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      spear
      spiə
      n[C] a pole weapon consisting of a shaft with a pointed head ¶ a thin pointed stem of a plant
      v[T] push sth sharp and pointed into sth else
      -
      A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
      The head may be simply the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the case with bamboo spears, or it may be made of a more durable material fastened to the shaft, such as flint, obsidian, iron, steel or bronze.
      The spear has been used throughout human history both as a hunting and fishing tool and as a weapon.
      Boiling is a suitable method for hard vegetables such as green beans, broccoli spears, and carrots.
      Once the asparagus spears are clean, gently pat them dry.
      They killed a five-year-old bull weighing 622 kilos, by spearing him to death with lances.
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      de`fect
      'di:fekt; di'fekt
      n[C] a fault or imperfection in sb/sth
      v[I] leave a country, political party, or organization and go to another one
      -
      Born with a hearing defect, she was a shy child, running behind a couch when visitors came to the family home.
      It can be treated like any other congenital defect.
      Under the act, a manufacturer cannot be held liable for design defects "if the injury or death resulted from side effects that were unavoidable even though the vaccine was properly prepared and was accompanied by proper directions and warnings."
      That's labeling your partner with a character defect that makes him or her inferior.
      Joyce Kim defected (back) to North Korea.
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      lin`e`ar
      'liniə
      adj relating to or resembling a line
      -
      The decibel is one-tenth of a bel, a unit named after the inventor Alexander Graham Bell.
      The decibel scale is not a linear one, but rather represents the ratio of the sound to the reference standard.
      Plot the graph of each function. Classify each as linear, quadratic, polynomial, exponential, or logarithmic, and explain the reasons for your classifications.
      We should note that if we know an equation is linear, it only takes two points to construct the line on a graph.
      But the so-called linear mind always wants you to 'get to the point.'
      Many important properties of financial models, engineering problems, and biological systems can be represented as correlation matrices, which describe the linear relationships among variables.
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      mem`oir
      'memwa:
      n[C] a literary nonfiction genre ("memory" or "reminiscence")
      -
      Memoir is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private that took place in the author's life.
      While memoir has historically been defined as a subcategory of autobiography since the late 20th century, the genre is differentiated in form, presenting a narrowed focus.
      Like most autobiographies, memoirs are written from the first-person point of view.
      An autobiography tells the story of a life, while memoir tells a story from a life, such as touchstone events and turning points from the author's life.
      A memoir is how one remembers one's own life, while an autobiography is history, requiring research, dates, facts double-checked.
      An authorized biography is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, participation of a subject or a subject's heirs. An autobiography is written by the person themselves, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter.
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      as`pi`ra`tion
      æspi'reiʃən
      n[CU] ambition
      -
      It's my lofty aspiration that someone will appreciate my calligraphy.
      I wholeheartedly pray that your high aspiration be fulfilled.
      Her daughter used to have her own hopes and aspirations.
      We often have big dreams and aspirations but never write them down.
      In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
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      break`down
      'breikdaun
      n[UC] mechanical failure ¶ the failure of a relationship or system ¶ weakening or collapse of sb's (esp mental) health ¶ a list of all the separate parts of sth
      -
      Joey and his girlfriend broke down on the Parkway.
      They had a breakdown on the Parkway.
      Her new book examines the breakdown of her marriage.
      Mental breakdown (also known as a nervous breakdown) is a colloquial term for an acute, time-limited psychiatric disorder that manifests primarily as severe stress-induced depression, anxiety or dissociation in a previously functional individual, to the extent that they are no longer able to function on a day-to-day basis until the disorder is resolved.
      Ross had a breakdown after he divorced Emily.
      Someone who is run-down is tired and not healthy.
      If they ask for a breakdown of costs, they are most likely in need of more information because you didn't provide them with enough information to make a decision.
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      tro`phy
      'trəufi
      n[C] a reward for a specific achievement, and serves as recognition or evidence of merit
      -
      Trophies are most often awarded for sporting events, from youth sports to professional level athletics.
      In many sports medals (or, in North America, rings) are often given out either instead of or along with trophies.
      Originally the word trophy referred to arms, standards, other property, or human captives and body parts (e.g. headhunting) captured in battle.
      Perpetual trophies are held by the winner until next event when winner must compete again in order to keep the trophy.
      "Your brother has so many science trophies and plaques and merit badges, well we didn't wanna disturb them," said Mr. Geller.
      Leonard won the Physics Bowl trophy.
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      clar`i`ty
      'klæriti
      n[U] clearness of appearance, expression, or thought of style
      -
      It is an accurate blueprint of the qualities - cut, color, clarity and carat weight of each Forevermark diamond.
      I could not believe the clarity of sound and the vivid color the classroom had on my iPad.
      All letters are edited for clarity and length; 200 words or fewer are best.
      Your clarity of vision may not be affected at all.
      I marvel at Sylvia's stamina and her sustained clarity of thought.
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      tub
      tʌb
      n[C] an open, flat-bottomed vessel, used for washing, packing, or storing
      -
      Ok, Joe, I gotta ask. The girl from the Xerox place buck naked (Holds up one hand), or a big tub of jam. (Holds up the other hand)
      "Honey, this will help," said Rachel, handing Chandler a tub of ice cream.
      "Hey!" said Ross, walking up with a huge tub of popcorn and drink.
      Joey fell in a big tub of worms at the bait stand.
      Yeah, well look at this kitchen, slash bathroom. Well that's great! You know so you can cook while in the tub (bathtub).
      "Why don't you get in the hot tub and I'll meet you there," said Elizabeth.
      "I filled the tub," said Monica.
      Fine, you can have the bath, but I am taking your boat. Now you're just a girl in a tub!
      Honey, look, we can do something else, do you want me to get into the tub and thrash?
      At the end of the commercial, the girls get out of the hot tub, start making out with each other.
      Joey enters carrying a tub of ice cream. He sets it on the table, takes off his jacket and struggles with the drawer. It cannot be opened.
      "We will see about that," he shrugged, backing into a curbside tub of flowers and taking off with a screech of tires.
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      me`di`an
      'mi:diən
      adj situated in or passing through the middle
      also a noun
      -
      The median strip is the reserved area that separates opposing lanes of traffic on divided roadways, such as divided highways, dual carriageways, freeways, or motorways.
      In statistics and probability theory, the median is the numerical value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
      The median of {3, 3, 5, 9, 11} is 5.
      If there is an even number of observations, then there is no single middle value; the median is then usually defined to be the mean of the two middle values.
      The median of {3, 5, 7, 9} is (5 + 7) / 2 = 6.
      The mode is the value that appears most often in a set of data.
      In geometry, a median of a triangle is a line segment joining a vertex to the midpoint of the opposing side.
      Each median of a triangle passes through the triangle's centroid, which is the center of mass of an object of uniform density in the shape of the triangle.
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      crunch
      krʌntʃ
      v[IT] crush hard food loudly between the teeth ¶ make a sound like sth being crushed
      also a noun
      -
      As we stepped inside, a dog slunk out, its teeth crunching (on) a bone.
      As they raised each leg out of the snow, wind drove pain through their wet, skin-sticky pants. Their boots crunched deep with each step.
      It was a lovely fall day; the leaves crunched under our feet.
      If you crunch across a surface made of very small stones, you move across it causing it to make a crunching noise.
      The wheels crunched the gravel.
      If you crunch (the) numbers, you do a lot of calculations in order to find an answer.
      Cap'n Crunch is a product line of sweetened corn and oat breakfast cereals introduced in 1963 and manufactured by Quaker Oats Company, a division of PepsiCo since 2001.
      The crunch (sit-up) is one of the most common abdominal exercises.
      A crunch is a difficult situation caused by a lack of something.
      That would destroy the banks of the withdrawing country, creating a huge credit crunch that could lead to a severe recession or even a depression.
      The crunch (time) is an important time, especially one when a difficult decision has to be made. (Compare crisis)
      The crunch is going to happen in the next administration.
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      claw
      klɔ:
      n[C] a curved, pointed appendage
      v[IT] tear or pull
      -
      A claw is a sharp, curved, horny structure at the end of a toe of a mammal, reptile, or bird. (Compare paw)
      A claw is made of hard protein called keratin.
      Claws are used to catch and hold prey in carnivorous mammals such as cats and dogs, but may also be used for such purposes as digging, climbing trees, self-defense, and grooming, in those and other species.
      A talon is the claw of a bird of prey, its primary hunting tool.
      At just under a meter, the claws of Therizinosaurus are among the largest recorded.
      Using its claws for anchoring, a green lizard basks.
      A claw is a long, sharp curved part of the body of some types of shellfish.
      The correct term for the "claw" of an arthropod, such as a lobster or crab, is a chela (plural chelae).
      If an animal claws at something, it scratches or damages it with its claws.
      The cats clawed at each other.
      To claw at something mean to try very hard to get hold of it.
      The children were clawing at my pant legs.
      If someone gets their claws into another person, they influence them in a harmful way, or say unpleasant things about someone.
      If a woman gets her claws into a man, she tries hard to make him marry her or to have a relationship with her.
      If you claw your way somewhere, you move there with great difficulty.
      He clawed his way back into the lead.
      If someone claws back some of the money or power they had lost, they get some of it back again.
      The company has managed to claw back its share of the market.
      If a government or organization claws back money it has given to people, it takes it back.
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      de`sir`a`ble
      di'zaiərəbəl
      adj worth having or doing ¶ sexually attractive
      -
      It was a desirable job, and we had a lot of applicants.
      It is necessary or at least desirable.
      You lived in China for 5 years and speak Chinese? That seems like hugely desirable experience for any number of businessy jobs - would you want to be a cultural liaison or something like that for a big company that wants to do business in China?
      Highly desirable and often small in size, they can be extremely vulnerable to theft.
      Slender is more desirable.
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      dat`ed
      'deitid
      adj old-fashioned
      -
      I don't feel the book is dated in any significant way at this point.
      Your information is dated.
      The example I use is dated but useful.
      I think those furnishings look dated.
      The decor was a little dated.
      Compare dated and outdated.
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      hos`til`i`ty
      hɔ'stiliti
      n[U] unfriendly or aggressive feelings or behavior ¶ strong or angry opposition
      n[pl] fighting in a war
      -
      He described Turkey as leading phase two of the Islamist movement, distinguished from the first phase (led by Iran) because it is more subtle and does not engage in overt violence or open hostility to the west.
      Any doubts about the outright hostility shown by the media and commentators still?
      This has manifested itself in his hostility towards Dr. George Huang.
      Thus the hostility to Germany, from this aspect also, is based on England's most important interests.
      On January 29, 2002, in the first open expression of U.S. hostility toward Iraq, President Bush named that country in his State of the Union address as a member of a group he called the "Axis of Evil."
      At the cessation of hostilities the RCAF had 164,846 all ranks serving.
      Compare hospitable and hostility.
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      com`men`ta`tor
      'kɔmənteitə
      n[C] broadcaster ¶ sb who writes about a particular subject or discuss it on tv or radio
      -
      Larry Haas was a political commentator and former aide in the Clinton White House.
      In sports broadcasting, a sports commentator (also known as sports announcer, sportscaster, or play-by-play announcer) gives a running commentary of a game or event in real time, usually during a live broadcast.
      A color commentator (color analyst, analyst, and summarizer) is a sports commentator who assists the play-by-play announcer, often by filling in any time when play is not in progress.
      The color analyst and main commentator will often exchange comments freely throughout the broadcast, when the play-by-play announcer is not describing the action.
      The color commentator provides expert analysis and background information, such as statistics, strategy and injury reports on the teams and athletes, and occasionally anecdotes or light humor.
      Color commentators are often former athletes or coaches of the sport being broadcast.
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      flu
      flu:
      n[U] influenza
      -
      Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae, the influenza viruses.
      The most common symptoms are chills, fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache (often severe), coughing, weakness/fatigue and general discomfort.
      Although it is often confused with other influenza-like illnesses, especially the common cold, influenza is a more severe disease caused by a different type of virus.
      Influenza may produce nausea and vomiting, particularly in children.
      Typically, influenza is transmitted through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus.
      Influenza can also be transmitted by direct contact with bird droppings or nasal secretions, or through contact with contaminated surfaces.
      Influenza vaccines may be administered as an injection, also known as a flu shot, or as a nasal spray.
      The world is now better prepared to deal with health crises, given the experience of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) in 2003 and then the threat of the bird flu, Johnson and other economists said.
      Swine influenza, also called pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu, is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses.
      Monica goes into one of those half sneezing, half-coughing fits that you get with a bad cold or flu.
      "What kind of sick?" "Uh, the flu, I guess."
      Sheldon worried that he would catch/get/have (the) flu.
      He had a nasty dose of flu; he was still in bed with flu.
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      wal`let
      'wɔlit
      n[C] a small flat case that people keep paper money, bank cards etc in
      -
      A wallet, or billfold, is a small, flat case that is used to carry personal items such as cash, credit cards, identification documents (driver's license, identification card, club card, etc.), photographs, gift cards, business cards and other paper or laminated cards.
      Wallets are generally made of leather or fabrics, and they are usually pocket-sized but not always foldable.
      Ross looked in his wallet, pulled out two dollars.
      Richard's showing Monica the pictures in his wallet.
      Ross patted his clothes like he was looking for his wallet.
      He heaved a sigh of relief when he found his wallet.
      He pulled out a big fat wallet stuffed with fifties.
      Just give me your wallet and there won't be a problem.
      Sheldon is putting cards into his new wallet.
      The online description was completely misleading. They said eight slots, plus removable id. To any rational person, that would mean room for nine cards, but they don't tell you, the removable id takes up one slot.
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      di`no`saur
      'dainəsɔ:
      n[C] large extinct reptile
      -
      Dinosaurs first appeared during the Triassic period, 231.4 million years ago, and were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for 135 million years, from the beginning of the Jurassic (about 201 million years ago) until the end of the Cretaceous (66 million years ago).
      Jurassic Park is an American media franchise consisting of novels, films, comics, and video games centering on a disastrous attempt to create a theme park of cloned dinosaurs.
      The species Tyrannosaurus rex, commonly abbreviated to T. rex, is a fixture in popular culture.
      Velociraptor (commonly shortened to "raptor") is one of the dinosaur genera most familiar to the general public due to its prominent role in the Jurassic Park motion picture series.
      "Dinosaur" is the 39th Disney animated movie. The film revolves around the life of an Iguanodon named Aladar.
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      pro`spec`tive
      prə'spektiv
      adj would-be
      -
      For example, an employer may request a prospective employee's previous names for the purpose of reference checks or to confirm previous employment or attendance at an educational institution.
      A regular graduate student is a prospective candidate for the masteral or doctoral degree.
      When you pick up the phone to call on a prospective client, you want to have two things in mind.
      A house needs to resonate with a prospective buyer, she says.
      And even if he were to interest a prospective employer, a visa would only be issued if the employer can show that no Canadian was qualified for the job.
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      dart
      da:t
      n[C] a small pointed object that is thrown or shot as a weapon, or one that is thrown in the game
      v[I] move suddenly and quickly
      -
      The blowgun can be used to fire darts, as well.
      An indoor game of darts has also been developed, steel-tip darts generally weigh 18-26 grams and maximum of 50 grams is allowed in Amateur or Professional competitions such as the World Series of Darts.
      The common length of a dart is generally 15 to 20 cm long, but rules allow for up to 30 cm. They are designed to penetrate dart boards made of bundled fibers.
      The bull's-eye is the small circular area at the centre of a target.
      Tranquilizer darts are related to the darts for blowguns, but include a hypodermic needle and a hollow reservoir resembling a syringe, which is generally filled with sedatives or other drugs.
      Jerking free of his grasp, she darted through the trees.
      He sprang up off the seat and made a dart (sudden quick movement) for the toilets.
      Schools of fish as bright as jewels darted and executed breath-taking precision maneuvers as I disturbed their busy days.
      If you dart a glance or look at someone or something, you look at them very quickly.
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      pro`ceed`ings
      prə'sidiŋz
      n[pl] a sequence of events ¶ minutes ¶ legal action
      -
      The hectic proceedings of the day have started to get to her, and you landing out of nowhere will definitely cheer her up.
      Proceedings will begin with a two-day conference in Delhi comprising panel discussions and workshops that are open to the public.
      In academia, proceedings are the collection of academic papers published in the context of an academic conference.
      The quality of publications in conference proceedings is usually not as high as that of international scientific journals.
      However, a number of full-fledged academic journals unconnected to particular conferences also use the word "proceedings" as part of their name, for example, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
      The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
      The Proceedings of the IEEE is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
      A legal proceeding is any activity that seeks to invoke the power of a tribunal in order to enforce a law, or obtain legal remedies pursuant to a law.
      When, in 1529, the divorce proceedings between the King, Henry VIII, and the Queen, Catherine of Aragon, were on the point of breaking down in a way the King didn't much like, Cranmer suggested that the question of the King's marriage be considered by the universities of Europe.
      If the bankruptcy proceedings are in another member state of the European Union (EU), except for Denmark, where you have or recently had your main residence or business, the trustee in those proceedings has the authority to deal with all the assets which you have within the EU (including the UK).
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      in`ter`face
      'intəfeis
      n[C] surface common to two areas
      v[IT] connect or communicate
      -
      A biointerface is the interface between a cell, a biological tissue or a biomaterial with another material.
      In computing, an interface is a shared boundary across which two separate components of a computer system exchange information. The exchange can be between software, computer hardware, peripheral devices, humans and combinations of these.
      The user interface, in the industrial design field of human–machine interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
      I live in Canada, I talk to Canadians, I have interfaced with the healthcare system, I know what it is like.
      "Janine, you know what we're doing right now? You and I, we're interfacing," said Ross.
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      quilt
      kwilt
      n[C] a type of blanket
      -
      A quilt is a type of blanket, traditionally composed of three layers of fiber: a woven cloth top, a layer of batting or wadding, and a woven back, combined using the technique of quilting.
      "Quilting" refers to the technique of joining at least two fabric layers by stitches or ties.
      A duvet (from the French duvet "down"), also known as a doona in Australian English or a continental quilt (or simply quilt) in British English, is a type of bedding.
      A duvet consists of a soft flat bag filled with down, feathers, wool, silk or a synthetic alternative and protected with a removable cover, analogous to a pillow and pillow case.
      A comforter, also known as a doona in Australian English or a continental quilt (or simply quilt) in British English, is a type of bedding.
      Comforters are a type of blanket, filled with natural or synthetic insulative material and encased in a shell/covering.
      Like quilts, comforters are generally used with a set of bed sheets.
      "Her ass print is still on your grandmother's quilt, do you really want to talk about smoking?" Chandler asked.
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      mo`tel
      məu'tel
      n[C] a hotel for people who are traveling by car
      -
      A motor hotel (shortened to motel) is a hotel designed for motorists, and usually has a parking area for motor vehicles
      Motels differ from hotels in their location along highways, as opposed to the urban cores favored by hotels, and their orientation to the outside (in contrast to hotels, whose doors typically face an interior hallway).
      The original motels were small, locally owned businesses which grew around two-lane highways which were Main Street in every town along the way.
      The 1950s and 1960s was the pinnacle of the motel industry in the United States and Canada.
      During this time, McQueen becomes friends with several of the cars, and learns that Radiator Springs used to be a popular stopover along U.S. Route 66, but with the construction of Interstate 40 bypassing the town, it literally vanished from the map.
      The plight of U.S. Route 66, whose disappearance from the map in 1985 turned places like Glenrio, Texas and Amboy, California into overnight ghost towns, has captured public attention.
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