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      v[IT] pull sb/sth hard, quickly and suddenly, jerk
      also a noun
      Robin snatched her purse from her and yanked it open, seeing the white inhaler in a side pocket.
      She grabbed him by the hair, and pulled so hard that she yanked the wig right off his head.
      It's like someone has tied a string around one end of a muscle without my knowing it, and then they give it a yank. It hurts like hell.
      Come on, quit yanking (annoy/kid) me.
      n[s] a new growth of activity or interest in sth, esp art, literature or music
      The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
      In politics, the Renaissance contributed the development of the conventions of diplomacy, and in science an increased reliance on observation.
      The word Renaissance, whose literal translation from French into English is "Rebirth", was first used and defined by French historian Jules Michelet.
      The Arab Socialist Renaissance Party, has its roots in the Arab Renaissance Party, which was formed in Syria in the 1940s by two French-trained Syrian teachers.
      n[CU] a smell, often one that is unpleasant
      Problem odor in the litter box? Don't change your kitty, change your kitty litter.
      People may notice a strong sulfur odor during the cleaning, but it is not dangerous.
      Halitosis, colloquially called bad breath, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odor is present on the exhaled breath.
      Body odor has a strong genetic basis both in animals and humans, but it can be also strongly influenced by various diseases and psychological conditions.
      You won't notice the odor with your nose held.
      n[C] a large, disorganized, and often violent crowd ¶ gang
      v[T] gather round sb/sth in an excited or angry way
      An amateur video on YouTube showed him and a mob of black-shirted men smashing stalls owned by immigrant vendors.
      Hardin moved through a mob of media and left in a gray Jeep being driven by another woman.
      The Mob may refer to: the American Mafia, Irish Mob (the first organized crime group for which the term was used), or any criminal organization or a terrorist organization.
      A lynch mob is an angry crowd of people who want to kill someone without a trial, because they believe that person has committed a crime.
      In the South, members of the abolitionist movement or other people opposing slavery were usually targets of lynch mob violence before the Civil War.
      I was mobbed by every street vendor in the city who undoubtedly noted that I had money.
      If a group of birds or animals mob another bird or animal, they all attack it.
      n[C] a type of food that a restaurant or area is well known for ¶ a subject or job that sb is an expert in ¶ a particular product or business that has one purpose or sells one type of thing
      Monica's specialty is duck.
      Ross' specialty is paleontology.
      Connecting Rundle Mall to Grenfell Street, Adelaide Arcade is a stylish, historic shopping venue with dozens of specialty shops and boutiques.
      In general usage, specialty and speciality are very closely related and often interchangeable. English reference books say various things about them, but in general writers tend to treat them as if they're the same word.
      Specialty is more common in American, Canadian, and Australian English; speciality is more common in British English.
      adj dangerous
      Sporting events can also expose individuals to hazardous decibel levels as defined by the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA).
      By increasing our awareness of decibel levels of common environmental noises, we can better limit our exposure to hazardous noise levels or take measures to protect our ears.
      There are other hazardous materials that are regulated by the FAA.
      The 2003 labor law prohibits employers from maintaining hazardous working conditions, and workers have the right to remove themselves from hazardous conditions without risking loss of employment.
      n[CU] the crime of stealing
      Harrod had a minor criminal record, beginning when he was convicted of horse stealing in 1944 and ending in 1973 with car theft.
      While cruising and/or pickpocketing, Brad meets Carter (Andre Myers), who is also adept at petty theft.
      An attempted theft was reported after someone tried to steal a motorcycle.
      Identity theft is a form of stealing someone's identity in which someone pretends to be someone else by assuming that person's identity, usually as a method to gain access to resources or obtain credit and other benefits in that person's name.
      The term identity theft was coined in 1964; however, it is not literally possible to steal an identity—less ambiguous terms are identity fraud or impersonation.
      v[IT] sum up
      In our upcoming Mobile Book, 12 brand new chapters from experts on mobile summarize the knowledge and best practices in mobile design and development to prepare you, dear reader, for the challenges of the mobile future.
      I would ask them to summarize their testimony, approximately in 10 minutes if they can.
      To summarize: He doesn't like it so much.
      In theoretical physics, we try to summarize the results of a vast number of observations and experiments in terms of a few powerful laws.
      v[T] leave out
      I've omitted it from my CV.
      Names have been omitted to protect privacy.
      What the Times omitted to say was who was protesting and why.
      She omitted to mention a crucial piece of information.
      adj very unusual or unexpected
      n[C] sb/sth that is not cosidered normal
      v[IT]become extremely emotional, or make sb do this
      One morning, after waking up on a golf course, he returns home in his pajamas and learns that, in a freak accident, a jet engine fell from the sky and crashed into his bedroom.
      Charlie's race ended on the 12th of March when a freak wave hit Yacht Veritas.
      The word "freak" is commonly used to refer to a person with something strikingly unusual about their appearance or behavior.
      An older usage of "freak" refers to the physically deformed, or having extraordinary diseases and conditions.
      A control freak is a person who attempts to dictate how everything around them is done.
      I am a bit of a health freak and watch my weight but do enjoy a treat every so often.
      If you freak out, you suddenly become angry, anxious, afraid, or upset.
      I got really freaked out, and that's when it hit me: how much Barry looks like Mr. Potato Head.
      Phoebe tasted Ben's milk, and Ross freaked out.
      All right, stop it, you're freaking me out.
      v[[IT] come from, start in ¶ create sth new
      Yes, there is difference between Chinese noodle and Japanese Ramen. Point being, that ramen was originated from China, just like Zen was originated from China.
      Zen is a school of Mahayana Buddhism and originated in China during the 6th century.
      From my understanding, this term originated with the US Air Force in 2006.
      Thus, the pound sterling originated, pace its name, as a definition of one pound weight of silver, and the dollar originated as an ounce coin of silver in Bohemia.
      The idea of a great southern continent was originated by the ancient Greeks, who believed there was a great land mass on the other side of the world to balance the earth.
      n[C] a structure from which water is pushed up into the air ¶ a flow of liquid ¶ a rich source or supply of sth
      A drinking fountain, also called a water fountain or bubbler, is a fountain designed to provide drinking water. It consists of a basin with either continuously running water or a tap.
      A soda fountain is a device that dispenses carbonated soft drinks, called fountain drinks. They can be found in restaurants, concession stands and other locations such as convenience stores.
      A fountain pen is a nib pen that, unlike its predecessor the dip pen, contains an internal reservoir of water-based liquid ink.
      A fountain of water poured over the pathway and people stopped to take off their shoes and giggle as they let the water run over their feet.
      He was a fountain of information who was always willing to help out younger coaches and athletes.
      n[CU] desire for food etc
      You know that? You don't wanna spoil your appetite.
      Will you do the top of the cabinets? That'll really work up your appetite for lunch.
      Typhoid causes a high fever, weakness, stomach pains, headache, loss of appetite, and sometimes a rash.
      I also lost my appetite. In the space of four weeks, I lost twenty pounds.
      Hunger is the best sauce, and everything that is eatable is relished by people with a healthy appetite.
      The world has an insatiable appetite for innovation.
      I have a very healthy sexual appetite and love a few kinks.
      If an experience whets your appetite for something, it increases your desire for it, especially by giving you an idea of what it is like.
      v[T] succeed in getting sth, usu after a lot of effort ¶ reach a particular level, age, size etc
      Besides Abraham, several of the family attained distinction.
      His half-brother Henry attained the position of justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
      It was only after it attained a high level of economic development that Korean cultural production began to have impact overseas.
      He must have attained a state of mind that someone like me could never hope to reach.
      n[C] sb who watches a public activity or event, esp a sports event
      A spectator sport is a sport that is characterized by the presence of spectators, or watchers, at its matches.
      For instance, American football, association football, baseball, basketball, Canadian football, cricket, field hockey, Formula One, ice hockey, rugby league, rugby union, team handball and volleyball are spectator sports, while hunting or underwater hockey typically are not.
      Spectator sports may be professional sports or amateur sports.
      Spectator sports require venues or sometimes stadiums in which the fans may observe a game or event.
      I have a large group of marathon runners and spectators ready to go to Staten Island via ferry tomorrow.
      n[C] fate
      Destiny or fate is a predetermined course of events.
      Although often used interchangeably, the words "fate" and "destiny" have distinct connotations.
      Traditional usage defines fate as a power or agency that predetermines and orders the course of events.
      Destiny is used with regard to the finality of events as they have worked themselves out; and to that same sense of "destination", projected into the future to become the flow of events as they will work themselves out.
      The Dragon says that if the boy lives, Merlin cannot fulfill his destiny: the boy will one day kill Arthur unless allowed to die by Merlin himself.
      If you will not fight, then you will meet your destiny.
      Before his death in May 1882, Nicholas Sheran had two visitors who were to shape the destiny of the region, Elliott Torrance Galt and George Mercer Dawson.
      In fact you are in complete control of your own destiny when it comes to improving your flexibility.
      n[C] part of a song that is repeated after each verse ¶ a piece of music that is written for a choir (group of singers), or a choir ¶ sth that a lot of people say together
      v[T] sing or say sth all together
      We got Sheldon to sing the chorus with us as well.
      "The term "chorus form" is often used to denote a type of performance - typically in jazz or rhythm 'n' blues, but also sometimes in country music and rock 'n' roll - where a given structural unit is repeated an indefinite number of times.
      In music, a chorus effect (sometimes chorusing or chorused effect) occurs when individual sounds with roughly the same timbre and nearly (but never exactly) the same pitch converge and are perceived as one.
      My mother sang in the chorus of "The Tales of Huffman" 35 years ago.
      A chorus line is a substantial group of dancers who together perform synchronized routines, usually in musical theatre.
      A chorus girl is a female performer in a chorus or chorus line.
      He played Baby John in West Side Story, and is a member of the chorus.
      The dawn chorus occurs when songbirds sing at the start of a new day.
      If people say something in chorus, they say the same thing at the same time.
      Mike Mukasey, George Bush's last attorney general, appeared on the BBC tonight to join the chorus threatening action against Julian Assange and WikiLeaks.
      "What?" the five of them chorused, looking bewildered.
      v[IT] burn or shine unsteadily ¶ last for only a moment and then disappear ¶ make a sudden small movement
      also a noun
      The overhead lights flickered on and off with what seemed like 100 watt bulbs.
      The kerosene lamp's yellow flame flickered ceaselessly.
      If an emotion or expression flickers on someone's face or through their mind, it exists or is shown for only a short time.
      A faint smile flickered across his face.
      All these thoughts flickered through my mind.
      His eyelids flickered and suddenly he was staring at her, fully conscious and a little surprised to see Carol's face so close.
      I lit it and found myself sitting in the tiniest flicker of light for hours.
      Cornel half-laughed, but I could see a flicker of doubt in his eyes.
      n[U] the length of time that sth continues
      During the duration of this season I'm offering free shipping for any purchase.
      For the duration of the program, each student works closely with a faculty member who, as a rule, is distinct from the student's M.A. adviser.
      I was going to be offline and without AC power for the duration of the flight.
      If you have a visa that is valid for five years that will expire on January 1, 2009, and you are admitted into the U.S. for the duration of your studies, you may stay in the U.S. as long as you are a full time student.
      Trials range in duration from one day to several weeks.
      n[CU] a religious group, esp one which is considered strange ¶ extreme admiration for sb/sth
      adj very popular with a particular group of people
      Originally, "cult" means religious practice.
      In the sociological classifications of religious movements, a cult is a religious or other social group with deviant and novel beliefs and practices.
      "You're not gonna try to get me to join a cult, are you?" Mike asked.
      "This guy is in a cult, and it costs you $5,000 to get to level three and I don't feel any different," said Joey.
      A cult of personality arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods, to create an idealized, heroic, and at times, worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
      A cult following is a group of fans who are highly dedicated to a specific area of culture.
      A film, book, musical artist, television series, or video game, among other things, will be said to have a cult following when it has a small but very passionate fan base.
      The film Pink Flamingos is known for its disgusting scenes, and only a small number of people are drawn to this movie. Therefore it can be classified as a cult movie.
      Franchises such as Seinfeld, Star Trek, The Untouchables, Star Wars, Doctor Who, Harry Potter, The Lord of the Rings, "My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic" and The Rocky Horror Picture Show have core groups of fanatical followers but still attract mass audiences.
      n[U] kindness and forgiveness shown towards sb who you have authority over ¶ used about kind things that people do to help other people
      Many had to stand trial before Roland Freisler, the Nazi judge who showed no mercy to anyone.
      God, have mercy on me, a sinner.
      One did not have to come to an altar, cry out, beg and plead for mercy to receive forgiveness.
      "I sat near the door, so she'd have to pass by me if she wanted to switch cars. She was totally at my mercy," said Ross.
      "Oh leather pants! Have mercy!" Monica cried.
      An unattached balloon was at the mercy of the winds.
      A mercy flight is a journey taken to bring help to people.
      Non-voluntary euthanasia (sometimes known as mercy killing) is euthanasia conducted where the explicit consent of the individual concerned is unavailable, such as when the person is in a persistent vegetative state.
      If you leave A to B's (tender) mercies, you let A be dealt with by B, who may treat them very badly or strictly (used humorously).
      If you throw yourself on someone's mercy, you ask the, to help you or forgive you when you are in a very bad situation.
      "It's a mercy (that)" is used to say that it is lucky that a worse situation was avoided.
      If you tell someone who is in an unpleasant situation that they should be grateful or thankful for small mercies, you mean that although their situation is bad, it could be even worse, and so they should be happy.
      n[C] a sleeveless garment covering the upper body
      v[T] give sb power or a right
      A vest is a sleeveless under-jacket. It is called a waistcoat in the UK and many Commonwealth countries.
      A vest is an undergarment, normally worn under a shirt. It is known as an A-shirt or tank top in the US and Canada.
      A sweater vest, also known as a sleeveless sweater and tank top or sleeveless jumper (UK), is an item of knitwear that is similar to a sweater, but without sleeves.
      A bulletproof vest, ballistic vest or bullet-resistant vest is an item of personal armor that helps absorb the impact from firearm-fired projectiles and shrapnel from explosions, and is worn on the torso.
      I packed my wool jumper, tweed jacket, raincoat, and floral print thermal vest.
      Article II, section 1, of the U.S. Constitution provides that "the executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America."
      The Council of Guardians is vested with the authority to interpret the constitution and determines if the laws passed by Parliament are in line with sharia (Islamic law).
      I have a vested interest in this book (I expect to benefit from it).
      n[C] a woman in stories who has magic powers ¶ an insulting word for a woman who is old or unpleasant
      The Blair Witch Project is a 1999 American horror film.
      A witch-hunt is a search for witches or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic, or mass hysteria.
      The last executions of people convicted as witches in Europe took place in the 18th century.
      The witch trials in the early modern period were a period of witch hunts between the 15th and 18th centuries.
      A witch doctor was originally a type of healer who treated ailments believed to be caused by witchcraft. It is currently used to refer to healers, particularly in third world regions, who use traditional healing rather than contemporary medicine.
      n[C] ≠successor
      A predecessor is someone who had a job or a position before someone else.
      In 2011, Kreins' predecessor, retired Police Chief Robert Nichelini, received $174,860 base salary, plus another $28,000 in "other wages," according to city reports.
      Cristina Fernández de Kirchner is the 52nd President of Argentina and widow of former president Néstor Kirchner.
      Ties between Moyano and the president soured after the death in late 2010 of Néstor Kirchner, Fernandez's husband and predecessor as president.
      A predecessor is something that existed before another one in a process of development.
      It is slimmer, lighter and more stylish than its predecessor.
      Honda has made the 2012 CR-V about an inch shorter in length and an inch lower than its predecessor, as well as about 50 pounds lighter.
      v[IT] grieve for ¶ be sad because sth no longer exists or is not as good as it was in the past
      When he died in 1981, Canada mourned the loss of a hero.
      His family mourned for him, and carefully buried him.
      We mourned with the families who were lost on that day.
      We mourn the passing of a once strong and proud man.
      I mourn the loss of thousands of precious lives.
      "Oh, this is so exciting, my first mourner!" Ross cried.
      I too mourned my old life.