiatrist is a medical doctor who has specialized in mental health during a three-year residency that follows his or her standard medical training.
      In fact, most psychiatrists treat only with drugs, and refer patients to psychologists or social workers if they believe psychotherapy is also warranted.
      A psychologist evaluates, diagnoses, treats, and studies behavior and mental processes.
      Oregon requires that a patient be referred to a psychiatrist or psychologist for treatment if the prescribing or consulting physician is concerned that the patient's judgment is impaired by a mental disorder such as depression.
      "Shrink" or "head shrinker" is a slang term for a mental health professional such as a psychiatrist or psychologist.
      n[U] principles concerning right and wrong or good and bad behavior ¶ the degree to which sth is right or acceptable
      Morality (from Latin "manner, character, proper behavior") is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are "good" (or right) and those that are "bad" (or wrong).
      These are the fundamental questions of personal and public morality.
      Yet he had little desire to pry into the private morality of kings or politicians.
      According to conventional morality, humility is a virtue.
      It needs to replace money worship with traditional morality and weed out political corruption in favor of social justice and fairness.
      We've had a cultural revolution in sexual morality and sexual behaviour.
      I debated with others on the morality of abortion.
      adj connected with evolution or gradual development and change
      Legendary Harvard biologist Wilson founded sociobiology, the controversial branch of evolutionary biology, and won the Pulitzer Prize twice.
      All scientific theories (from evolutionary theory to atomic theory) are works in progress.
      Some consider language to be an evolutionary product, while others do not.
      In this way, healing is an evolutionary process with no ending destination.
      No, I said "animalistic." I mean, of course we're all animals, but some of us have climbed a little higher on the evolutionary tree.
      Well, those are indicators that I'm farther along the evolutionary scale than the average human.
      A fear of heights is illogical. Fear of falling, on the other hand, is prudent and evolutionary.
      adj continuing to exist or have an effect for a long time
      For teenage athletes, even mild concussions can cause memory problems lasting up to a week.
      Such cooperative measures provide the soundest economic foundation for a lasting peace.
      All of us have a responsibility to work for the day when the mothers of Israelis and Palestinians can see their children grow up without fear; when the Holy Land of the three great faiths is the place of peace that God intended it to be; when Jerusalem is a secure and lasting home for Jews and Christians and Muslims, and a place for all of the children of Abraham to mingle peacefully together as in the story of Isra, when Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed, peace be upon them, joined in prayer.
      True lasting change is accomplished through understanding.
      She was familiar with early studies of DDT and knew of its dangers and lasting effects on the environment.
      Compare everlasting and lasting.
      adj important, interesting, excellent, or unusual enough to be noticed
      One very notable feature of the New Testament is the extent to which it alludes to or quotes the Old Testament.
      A particularly notable example was in'' General Hospital' where Laura's ex-husband Scotty shows up to catch the bouquet at her and Luke's wedding to protest the marriage long after the vows have been said.
      But by far the most notable achievement of his presidency was the Louisiana purchase.
      This can surely be considered as a notable success.
      The RAF also won a notable victory over the numerically superior Italian Air Force.
      Pipeworks is the studio notable for creating the Xbox and Xbox 360's boot ROMs.
      v[IT] clean sth by rubbing it hard, esp with a stiff brush ¶ cancel
      n[U] the act ¶ small bushes and trees
      In Roman times, this was more than just a hat. They would scrub the floors with it, they would use it to scrub the mud from their shoes.
      Monica looks around the hallway, pulls out a sponge and starts scrubbing the door frame.
      "Has it been scrubbed entirely/thoroughly?" she thought.
      The old Monica would remind you to scrub that Teflon pan with a plastic brush, but I'm not gonna do that.
      We wanted to go for a picnic, but we had to scrub it because of the rain.
      And isn't it about time you had a really good scrub?
      Scrubs are the shirts and trousers or gowns worn by surgeons, midwives and other operating room personnel when "scrubbing in" for surgery.
      Shrubland, scrubland, scrub or brush is a plant community characterised by vegetation dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, herbs, and geophytes.
      adj continuing to exist or happen ¶ continuing to do sth in a determined way
      One of the persistent challenges that companies face is understanding how customers interact with their products and services over time.
      For especially persistent people (e.g. pushy guys at the bar who don't get the hint) a trip to the bathroom is often a subtle-yet-effective "get away from me" cue.
      I have been having persistent problems making video calls.
      A wakeful unconscious state that lasts longer than a few weeks is referred to as a persistent vegetative state.
      I've run from bullies, dogs, angry chickens, and one particularly persistent P.E. teacher determined to bend me over and give me a scoliosis test.
      Oh, and two years ago, you had a persistent ear infection. I hope that didn't cause any hearing loss.
      Unlike brain death, permanent vegetative state (PVS) is recognized statute as death in very few legal systems.
      n[C] hike
      also a verb
      Wearied from the long trek, the challengers were overwhelmed.
      Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment franchise.
      Trek Bicycle Corporation is a major bicycle and cycling product manufacturer and distributor.
      With its headquarters in Waterloo, Wisconsin, Trek bicycles are marketed through 1,700 dealers across North America, subsidiaries in Europe and Asia as well as distributors in 90 countries worldwide.
      We trekked up a hill through banana plantations.
      The explorers trekked across the surface of the drifting icescape.
      The Himalayan routes are famous for attracting a large number of trekkers.
      adj compulsory, obligatory
      Changes could include making it mandatory for social networks and online chat providers to build in back doors for law enforcement eavesdropping and instituting so-called " deep packet inspection " technology to enable monitoring and interception of data.
      Reducing the waste is mandatory for our country to be competitive again.
      If they make it mandatory, then none of us will have a choice.
      Sooner or later they will find a way to make it mandatory for the rest of us, too.
      Table 6-1 refers to the core nutrition information which is mandatory for all Nutrition Facts tables.
      A mandatory sentence is a court decision setting where judicial discretion is limited by law.
      Judicial discretion is the power of the judiciary to make some legal decisions according to their discretion.
      n[C] either of two divisions of the academic year
      Term is the general word which means a period of time. In education the period can be a semester or a quarter, or some other amount of time, depending on the education program.
      In the US most schools are on the semester system, where two semesters constitute one school year.
      Last semester, I had two students who wanted to take my 1:00 class, but it was full.
      I've been working so hard this semester. I really need to go crazy you know, blow off some steam.
      It looks like you were very generous with your grades this semester.
      Oh, 'cause I was thinking, the semester's over; you're not my teacher anymore.
      I might be teaching another class this semester.
      Compare semester and term.
      v[I] live in a particular place
      In 1950, 30 percent of the world's population resided in urban centers.
      If a quality resides in something, the thing has that quality.
      The problem resides in the culture of the football clubs.
      If a power, right etc resides in something or someone, it belongs to them.
      The sovereignty resides in the grand council, which has the legislative power, and the power of making peace, war, and alliances.
      n[UC] excess
      adj more than is needed or used
      A positive government budget balance is called a surplus, and a negative balance is a deficit.
      Note that this deficit includes a surplus of about $250 billion from Social Security.
      A positive commercial balance is known as a trade surplus if it consists of exporting more than is imported; a negative balance is referred to as a trade deficit or, informally, a trade gap.
      According to Marx's theory, surplus value is equal to the new value created by workers in excess of their own labour-cost, which is appropriated by the capitalist as profit when products are sold.
      So he began looking outside of the United States and discovered a surplus of talented but underworked I.T. professionals in Argentina.
      I had a mortgage, car and not enough surplus cash left over to travel.
      The 23-year-old found himself surplus to requirements at Anfield in the wake of new manager Brendan Rodgers' appointment.
      n[UC] the motion of turning around a center or an axis, or a single complete cycle of such motion ¶ the act of regularly changing the thing that is being used
      A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.
      A three-dimensional object always rotates around an imaginary line called a rotation axis.
      If the axis is within the body, and passes through its center of mass the body is said to rotate upon itself, or spin.
      A rotation about an external point, e.g. the Earth about the Sun, is called a revolution or orbital revolution, typically when it is produced by gravity.
      It is based on the revolutions of the moon around the earth, whereas the common calendar is based on the earth's rotation around the sun.
      Temperature differences between the polar caps and equator, as well as the rotation of the earth, produce similar results on a global scale, called prevailing winds.
      Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM) is a measure of the frequency of a rotation.
      I travelled the Middle East for a year, living on $6 a week and wearing the same 3 outfits in rotation.
      Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar/different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons.
      Crop rotation gives various nutrients to the soil.
      Job rotation is a management technique that assigns trainees to various structures and departments over a period of a few years.
      In medical education, a clerkship, or rotation, refers to the practice of medicine by medical students during their final year(s) of study.
      n[CU] a list of employees to be paid, with the amount due to each ¶ the sum total of these amounts
      The audits force businesses to fire every suspected illegal immigrant on the payroll.
      While individual and corporate income taxes are designated as federal funds, as described above, payroll taxes are designated as trust funds.
      Taxes to finance Social Security were established in 1935 as a payroll deduction - these are the payroll taxes you see taken directly out of your paycheck, labeled on pay stubs as Social Security and Medicare taxes or as "FICA," an abbreviation for the Federal Insurance Contributions Act.
      That's the law that mandates funding for Social Security by means of a payroll deduction.
      The deductions from your paycheck are only half the story of payroll taxes.
      We have passed a payroll tax cut that affected almost every American.
      Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax is a United States Federal payroll tax imposed on both employees and employers to fund Social Security and Medicare.
      adj looking severe and without any color or decoration ¶ harsh
      adv completely, entirely
      He kisses me briefly and exits, leaving me blinking sleep from my eyes in the cool, stark room.
      He witnessed the ravages of war and the stark realities of the 1943 famine and the epidemics in which about five million people lost their lives.
      In West L.A., 19% of families earned incomes less than $50,000 in stark contrast to 96% of families in South L.A.
      I'm ashamed to stand stark naked in the presence of such fair-haired girls.
      This has been driving my stark raving mad (completely crazy).
      If you stay here long enough, you will go stark staring mad (completely crazy).
      Once you stop for one moment to think, it is also stark raving bonkers (completely crazy) and almost the exact opposite of what should be happening.
      v[IT] make a long, deep cut in sth, esp violently ¶ reduce sth by a large amount
      n[C] a quick swinging movement ¶ a long narrow cut ¶ the symbol (/)
      In the meantime, eco-terrorists have dumped faecal matter at the house of a known sceptic, and slashed the tyres on people's cars.
      I found her downstairs, having slashed her wrist, and there was blood everywhere.
      We struggled. Her long nails slashed my forehead, and blood trickled down.
      This year, congress even slashed the funding for the preliminary study.
      Fuel consumption in new vehicles could be slashed by half in the next 20 years.
      There were deep slashes on his left thigh.
      The slash (/) is a sign used as a punctuation mark and for various other purposes.
      It is often called a forward slash, a retronym used to distinguish it from the backslash (\). It has many other names.
      As of today, I am officially Joey Tribbiani, actor slash model.
      I was thinking you look more like Joey Tribbiani, man slash woman.
      v[IT] burn sth with a sudden intense heat ¶ heat the surface of a piece of meat quickly at a high temperature to keep its juices in ¶ affect sb with strong emotion
      When I turned on the shower, a jet of water hit me and fiery heat seared my body everywhere the water touched.
      I found myself wanting a seared tuna steak or even some grilled salmon to go with this.
      1932 the Mars Bar and 1936 Maltesers and 1937 the Kit Kat - these dates are milestones in history and should be seared into the memory of every child in the country.
      The unpleasant image will be forever seared into the minds of viewers.
      It was a mile or two from the beach house when the pain came searing through Monica's entire body.
      My blood sears in my veins.
      Compare scorch, sear, smear, and simmer.
      n[CU] the act or result of modifying, or the change
      Such contractor aircraft will have undergone considerable modification over their probable 50-year lifespan and will bare little resemblance to original manufacturer specification.
      If it's an old house, it may need extensive modification, which could be complicated, expensive and time-consuming.
      From previous version it has some major modification on all features.
      Good point. Just one minor modification.
      What I have done is a slight modification on the GBS protocol using PstI.
      The translation needs further modification.
      This important modification gives homeowners much more immediate access to the services of an architect.
      Section 7 applies to the making of regulations under this section, with necessary modification.
      There was in fact one significant modification.
      Note: Converting between versions of HTTP may involve modification of header fields required or forbidden by the versions involved.
      I agree that the rules need modification.
      There are still details require modification.
      They can make modification if necessary.
      n[CU] a tree with five-pointed leaves that turn red and yellow in the fall, or the wood of the tree
      Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
      Most maples are trees growing to 10 - 45 m in height.
      The Sugar maple is tapped for sap, which is then boiled to produce maple syrup or made into maple sugar or maple taffy.
      Some of the larger maple species have valuable timber, particularly Sugar maple in North America, and Sycamore maple in Europe.
      As a fungus, I have a terrific view, growing out of a towering maple tree.
      v[IT] keep shouting or singing a word or phrase many times ¶ sing a religious prayer or song to a simple tune
      also a noun
      Fans in Los Angeles had been chanting Jackson's name in the two games the Lakers have played since firing Mike Brown last Friday.
      The priest chanted in front of a picture of the deceased.
      We often paused in front of it, drawn by the chant and tinkling bells and the smell of incense.
      A chant is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two main pitches called reciting tones.
      Battle cries are a type of chant heard on ancient battlefields.
      adj connected with young people who are not yet adults ¶ childish
      A juvenile court (or young offender's court) is a tribunal having special authority to try and pass judgments for crimes committed by children or adolescents who have not attained the age of majority.
      Juvenile delinquency, also known as juvenile offending, or youth crime, is participation in illegal behavior by minors (juveniles) (individuals younger than the statutory age of majority).
      A juvenile delinquent is a person who is typically under the age of 18 and commits an act that otherwise would have been charged as a crime if they were an adult.
      Literary critics pigeonholed the first book as lame 1990s juvenile fantasy, destined to be forgotten.
      That's enough juvenile squabbling.
      "Shamy?" "A juvenile amalgamation of our names. Sheldon and Amy, Shamy."
      n[UC] food put on a hook or in a trap in order to catch fish or animals
      also a verb
      Bait is any substance used to attract prey, e.g. in a mousetrap.
      Fishing bait is any substance used to attract and catch fish, e.g. on the end of a fishing hook, or inside a fish trap.
      Bait-and-switch is a form of fraud used in retail sales but also employed in other contexts.
      First, customers are "baited" by merchants' advertising products or services at a low price, but when customers visit the store, they discover that the advertised goods are not available, or the customers are pressured by sales people to consider similar, but higher priced items ("switching").
      Tom used to bait the hook with a fly, but he used Jerry as bait this time.
      In Taiwan, service stations use Betel nut Beauty as a bait to lure truck drivers into the restaurants and other facilities.
      Plenty of truck drivers took the bait and lost their life savings.
      If you bait someone, you deliberately try to make them angry by teasing them.
      Ignore him - he's just baiting you.
      I just smiled, refusing to rise to the bait (become angry when someone is deliberately trying to make you angry).
      n[UC] small points of bright light
      v[I] shine in ~
      They offer a wide range of exquisite designs made of authentic, branded pieces of pearls which are sure to add extra sparkle and color to your look.
      Enthusiasm is the sparkle in your eye, it is the swing in your gait, the grip in your hand, the irresistible surge of your will and your energy to execute your ideas.
      The sun sparkled on the water that day as the flags on the Bounty waved softly in the wind.
      May moon etches a sparkling silver path across the water toward a jetty where two boats are moored.
      Her eyes sparkled, and she held it for a moment, scrunching her shoulders in excitement.