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      v[T] weaken or damage
      The military said it was designed to "severely impair the command and control chain of the Hamas leadership."
      A head injury can impair an employee for life or it can be fatal.
      A public entity shall ensure that interested persons, including persons with impaired vision or hearing, can obtain information as to the existence and location of accessible services, activities, and facilities.
      There were no signs Solomon was impaired either by alcohol or drugs.
      Sheldon's irony-impaired.
      "Which leads to?" "Impaired cognitive function."
      v[IT] move or hit sth with a short sudden movement ¶ flip
      also a noun
      Chandler taught Joey how to flick a cigarette.
      I flicked the dust off my blazer and then walked away.
      From the clapping inside I assumed the next band was about to perform, so I flicked my cigarette away, and went back in.
      Her eyes flicked from face to face.
      Monica flicked Rachel on the forehead.
      It was as if a switch was flicked on, and the mist cleared up at once.
      If you flick through a book or magazine, you turn its pages quickly.
      Just got it for the Kindle, and flicked through.
      If you flick through television channels, you continually change channels very quickly.
      I flicked it to CNN - but how would I know if they were telling the truth? I flicked the channel again.
      Joey turned the pancake over with a strong flick of his wrist.
      I had a quick flick through your report.
      Chick-flick is a slang term for a film genre mainly dealing with love and romance and designed to appeal to a largely female target audience.
      Compare flick and flicker.
      n[C] an ensemble of singers ¶ the part of a church in which a ~ sits
      A body of singers who perform together as a group is called a choir or chorus.
      "choir" is very often applied to groups affiliated with a church (whether or not they actually occupy the choir), and "chorus" to groups that perform in theatres or concert halls, but this distinction is far from rigid.
      Architecturally, the choir is the area of a church or cathedral that provides seating for the clergy and choir.
      Amy is busy with choir practice and swim team and chess club and neuroscience lab and newspaper.
      "Preach to the choir" means "talk about something with a group of people who already agree with you."
      Compare chant and choir.
      n[C] a pattern, framework etc of crisscrossed or parallel lines, bars etc
      Grid references define locations on maps.
      Grid lines on maps define the coordinate system, and are numbered to provide a unique reference to features.
      Electrical grid is a network for delivering electricity.
      Grid computing is the application of a network of computers to a single problem.
      "You don't have an Open Science Grid computer," said Dennis Kim.
      A cattle/stock grid consists of a depression in the road covered by a transverse grid of bars or tubes, such that the gaps between them are wide enough for animals' legs to fall through, but sufficiently narrow not to impede a wheeled vehicle or human foot.
      While these barriers are usually effective, they can fail due to ingenious animals. Sheep have been known to jump or run along the side of grids as wide as 8 feet (2.4 m), traversing them to find more and better food or water.
      The grid or the starting grid is a set of starting positions for all the cars in a motor race.
      n[U] a strong feeling of fear or worry
      v[T] feel anxious or worried
      It fills me with dread and sadness to think that this is the future.
      Wives live in dread of receiving a telegram from the forces.
      Existentialist theory equates anxiety with the dread of being alone or of being nothing.
      I'm not rich, but I don't wake up in the morning dreading work.
      Monica dreaded Chandler finding out that she was not wearing her expensive boots.
      I had no job, no where to live, no stable income and dreaded the thought of my children coming from a broken home.
      Personally, I always dreaded school presentations.
      There is one question that is always dreaded in a job interview and that's when you are asked "Why did you leave your last job?"
      n[C] a curve which emanates from a central point, getting progressively farther away as it revolves around the point
      also an adjective and a verb
      A two-dimensional spiral may be described most easily using polar coordinates, where the radius r is a monotonic continuous function of angle θ.
      For simple 3-d spirals, a third variable, h (height), is also a continuous, monotonic function of θ.
      Every leaf on the floor swivelled around in spirals as if in a tornado.
      A spiral galaxy is a certain kind of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble.
      Sting's wife walks down the large spiral staircase in the middle of the home carrying three photo albums.
      The priority must be an immediate end to the violence to avoid a spiral downwards to even greater suffering.
      If he hadn't taken measures to help himself now, he might have spiralled into the abuse of alcohol, drugs or another addiction.
      The $2-3 a barrel price that had prevailed since World War 2 quadrupled to $12, and has since spiraled upwards towards the $100.
      The report detailed an alarming picture of Taliban advances and spiralling violence.
      n[U] tiny drops of water in the air, in a substance, or on a surface
      Moisture refers to the presence of a liquid, especially water, often in trace amounts.
      Higher humidity reduces the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of evaporation of moisture from the skin.
      The function of frog skin is to regulate moisture and fluid transfer.
      They form when moist winds ascend the side of a mountain or hill, and as the moisture condenses towards the top of the terrain, it forms a cloud above the ridge.
      Fat slows moisture loss, helping bread stay fresh longer.
      If you moisten something, you make it slightly wet.
      If you moisturize your skin, you rub cream into it to make it softer.
      If a cream moisturizes your skin, it makes it softer.
      adj relating to the position, size, shape etc of things
      'Spatial Imagination in Design' examined imagination as a key 'creative driver' in the development of innovative and qualitative spatial design processes.
      All 3D rendering techniques represent a 3D volume of data in one or more two-dimensional (2D) planes, conveying the spatial relationships inherent in the data with use of visual depth cues.
      They managed to get six different acoustic variables that they could change: frequency, intensity, rate of interruption, on-time fraction, total duration, and spatial location.
      Elementary school children who played in the orchestra scored considerably higher on math and spatial intelligence tests.
      Spatial Intelligence is an area in the theory of multiple intelligences that deals with spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind's eye.
      n[UC] a long period of time during which no rain falls
      Drought is an extended period when a region receives a deficiency in its water supply, whether atmospheric, surface or ground water.
      Although droughts can persist for several years, even a short, intense drought can cause significant damage and harm to the local economy.
      Prolonged drought has caused cause mass migrations and humanitarian crises.
      Modern people can effectively mitigate much of the impact of drought through irrigation and crop rotation.
      Succulent plants are well-adapted to survive long periods of drought.
      Drought and wind contribute to the emergence of dust storms, as do poor farming and grazing practices by exposing the dust and sand to the wind.
      n[C] an animal or human that has not yet been born, and has just begun to develop
      In humans, it is called an embryo until about eight weeks after fertilization (i.e. ten weeks after the last menstrual period or LMP), and from then it is instead called a fetus.
      The embryo's growth centers around an axis, which will become the spine and spinal cord.
      Chemicals produced by the embryo stop the woman's menstrual cycle.
      Some embryos do not survive through to the fetal stage, which begins about two months after fertilization (10 weeks LMP).
      Embryos may be aborted spontaneously or purposely.
      v[IT] join or to make sb join the armed forces ¶ obtain help or support ¶ list
      By the time he enlisted as an infantryman, the war had only months to run.
      He was enlisted in the Army in 1988.
      Ross enlisted the help of Rachel to move his new couch.
      The concerns were resolved when the US government enlisted the services of experts to create a new form of HDTV.
      For this reason he was enlisted in the killing list of the anti liberation groups.
      In May 2010 he was enlisted in Time magazine's list of 100 most influential people.
      Compare enlist, enrol, and payroll.
      n[U] a sparkling wine
      Champagne is a sparkling wine produced from grapes grown in the Champagne region of France following rules that demand secondary fermentation of the wine in the bottle to create carbonation.
      Could we get a bottle of your most overpriced champagne?
      Phoebe took the guy to a romantic restaurant and ordered champagne.
      "You know what? This calls for a bottle of Israel's finest champagne," Ross exclaimed.
      She never drinks the water and makes you order French champagne.
      n[C] a small and crude shelter
      A hut is a shape of a lower quality than a house but higher quality than a shelter such as a tent and is used as temporary or seasonal shelter or in primitive societies as a permanent dwelling.
      Huts are used by shepherds when moving livestock between seasonal grazing areas such as mountainous and lowland pastures.
      In the Western world the word "hut" is often used for a wooden shed.
      The term "hut" has also been adopted by climbers and backpackers to refer to a more solid and permanent structure offering refuge.
      An igloo is a hut made of pieces of hard snow or ice.
      Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise that offers different styles of pizza along with side dishes.
      n[C] an important development or achievement
      A crucial breakthrough came in 1988.
      The course represented a breakthrough in graduate training because, for the first time in Indonesia, food safety was treated as an important subject for nutritionists.
      Now Gillard has achieved a breakthrough with agreement from the Greens to scrap the floor price from 2015 and link the carbon scheme directly to the European carbon price.
      This article originally stated that these people had a made a breakthrough in making electricity from hydrogen, which is not correct.
      His breakthrough came during this past year when he beat 2008 Beijing Paralympics silver medalists Boaz Cramer and Shraga Weinberg, three times.
      During the last four years when Obama was U.S. president, no breakthrough happened in relations between Iran and the US.
      v[T] find where you are by looking around you or using a map ¶ make oneself familiar with a situation ¶ aim sth at sb/sth ¶ make sth suitable for a particular group of people
      Desert ants travel long distances to find food, using celestial cues to orient themselves and find their way.
      It took me a while to orientate (a British word for orient) myself to college life.
      I'm a goal-oriented person, very eager to learn.
      In "Object-oriented programming", concepts are represented as "objects" that have data fields and associated procedures known as methods.
      The Orient means the East. It is a traditional designation for anything that belongs to the Eastern world or the Middle East (aka Near East) or the Far East, in relation to Europe.
      In English, Orient is largely a metonym for, and coterminous with, the Continent of Asia.
      "Enough about me, Mr. Back from the Orient. I wanna hear everything!" said Rachel.
      n[C] a pink to blood-red colored gemstone
      Ruby is a predominantly feminine given name taken from the name of the gemstone ruby.
      The ruby is the birthstone for the month of July.
      Maiman's functional laser used a solid-state flashlamp-pumped synthetic ruby crystal to produce red laser light.
      The rupee is the common name for the currencies of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Mauritius, Seychelles, Maldives, Indonesia (as the rupiah), and formerly those of Burma and Afghanistan.
      The ruble or rouble (RUB) is a unit of currency of various countries in Eastern Europe and is closely associated with the economy of Russia.
      n[s] the largest planet of the solar system
      Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System.
      Jupiter is a gas giant with mass one-thousandth of that of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in the Solar System combined.
      Jupiter or Jove is the king of the gods and the god of sky and thunder in ancient Roman religion and myth.
      Zeus is etymologically cognate with and, under Hellenic influence, became particularly closely identified with Roman Jupiter.
      Cupid was the Roman god of love. Cupid was the son of Venus (Aphrodite) and Mars (Ares).
      n[C] a small colored often round piece of plastic, wood, glass etc with a hole through it ¶ a small drop of liquid
      Amber bead necklaces are considered to have healing properties for teething infants and are used by many parents to soothe the child's gums.
      They carry both short and long strands of prayer beads, clicking them off with a thumb as they walk.
      Hindus and Buddhists have worn 108-prayer-bead strands, called malas, on their wrists for hundreds of years, since the 8th century.
      Inside lay Savile, dressed in a tracksuit and clutching a string of rosary beads.
      It's suede, like a small cat-of-nine-tails but bushier, and there are very small plastic beads on the end.
      Beads of sweat dotted Leonard's forehead.
      Beads of sweat appearing on my brow; without Power Point I'm finished.
      adj able to be carried or moved easily
      also a noun
      I forgot to bring a portable radio, so I got a new little "travel radio" for $39.95 from Radio Shack, along with some re-chargeable batteries.
      Using portable technology such as laptops, Tablet PCs, or handheld computers, a business's IT staff can respond instantly to any need.
      If you can, find a friend with a scanner to digitize them and put them on a CD or portable flash drive.
      In software engineering, porting is also used when software is changed to make them usable in different environments.
      Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
      v[T] punish sb who has done sth to harm you or sb else
      also a noun
      Nina wanted to revenge herself on Chandler for his lying.
      She was seeking revenge for being called crazy.
      She was determined to have her revenge on him one day.
      "I will be revenged!" she yelled.
      Nina took her revenge by hitting Chandler's hand with a stapler.
      Nina took her revenge on Chandler by hitting his hand with a stapler.
      The attack was an act of revenge for being called crazy.
      She hit him in revenge for being called crazy.
      Would you look at this dump? Mr. Heckles hated us, this is his final revenge!
      Ross keeps giggling and Rachel decides upon revenge.
      The Americans were seeking revenge for their defeat at the last time's championships.
      They took revenge for their defeat here last time.
      Compare avenge and revenge.
      v[IT] be in charge of sb/sth and make sure that things are done in the correct way
      The Bureau of Public Assistance, which supervises federal grants for old-age assistance, aid to dependent children, and aid to the needy blind.
      In Michigan as elsewhere, a state licensing board supervised the real-estate industry, but the board did not prohibit discriminatory practices by realtors.
      When I was 15, I was only allowed to go to supervised households.
      Steven McDevitt, who left the White House in 2006, said he supervised an internal study that found hundreds of days in which no electronic messages were stored for one or more White House offices from January 2003 to August 2005.
      "That game should not be played without my supervision," said Phoebe.
      "Big Al calls me into his office and tells me he wants to make me processing supervisor," said Chandler.
      adj careful to avoid problems or danger
      Travelers should also be cautious of individuals who persistently offer unsolicited help.
      It is important for parents to understand this, and to be extra cautious when picking up and dropping off kids at school.
      We need to be much more cautious with legislation allowing an iron fist to hang over the head of citizens.
      "The Fed is being cautious given all the risks out there, but once European default issues and gasoline price hike concerns are moderated, the Fed will have to consider lightening up their pessimistic view," wrote economist Joel Naroff.
      The next time I meet a woman I think is attractive, rather than holding back and being cautious, I'm going to assume the mantle of self-assurance.
      I think all branches of science have to move cautiously these days. It's not just giant nuclear weapons that can destroy the world. As a microbiologist, I can tell you even the tiniest organisms can still tear you a new one.
      If you are wary of something or someone, you are cautious because you do not know much about them and you believe they may be dangerous or cause problems.
      n[C] laugh that sb gives when they are amused, nervous, or embarrassed
      v[I] give the laugh
      v[T] say sth while giving the laugh
      I smirk, and we both fall into a fit of giggles.
      We both burst into a fit of giggles.
      As he leads me out of the elevator, we can hear the suppressed giggles of the couple erupting behind us.
      Mia giggles, and Christian rolls his eyes.
      It makes me grin and giggle like a fool.
      He looks so proud of himself that I start to giggle.
      n[C] sb who takes care of a building ¶ sb who is in charge of sth ¶ a British police officer of high rank
      Yeah, there's this superintendent's dance, the Super Ball. I don't know, and he wants to impress Marge, this lady super that he's got a crush on.
      The storage lockers on the roof should be resistant to break-ins and accessible by keys held by the superintendent and a few trusted residents on upper floors.
      As a result of special efforts by the Superintendent of Documents at the Government Printing Office, the availability of the new Guide was well publicized.
      Detective Chief Superintendent Gill Imery is the head of CID at Lothian and Borders Police.
      With the creation of Greater Manchester Police in 1974, he was promoted to Detective Superintendent.
      Compare janitor and superintendent.
      n[C] sb who makes, repairs, and alters (esp men's) clothes
      v[T] make or change sth esp for a particular person or purpose
      The Valiant Little Tailor or The Brave Little Tailor is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 20.
      Chandler told Ross and Joey that Joey's tailor took advantage of him when he was measured for a suit.
      A dressmaker is a person who makes custom clothing for women, such as dresses, blouses, and evening gowns.
      A tailor in Gloucester sends his cat Simpkin to buy food and a twist of cherry-coloured silk to complete a waistcoat commissioned by the mayor for his wedding on Christmas morning.
      My style is very simple. Love high heels, tailored jackets and skinny jeans.
      At a meeting of an Arab-American association, he was asked if he had a special speech tailored to their group.
      "Custom-made", "made to order", "made to measure" and sometimes "hand-made" are near-synonyms. "Off-the-shelf" and in clothing "ready-to-wear" are the opposites.
      "You can wear off-the-rack." Rachel starts to cry, as does Monica.