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      n[C] a large flat area in central North America covered with grass and farm land but without trees
      Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.
      Lands typically referred to as "prairie" tend to be in North America. The term encompasses the area referred to as the Interior Lowlands of the United States, Canada and Mexico, which includes all of the Great Plains as well as the wetter, somewhat hillier land to the east. In the U.S., the area is constituted by most or all of the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma, and sizable parts of the states of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Missouri, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, and western and southern Minnesota.
      The Central Valley of California is also a prairie.
      The Canadian Prairies occupy vast areas of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta.
      The Midwestern part of the United States is characterized by vast prairies, rich agricultural farmland, and intense thunderstorms.
      Prairie dogs are burrowing rodents native to the grasslands of North America.
      You were kind enough to watch Raiders of the Lost Ark with me. So, I'd like to return the favor by inviting you to watch an episode of your favorite childhood television series, Little House on the Prairie.
      n[C] an imaginary creature that is like a small man
      adj much shorter or smaller than others of the same type
      v[T] makes sth seem small by comparison
      Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1937 American animated film produced by Walt Disney.
      He is perhaps best known for playing the dwarf Gimli in The Lord of the Rings trilogy.
      "You know, you use a lot of big words for such a little dwarf," said Penny's ex-boyfriend.
      A white dwarf's mass is comparable to that of the Sun, and its volume is comparable to that of the Earth.
      I have had a male Russian dwarf hamster for a week now, he has a cage with a wheel and plenty of other toys and places to play and hide with fresh water daily and food.
      The cathedral is dwarfed by the surrounding skyscrapers.
      Doraemon's little dinghy was dwarfed by Honekawa's big yacht.
      This blizzard dwarfs any other storm that we have ever seen in our state.
      In fairy stories, elves are small magical beings who play tricks on people.
      n[U] a scented herb with green leaves
      n[C] a sweet with a ~ flavor ¶ a place where coins are made
      v[T] make a coin
      Mentha (also known as mint) is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family).
      Chop and crush a sprig of mint leaves.
      Grasshopper is mint-flavored, after-dinner drink.
      Peppermint is a hybrid mint, a cross between watermint and spearmint.
      Peppermint is often used in tea and for flavouring ice cream, confectionery, chewing gum, and toothpaste.
      Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos, soaps and skin care products.
      A mint is a food item characterized by the presence of mint flavoring or real mint oil, whether it be peppermint oil, spearmint oil, or another natural or artificial source; the sweets are often referred to as "peppermints."
      Doublemint is a flavor of chewing gum made by the Wrigley Company. It was launched in the United States in 1914.
      The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce.
      In Old English, "mint" is spelled as "minte."
      In the beginning, hammered coinage or cast coinage were the chief means of coin minting.
      Leonard had the rare mint (new and perfect) condition production error Star Trek the next generation Geordi La Forge.
      Surprisingly, Prof. Aoi did not make a mint (a large amount of money).
      n[U] sb who studies the buildings, graves, tools etc of ancient people
      Tomb Raider is a video game franchise which also includes comic books, novels, theme park rides and movies, centering around the adventures of the English archaeologist Lara Croft or Lady Croft.
      If you want to be a good archaeologist, you gotta get out of the library.
      The industry magazine Archaeology, believing that Jones, as one editor said, was "a horrible archaeologist but a great diplomat for archaeology," named eight past and current archaeologists who they felt "embodied [Jones'] spirit" as recipients of the "Indy Spirit Awards" in 2008.
      Archaeologists have unearthed the foundation of what appears to have been a massive, ancient structure, possibly a bridge leading to an artificial island, in what is now southeast Wales.
      n[U] the action of a lever, or the mechanical advantage or power gained by using a lever ¶ power or ability to act effectively or to influence people ¶ the use of a small initial investment to gain a relatively high return
      v[T] exert power or influence on ¶ provide with ~ ¶ speculate by using ~
      A lever amplifies an input force to provide a greater output force, which is said to provide leverage.
      In a system where corruption is intrinsic, the rich have enough leverage to act with impunity.
      Furthermore, China possesses sufficient leverage in South Asia to prevent New Delhi from implementing any policy that goes too far in targeting China.
      The main opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) was trying to gain political leverage from this.
      Any experience in the service industry will be a definite asset, and First Aid certification may also give you leverage.
      A leveraged buyout (LBO) is when a company or single asset (e.g., a real estate property) is purchased with a combination of equity and significant amounts of borrowed money.
      Individuals leverage their savings when buying a home by financing a portion of the purchase price with mortgage debt.
      Hedge funds may leverage their assets by financing a portion of their portfolios with the cash proceeds from the short sale of other positions.
      While leverage magnifies profits when the returns from the asset more than offset the costs of borrowing, losses are magnified when the opposite is true.
      adj connected with atoms or an atom ¶ nuclear
      In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element.
      Atoms with the same atomic number Z but different neutron numbers N, and hence different atomic masses, are known as isotopes.
      The first fission ("atomic") bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT.
      Weapons whose explosive output is exclusively from fission reactions are commonly referred to as atomic bombs or atom bombs (abbreviated as A-bombs). This has long been noted as something of a misnomer, as their energy comes from the nucleus of the atom, just as it does with fusion weapons.
      In concurrent programming, an operation (or set of operations) is atomic, linearizable, indivisible or uninterruptible if it appears to the rest of the system to occur instantaneously.
      Penny, just as Oppenheimer came to regret his contributions to the first atomic bomb, so too I regret my participation in what was, at the very least, an error in judgment.
      n[C] a curve or bend ¶ a long stick with a curved end ¶ a dishonest person or a criminal
      v[T] bend
      The Anthill camp is in the crook of a fairly steep valley on the edge of a small lake.
      If a tissue isn't readily available, sneeze into the crook of the elbow - not hands - to help prevent the spread of germs.
      The Shepherd Crook has been the staple accessory of herdsman since ancient times.
      A real crook would probably be able to fake it.
      She narrowed her eyes mischievously and crooked her finger. "Come in."
      There's a big flash. Next thing you know, my eyebrows are gone. I had to go through the entire second grade with crooked eyebrows my mom drew on.
      After crooked (dishonest) cop Lieutenant "Dutch" Dixon kills his girlfriend and frames him for murder, Reno Raines escapes from jail and goes on the run.
      n[C] a situation in which there is great destruction and a lot of people die
      All right, there's a nuclear holocaust, I'm the last man on Earth. Would you go out with me?
      The Holocaust was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by the German military, under the command of Adolf Hitler, and its collaborators.
      The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
      The Nazis conducted the Holocaust largely in Poland, which is difficult to reach from Allied bomber bases in, say, Britain.
      Israelis praised President Obama for unequivocally condemning Holocaust deniers.
      adj serving or acting as a method or means, useful, helpful ¶ of or relating to an instrument or tool ¶ performed on or written for a musical instrument or instruments
      also a noun
      Our partners at Carmichael Lynch and Harris Interactive were instrumental in this achievement.
      In World War II, penicillin was instrumental in keeping wounds from getting infected and in helping speed the recovery of wounds that did not become infected.
      Other built-in instrumental measurements are also shown on the list.
      The music that was written for them is among the first purely instrumental music ever to be written.
      Modern English expresses the instrumental meaning by use of adverbial phrases that begin with the words with, by, or using then followed by the noun indicating the instrument: I wrote the note (by) using a pen.
      An instrumental is a musical composition or recording without lyrics, or singing, although it might include some inarticulate vocal input; the music is primarily or exclusively produced by musical instruments.
      n[C] an unmarried man ¶ a first university degree
      I now got the impression that an eligible bachelor (a rich young man who has not yet married) like him can play hard to get.
      A bachelor party is a party held for a man shortly before he enters marriage, to celebrate his "last night of freedom" or merely to spend time with his male or female friends, who are often but may not be at his wedding party afterwards.
      A bachelor party is usually planned by the best man or other friends of the groom, occasionally, with the assistance of a bachelor party planning company but paid for by the groom-to-be.
      Bernadette was a bachelorette, not a spinster.
      A bachelor's degree is usually earned for an undergraduate course of study that nominally requires three to five years of study (depending on institution and field of study).
      In some cases, it may also be the name of a second graduate degree, such as a Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.), Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.), Bachelor of Civil Law, the Bachelor of Music, the Bachelor of Philosophy, or the Bachelor of Sacred Theology.
      A Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) is a undergraduate professional degree which prepares students for work as a teacher in schools, though in some countries additional work must be done in order for the student to be fully qualified to teach.
      A BEd program may have direct entry from high school; as a combined degree with another bachelor's degree (e.g., BA/BEd); or as an after-degree program where the candidate has obtained a bachelor's degree, usually, the field in which the student wishes to teach.
      n[U] a lot of bubbles that stick together on the surface of a liquid ¶ a cream-like substance which is filled with bubbles of air ¶ a type of soft rubber with a lot of air in it
      v[I] produce ~ ¶ be very angry
      Cappuccino is an Italian coffee drink which is traditionally prepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed-milk foam.
      Shaving cream or shaving foam is cream applied to the face, or wherever else hair grows, to facilitate shaving.
      Mattresses may consist of a quilted or similarly fastened case, usually of heavy cloth, that contains hair, straw, cotton, foam rubber, etc.; a framework of metal springs; or they may be inflatable.
      Melissa and Ray-ray were giggling as champagne foamed over one of their glasses.
      Foaming with impotent rage on the Internet is always available, if that's your taste.
      Cisco's strength is its sales force. They're like rabid dogs foaming at the mouth (very ill).
      v[IT] make a long, loud cry ¶ say sth loudly and angrily ¶ (of the wind) blow hard and make a long loud noise
      also a noun
      The dog howled in pain and bolted through the camp.
      The first wolf howled alone, until it was joined by perhaps 4-5 more.
      While visiting the top floor we could hear a baby howl at the gate.
      Thank you! It is liberating to finally be able to howl with laughter over the tripe that is the "50 Shades" series.
      He was surrounded by a mob howling for arms and stating that a large number of Royal troops were approaching the city.
      Here on the coast of Maine the wind has been howling for hours and the sea was wild at noon.
      As soon as everybody saw that, a howl of grief went up from everyone that was watching.
      With a howl of triumph, he charged forward.
      v[T] physically control the movements of a person or animal ¶ stop sb from doing sth ¶ limit or restrict
      I arrived in such a state of excitement that the priest had me restrained by several strong men and forced me to drink a potion.
      I will try to restrain myself from commenting further.
      If you are being abused, harassed or hurt by someone, you can get a restraining order via the courts that will legally 'restrain' the abusive party.
      When Hamilton arrived in F1 I thought the only thing that would restrain him from realizing his potential would be himself.
      The heavy debts we took on in giddier times now restrain consumer spending.
      You boys may have had gelato with Stan Lee and gotten autographed comics, but I saw the inside of his house and got an autographed application for a restraining order.
      v[IT] walk slowly and noisily without lifting your feet ¶ move your feet slightly, esp because you are bored or embarrassed ¶ move sth around so that they are in a different order
      He shuffled into her small, private office like a much older man would.
      I shuffled around nervously waiting for the start to be called.
      I certainly didn't want to be shuffled between two parents that had no interest in each other.
      She shuffled through the sheets of paper and then stopped on one of them.
      Shuffling is a procedure used to randomize a deck of playing cards to provide an element of chance in card games.
      Shuffling is often followed by a cut, to help ensure that the shuffler has not manipulated the outcome.
      If something is/gets lost in the shuffle, they are not noticed or considered because there are so many other things.
      The gift that Ross sent to Ugly Naked Guy might be lost in the shuffle along with many, many others.
      n[CU] feeling of fondness; love
      Affection, attraction, infatuation, or fondness is often associated with a feeling or type of love.
      His strong affection for them bound his heart to them.
      The employees at Corning feel a certain affiliation and affection for the company.
      He was a champion who had our deep affection and support.
      He was also a larger-than-life character, held in great affection by many scientists and friends around the world.
      You don't need to try to buy a woman's affections, or compliment your way into her heart.
      Okay. Well, you know, this isn't that bad. It just paints the picture of a very affectionate woman who is open to expressing her affection in nontraditional locales.
      v[T] lengthen
      Trying to hang on to or recreate the past only prolongs pain for all involved.
      Studies have shown that sound levels of less than 75 dB are unlikely to cause permanent hearing loss, even after prolonged exposure.
      I found that after prolonged use, the Fire HD showed signs of latency - apps and content displayed delays in launching.
      Cameron is just playing for time when all he's doing is prolonging the agony for him and his party.
      Please, Penny, as you know, I'm not comfortable with prolonged goodbyes and maudlin displays of emotion, so I prepared a short video.
      Leonard, you are my best friend. I've known you for seven years, and I can barely tolerate sitting on the couch with you. Imagine my attitude regarding prolonged physical proximity to Amy Farrah Fowler.
      n[C] a large group of families, or a very large family
      A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
      In different cultures and situations, a clan may mean the same thing as other kin-based groups, such as tribes, castes, and bands.
      Warring clan warlords plunged the country into anarchy.
      The Arab saying is family first, clan second - tribe first, country and principle last.
      When he got there, he saw a clan of hyenas charging toward the fence at top speed.
      Most of the surviving native tribes and clans lived in the mountainous north where the mission fathers had not spread Christianity and European diseases.
      v[T] heighten
      While competition will intensify, the iPad will continue to be the best all-around product for consumers, and therefore Apple should maintain very high market share (50%-60%) for at least several years.
      Poverty reduces people's capacity to use resources in a sustainable manner; it intensifies pressure on the environment.
      he debate over jobs intensified last week, when the Labor Department reported that U.S. employers added a total of 115,000 private and government jobs in April, fewer than forecast and the smallest number in six months.
      We are intensifying our efforts on our core businesses and redeploying resources to our most urgent priorities.
      Storms are expected to intensify and occur more often.
      adj having two of sth or two parts
      A dual SIM mobile phone is one which holds two SIM cards.
      Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship or multiple nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states.
      I have a dual role - one as a teacher and another as an IT Pro group leader.
      The Pentium Dual-Core brand was used for mainstream x86-architecture microprocessors from Intel from 2006 to 2009.
      adj responsible, answerable
      Democracy is still the best path to economic progress, for when governments are accountable to their people, their people are more likely to prosper.
      The Office is committed to being responsive and accountable to the citizens of the District of Columbia.
      The essential feature of both laws is that they make Federal agencies accountable for information disclosure policies and practices.
      Parents need to be accountable for their children's performance in school as well as the teachers.
      When Jewish boys become 13 years old, they become accountable for their actions and become a bar mitzvah.
      v[T] hold or balance sth carefully
      n[U] the ability to move or stand in a graceful way ¶ a calm and confident manner
      We are poised on the abyss created by the recent surge in population (world population in 1960 was 3 billion, today's is 6.8 billion).
      Israel and Hamas appear to be poised on the brink of war.
      I love the way that she uses her arms, her poise is great.
      Wiping her eyes gave her time to gather her poise.
      If I have even a fraction of her poise and strength as a woman when I'm her age, that would be fantastic.
      n[C] sb who guards or protects sth ¶ sb who is legally responsible for the care of another person
      Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light is a platform action video game.
      The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.
      Chancellor Dennis Walcott is in touch with the girl's legal guardian, according to Department of Education spokeswoman Margie Feinberg.
      Child care or day care is the care of a child during the day by a person other than the child's legal guardians.
      Guardianship can be given to anyone who is incapable mentally or physically on behalf of themselves. Custody is more on parent-child or adult-minor case.
      Guardianship is limited in its range of decision-making while custody has the superior authority in decision-making especially on complicated matters.
      n[C] the side of sth
      v[T] be on both sides of sb/sth
      The flank steak is a beef steak cut from the abdominal muscles of the cow.
      The slab avalanche is usually easily recognized by its distinct crown and flanks.
      A flank opening is a chess opening played by White and typified by play on one or both flanks (the portion of the chess board outside the central d and e files).
      In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, or flanking manoeuvre (also called a flank attack), is an attack on the sides of an opposing force.
      'A' Company on the left flank withheld their fire until the Germans had reached a vineyard some two hundred yards to their front, and then called for observed mortar fire and opened up with small arms, catching at least a company, and cutting them up completely.
      No, Fritz, I need you on my flank.
      Los Angeles Lakers have flanked Kobe Bryant with Steve Nash and Dwight Howard.
      That policy is linked to Pakistan's constant worry about being sandwiched between two hostile countries.
      n[UC] a large, round, orange vegetable with a thick skin
      Pumpkin is the name of a plant that refers to certain cultivars of squash. Pumpkins, like other squash, are native to North America.
      Pumpkin pie is a traditional part of Thanksgiving meals in the United States.
      A jack-o'-lantern is a carved pumpkin, or turnip, associated chiefly with the holiday of Halloween.
      Rachel's dad used to call her Pumpkin (used when speaking to someone you love).
      Pumpkin latte is a pumpkin spice latte contains steamed milk, espresso, and pumpkin spice syrup.
      adj inactive, submissive, showing no initiative
      Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke, or environmental tobacco smoke, by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.
      Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages.
      In a clause with passive voice, the grammatical subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb - that is, the person or thing that undergoes the action or has its state changed.
      As well as controlling the flow of air, the reed has a passive role in clarinet acoustics.
      By playing a passive role in taking the photograph, the photographer did his job.