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      v[T] check whether sth is true or accurate ¶ confirm
      Canada recognizes dual citizenships; however, you need to verify whether the laws of your home country recognize it as well.
      He verified that the valves were closed.
      These are facts that can be easily verified in about 10 minutes.
      It is not an issue of truth or falsity because the answer cannot be verified.
      The whole point of a secret knock is to establish a non-verbal signal to verify the identity of one's co-conspirators.
      n[C] rebel
      also an adjective
      The insurgents hide in the fields and trees where they try to kill members of the ALP.
      I know you are all involved and you support the insurgents.
      In November of 1936 Franco's Insurgents prepared to assault the capital, Madrid.
      Americans have a common interest in ridding the region of the Taliban and other insurgent groups.
      The insurgent group still controls parts of Somalia.
      The Somali insurgent group al-Shabab has claimed responsibility for the bombing.
      n[C] an untidy pile or mass of things
      v[T] pile
      In many districts their only food is the potato, their only beverage water, that a bed or a blanket is a rare luxury, and that their pig and manure heap constitute their only property.
      I'm fed up with flag worship. Burn it, shred it, tear it to pieces, leave it in a crumpled heap on the ground or just ignore it.
      The bottle slipped from his hand and fell in a heap into the kitchen sink.
      One model I was working with collapsed in a heap during a shoot. We tried to get her to eat something but all she'd have was rice cakes.
      It's been ages since a team made it from the bottom of the heap to the Stanley Cup Finals.
      As a matter of fact, Bush heaped a lot of praise on Obama in his book, Decision Points.
      A lot of pressure certainly has been heaped on healthcare in recent years, including increased legislation, insurance or budget strictures, and patient privacy concerns.
      n[U] a very large quantity of sth
      My mother showed me that I had an over abundance of clothes.
      Last year we had an abundance of water and hay, but because of the drought in Texas, and the pressure that put on our local market, hay prices spiked.
      It had good harbors and an abundance of coal that would permit the colony to be quickly put on a firm financial footing.
      Carbon is found in abundance in the sun, stars, comets, atmospheres of most planets, and the food we eat.
      A sausage fest is a party of only guys (or at least 80% guys), where there is a substantial abundance of weiner (penis).
      Compare abundant, abundance, plentiful, and scarce.
      v[I] talk about other people's private lives, often in an unkind way
      n[CU] the information or conversation ¶ sb who ~
      Hey Rach, maybe your resolution should be to umm gossip less.
      I don't gossip! Maybe sometimes I find out things or I hear something and I pass that information on, you know, kind of like a public service. It doesn't mean I'm a gossip. I mean, would you call Ted Kopel a gossip?
      Fine. My new year's resolution will be not to gossip! It's easy.
      I hate gossip. In junior high this girl said a lot of mean stuff about me and I set her bike on fire.
      Hey everybody, Rachel was so good today. She didn't gossip at all.
      Gossip Girl is an American teen drama television series based on the book series of the same name written by Cecily von Ziegesar.
      If you're having a gossip and refer to a' Mr. Wong', there's a good chance the listener will have several Mr. Wong's in mind.
      Blame the boss, the office gossip, your parents or a bad alignment of the stars, but if you aren't getting that promotion you want, it could be because you are your own worst enemy at work.
      n[C] a place in a room where a fire burns
      A fireplace is an architectural structure designed to contain a fire.
      Fireplaces are used at the present time mostly for the relaxing ambiance they create.
      Historically fireplaces were used for the practical purposes of heating, cooking, and heating water for laundry and domestic uses.
      A fireplace may have: a foundation; a hearth; a firebox; a mantelpiece; a chimney crane, used in kitchen and laundry fireplaces; a grate; a lintel; a lintel bar; overmantel; a damper; a smoke chamber; a throat; a flue.
      It faces a state-of-the-art stainless steel - or maybe platinum for all I know - modern fireplace.
      He points the remote at a sleek white box beneath the fireplace that houses his iPod, and the exquisite melody fades but continues in the background.
      v[IT] change the shape, appearance or sound of sth ¶ change information etc so that it is not true or accurate
      If the door frame edges appear to have any kinks or be distorted in any way, or they bow in or out, this may indicate that you have macular degeneration.
      Around 35-40% of people with dyslexia suffer with a visual stress difficulty where text appears to move around or look distorted in some way.
      In the summer, it's directly in the path of a cross-breeze created by opening windows there and there it faces the television at an angle that is neither direct, thus discouraging conversation, nor so far wide as to create a parallax distortion.
      The image of newborn babies is largely distorted by the media these days. We see chubby, bright eyed, smiling babies. This means that when your baby is born, you might be in for quite a shock as to what a real, healthy newborn looks like in person.
      A false memory is a fabricated or distorted recollection of an event that did not actually happen.
      n[UC] very thin sheets of metal or paper used for wrapping food etc ¶ sb/sth that contrasts with, and therefore emphasizes, the qualities of sb/sth else
      v[T] stop sth from happening or prevent sb from doing sth
      Tin foil, also spelled tinfoil, is a thin foil made of tin.
      Actual tin foil was superseded by cheaper and more durable aluminum foil after World War II, although aluminum foil is still referred to as "tin foil" in many regions.
      A tin foil hat is a hat made from one or more sheets of aluminum foil, or a piece of conventional headgear lined with foil, worn in the belief it shields the brain from threats such as electromagnetic fields, mind control, and mind reading.
      With his wisdom and humanity, he would have been a perfect foil for the cold and heartless Harper government.
      The escape was foiled, however, and he was returned to Fox River State Penitentiary.
      In May 2006, Hong Kong Customs foiled an ivory smuggling attempt by confiscating 3.9 tonnes of ivory hidden in a truck also bound for mainland China.
      v[T] wash sth without soap ¶ remove soap, dirt etc by washing with water ¶ dye
      n[CU] the act or liquid
      Laundering by hand involves soaking, beating, scrubbing, and rinsing dirty textiles.
      First soap would be rinsed out with clear water.
      After rinsing, the soaking wet clothing would be formed into a roll and twisted by hand to extract water.
      A common semi-automatic type included two tubs: one with an agitator or impeller for washing, plus another smaller tub for water extraction or centrifugal rinsing.
      The top-loader's spin cycle between washing and rinsing allows an extremely simple fabric softener dispenser, which operates passively through centrifugal force and gravity.
      Mouthwash is also called mouth rinse, oral rinse or mouth bath.
      Should I rinse my hair purple, pink or blue?
      I have great memories of my grandmother coming home from the beauty parlor with blue rinse in her grey hair.
      The blue rinse is a type of hair dye that may be applied to gray hair.
      adj relating to vision, light, or images
      Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical electromagnetic description of light.
      The first wearable eyeglasses were invented in Italy around 1286. This was the start of the optical industry of grinding and polishing lenses for these "spectacles", first in Venice and Florence in the thirteenth century, and later in the spectacle making centres in both the Netherlands and Germany.
      This practical development, mastery, and experimentation with lenses led directly to the invention of the compound optical microscope around 1595.
      An optical fiber (or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fiber made of extruded glass (silica) or plastic, slightly thicker than a human hair. It can function as a waveguide, or "light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber.
      An optical illusion (also called a visual illusion) is characterized by visually perceived images that differ from objective reality.
      A mirage is a naturally occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays are bent to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky.
      v[T] assert or confrim
      I have believed and spoken aloud and affirmed the creeds.
      The federal appeals court in Manhattan affirmed the judgment of the Northern District of New York, which dismissed the Onondagas' 2005 land claim case in 2010.
      The U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed the power of states to take steps to enforce laws against illegal immigration.
      Obama also has affirmed the right of Israel to defend itself, but in contrast to Romney, he has warned of the consequences of an Israeli strike on Iran.
      Each statement was affirmed by nods from the other women at the table - me included.
      "True dat" is an expression of affirmation.
      n[C] a bright flame, or a device produces it
      v[IT] burn brightly for a short time ¶ become wider, angry, violent, worse etc
      A flare is a type of pyrotechnic that produces a brilliant light or intense heat without an explosion.
      Illumination flares are used during military training exercises.
      A flare gun is a firearm that launches flares. It is typically used for signaling, as distress signaling, for people at sea or from the ground to aircraft.
      A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb.
      Satellites are down. Solar flares.
      There was a sudden flare of a cigarette in the dark.
      Lens flare is the light scattered in lens systems through generally unwanted image formation mechanisms, such as internal reflection and scattering from material inhomogeneities in the lens.
      If a fire flares, the flames suddenly become larger.
      As fire flared out, two motorcycles parked in front of the building quickly caught fire, as did the large electric transformers overhead.
      If a disease or illness flares up, it suddenly becomes worse.
      If something such as trouble, violence, or conflict flares (up), it starts or becomes more violent.
      Trouble flared between the two men as soon as General Jackson was appointed commander on the ground in Kosovo.
      The ongoing tension between China and Japan over the Diaoyu Islands flared up last month.
      If people's tempers flare, they get angry.
      When his temper flared he blamed me.
      If someone's nostrils flare or if they flare them, their nostrils become wider.
      His nostrils flared at a peculiar odor.
      If something such as a dress flares, it spreads outwards at one end to form a wide shape.
      Flares are pants that become wide below the knee.
      n[C] a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge
      An electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton.
      No two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.
      Electrons also have properties of both particles and waves, and so can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light.
      Many physical phenomena involve electrons in an essential role, such as electricity, magnetism, and thermal conductivity, and they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions.
      An electron in space generates an electric field surrounding it.
      An electron moving relative to an observer generates a magnetic field.
      adj/adv standing or sitting straight up ¶ placed in a vertical position ¶ behaving in a moral and honest way
      also a noun
      If he sat upright on the bicycle while turning, the centrifugal force would push him off the bicycle.
      Hold yourself upright with good posture, raise your chest and keep your shoulders back.
      Modern pianos have two basic configurations (with subcategories): the grand piano and the upright piano.
      The mechanism and strings in upright pianos are perpendicular to the keys.
      Make sure the person is in a comfortable, upright position.
      John Proctor (Daniel Day Lewis), the most upright man in the film, is an adulterer whose own actions indirectly lead to the tragedy.
      So, let us learn from Job, a blameless and upright man, one who feared God and shunned evil.
      An upright is a long piece of wood or metal that stands straight up and supports something.
      He caught hold of an upright of the roof.
      n[C] a solid object with six equal square sides ¶ the number that you get when you multiply a number by itself twice ¶ cubicle
      v[T] multiply a number by itself twice ¶ dice
      An ice cube is a small, roughly cube-shaped piece of ice (frozen water), conventionally used to cool beverages.
      Ice cubes are standard in mixed drinks that call for ice, in which case the drink is said to be "on the rocks."
      Ice cube trays are designed to be filled with water, then placed in a freezer until the water freezes to ice, producing ice cubes.
      A bouillon cube or stock cube is dehydrated bouillon (French for broth) or stock formed into a small cube about 15 mm wide.
      The cube of 6 is 216.
      The cube root of 512 is 8.
      Interestingly enough, another interpretation is 216, as some older translations define this enigmatic number as "6 by 6 by 6" or 6 cubed.
      There are no squared or cubed variables in this equation.
      Stir fry cubed bell peppers and onions in peanut oil then add baked and glazed chicken to it.
      adj used or experienced ¶ usual
      Rachel bought two high-priced magazines such as she had been accustomed to read in the days when she had been accustomed to other pleasant things.
      When I went to UC Berkeley, it took me a while before I was accustomed to campus life.
      The compression of the narrative sacrifices Dickens's accustomed character development for plot and overall effect, but what we get is still phenomenal.
      Sheldon is sitting in his accustomed spot.
      This may seem a little odd at first, but over time you'll grow accustomed to dealing with me in this configuration.
      v[T] butcher
      also a noun
      Animal slaughter is the killing of nonhuman animals, usually referring to killing domestic livestock.
      Ritual slaughter involves a prescribed method of slaughtering an animal for food production purposes.
      This differs from animal sacrifices that involve slaughtering animals, often in the context of rituals, for purposes other than mere food production.
      A slaughterhouse or meatworks is a facility where animals are killed for consumption as food.
      Manslaughter is a legal term for the killing of a human being, in a manner considered by law as less culpable (deserving blame or considered criminal) than murder.
      For example, a person who runs a red light driving a vehicle and hits someone crossing the street could be found to intend or be reckless as to assault or criminal damage. There is no intent to kill, and a resulting death would not be considered murder, but would be considered involuntary manslaughter.
      Apparently he was this Russian dictator who slaughtered all these people.
      "Today I had my first rugby game! And while we got slaughtered (hammered), it was still lots of fun," said Ross.
      The world has been shocked at the slaughter of hundreds of women and children in ongoing massacres in Syria.
      n[C] a document issued by a country's government allowing the holder to enter or to leave that country
      Some countries have reciprocal agreements such that a visa is not needed under certain conditions, e.g., when the visit is for tourism and for a relatively short period.
      The Schengen Visa covers most of the European Economic Area, plus several other adjacent countries.
      During Fascist Italy, an exit visa was required from 1922 to 1943. Nazi Germany required exit visas from 1933 to 1945.
      If you are applying for work visa or student visa, or if you are not a US citizen, or if you will be accompanied by anyone who shares the same passport with you, you also need to complete the Supplementary Application Form V. 2011B.
      I definitely recall a maximum of 180 days in any calendar year on a tourist visa.
      If you have not obtained a visa before travelling, bring enough cash with you to pay for your visa on arrival.
      People who are unlawfully in Australia, or no longer hold a valid substantive visa, and who have previously been refused a visa or had a visa cancelled, have the opportunity to make an application for a limited range of visas.
      Canadians do not need a visa to enter Costa Rica.
      One American guy tells me that if you overstay your visa the fine is $200.
      She is currently on a bridging visa since her working holiday visa expired in September.
      v[T] include, surround, or cover
      The course encompasses the study of the Immigration and Nationality Act and the federal agencies that administer and enforce U.S. immigration laws.
      The survey sample of 469 respondents encompasses a diverse group of experts with the following backgrounds.
      The capital stands at the end of a fine valley, in the middle of the island, encompassed by mountains the highest in the world.
      His surprise was as great as theirs, when he found himself at the gate of a city where he had never been before, and encompassed by a crowd of people gazing at him.
      This definition of "eligible households" encompassed about 37% of all households in the population.
      v[T] cover a path etc with flat bricks etc
      There are 7.5 km of paved road per 1,000 sq km of land mass in Tanzania, while this ratio is 82 and 19.7 for Uganda and Kenya respectively.
      The road to hell is paved with good intentions.
      Even though short-lived, the legislation paved the way for harsher immigration laws to come.
      But anyone coming to Qatar expecting the streets to be paved with gold will be disappointed.
      You know who I blame for my loneliness? The United States of America. Your movies and your TV shows promised streets paved with beautiful blonde women with big bazongas.
      v[IT] make a copy of sth ¶ repeat ¶ produce offspring
      Text must be reproduced with a clarity that equals or exceeds the output of a laser printer.
      This text may be reproduced or reused freely.
      If you believe in good faith that your copyrighted work has been reproduced on our website without authorization in a way that constitutes copyright infringement we ask that you contact us.
      Such film can be reproduced rather quickly and inexpensively.
      In the above chart, I reproduced Decker's data, but using a logarithmic regression rather than her linear one, and including labels for every state.
      Salmon return back to where they were born to reproduce, sometimes moving hundreds of miles upstream against strong currents.
      Fungi such as bread moulds reproduce asexually using this method.
      v[T] break or crush sth into small pieces or a powder by pressing it between hard surfaces ¶ press sth against sth else and rub it with a twisting movement
      n[s] sth hard, boring, or tiring ¶ working hard
      Flour is a powder which is made by grinding cereal grains, beans, or other seeds or roots.
      Ross starts making a lot of noise with a handheld pepper grinder.
      Ground beef, beef mince, minced meat, hamburger (in the United States) is a ground meat made of beef, finely chopped by a meat grinder.
      Sharpening stones, water stones or whetstones are used to grind and hone the edges of steel tools and implements.
      A grinding wheel is an expendable wheel that is composed of an abrasive compound used for various grinding (abrasive cutting) and abrasive machining operations.
      Grinding wheels are used in grinding machines.
      Most people probably grind and clench their teeth from time to time.
      Occasional teeth grinding, medically called bruxism, does not usually cause harm, but when teeth grinding occurs on a regular basis the teeth can be damaged and other oral health complications can arise.
      Although teeth grinding can be caused by stress and anxiety, it often occurs during sleep and is more likely caused by an abnormal bite or missing or crooked teeth.
      Chandler ground out his cigarette and took Rachel's from her.
      Then she yanked out the SIM card and ground it into the dirt with her heel.
      If something grinds to a halt, it stops gradually.
      Gold production in the world's third largest gold producer ground to a halt.
      If you have an axe to grind, you have a strong personal opinion about something.
      I do have kind of an ax to grind against wind energy.
      Under the Ottomans they were abused, reviled and ground down (oppressed) by exactions.
      But the longer this week's negotiations grind on (continue for an unpleasantly long time), the more likely that neither side will find such an agreement palatable.
      He's only capable of grinding out (produce) code, but unable to perform the higher-primate tasks of software architecture, analysis, and design.
      Now here's the real grind: can you afford another child?
      I don't take breaks. I don't know how a break feels like because I want success; all I know is grind.
      adj looking or sounding very serious ¶ unpleasant and depressing ¶ bad, ugly, or unpleasant ¶ ill
      Joey starts to the shower with a grim, determined look on his face.
      His mouth is set in a grim line, jaw tense.
      It's also true that domestic violence is a grim reality in too many homes.
      The pilot's wife receives the grim news: there is no sign of the plane, and no sign of life.
      That's a pretty grim picture.
      The situation is pretty grim.
      I felt grim on the way home.
      v[T] make a good combination with sb/sth else
      n[C] sth that combines well with sth else ¶ the number or quantity needed to make a group complete
      The scents Chandler used don't complement each other.
      Phoebe complimented them by saying "I really liked how the two of you complemented each other."
      The machine-gun-like drumming of D. J. Fontana perfectly complemented Elvis's edgy vocals.
      A helicopter tour of the Grand Canyon could be the perfect complement to your night at the Colosseum.
      The butterfly and the flower are the perfect complement to each other.
      The Bruce Peninsula Family Health Team, based in Lion's Head with five full-time doctors, has finally reached full complement.
      In grammar and linguistics, the term complement is used with different meanings, so it is difficult to give a single precise definition and explanation.
      In a broad general sense however, a complement can be understood as a word, phrase or clause that is necessary to complete the meaning of a given expression.
      In the sentence "Carol is a lesbian.", "a lesbian" is a subject complement.
      n[C] sb/sth that comes after and takes the place of sb/sth else
      Forbidden to run by law for re-election as governor in 1966, he saw his first wife, Lurleen, elected governor in his stead. She died in office, of cancer, two years later. In 1970, he defeated her successor and won a second four-year term as governor.
      Nintendo announced on Monday that it will launch a successor to its best-selling Wii game machine and that it will "offer a new way of playing games."
      Verizon Communications CEO Ivan Seidenberg appointed Lowell McAdam, head of Verizon Wireless, as COO and successor.
      They say he didn't do enough to ensure there would be a strong successor.
      Like its predecessor, WPA2 supports IEEE 802.1X/EAP authentication or PSK technology but includes a new advanced encryption mechanism using Counter-Mode/CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP) called the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).