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      n[CU] a liquid put on clay objects to give them a shiny surface ¶ a liquid put on food to make it shiny ¶ a transparent covering of oil paint spread over a painting
      v[T] put ~ on sth ¶ fit glass into window frames
      Glaze is a layer or coating of a vitreous (made of or looking like glass) substance which has been fused to a ceramic object through firing. Glaze can serve to color, decorate, strengthen or waterproof an item.
      A glaze in cooking is a coating of a glossy, often sweet, sometimes savory, substance applied to food typically by dipping, dripping, or with a brush. Egg whites and basic icings are both used as glazes.
      In oil painting, the simplest form of a glaze is a thin, oily, transparent layer of paint spread over the top of an opaque passage that has been given some time to dry.
      Glazing, which derives from the Middle English for 'glass', is a part of a wall or window, made of glass.
      We're charging $7 dollars for a box of 12 glazed doughnuts.
      Do you like honey-glazed ham?
      "Oh, that's ok. It gave me time to finish glazing my nipples," said Phoebe Sr.
      If your eyes glaze over, they show no expression, usually because you are very bored or tired.
      It can be easy for your eyes to glaze over as you read lists of the same basic advice, over and over.
      n[C] anus of a bird, fish, reptile or small mammal ¶ a hole or pipe through which gases, liquid etc can enter or escape from an enclosed space ¶ a slit up the back of a jacket or coat
      v[T] express your feelings of anger very strongly
      Volcanic fissure vents are flat, linear cracks through which lava emerges.
      In submarine technology a vent is a valve fitted to the top of a submarine's ballast tanks to let air escape from the top of the ballast tank and be replaced by water entering through the opening(s) called "flood ports" or "floods" at the bottom of the tank.
      Originally, vents were a sporting option, designed to make riding easier.
      I've started this blog to give vent to my frustration.
      The next morning, over breakfast, I vented my anger and disappointment.
      Soon after she denied the story, her fans vented their anger on the media.
      More than a thousand demonstrators vented their anger at a U.S.-made film that pokes fun at Islam.
      n[UC] the right and power to interpret and apply the law ¶ an area or a country in which a particular system of laws has authority
      Jurisdiction (from Latin "law" and "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility.
      The term is also used to denote the geographical area or subject-matter to which such authority applies. Areas of jurisdiction apply to local, state, and federal levels.
      This is typically used for issue areas that overlap the jurisdiction of more than one policy committee.
      ONLY DC is unique in that it doesn't require local jurisdiction to make the request.
       With the different jurisdictions in Europe, private cloud is much more relevant because you then have more choice over geography and can optionally utilize the public cloud providers for non-storage functions e.g. web serving.
      Much progress is already being made in many jurisdictions to address long-term care workforce issues such as wages and benefits, training, and career development.
      adj not drunk ¶ serious and sensible ¶ plain and not brightly colored
      v[IT] become ~ or make sb do this
      I have a job and I stay sober so I can keep it.
      But police reports confirm that he was stone cold sober (totally sober, also sober as a judge).
      I would stop for a week and give myself some time for sober reflection (serious thought).
      Barack Obama has never messed with the sober suit and tie formula, twinned with a white shirt.
      Coffee, cold showers, or fresh air will sober you up.
      In October 1949, in an atmosphere somewhat sobered by the report of an atomic explosion within the Soviet Union, the congressional hearings were begun.
      adj (of light/color) strong and bright, intense ¶ (of memory etc) extremely clear
      A highlighter is a form of marker pen which is used to highlight sections of documents in a vivid color, while leaving the content beneath the marking unobscured.
      Vivid colors, expressive brush strokes.
      I bought my husband a pair of swimming shorts and myself a vivid blue swim suit.
      "I had this vivid dream that Monica is gonna eat me," said Ross.
      "I had a very vivid imagination as a child and I was perfectly happy playing on my own," said Sheldon.
      Monica remembers Janice vividly.
      n[U] the relationship between the plants, animals, and the environment in a particular area, or the scientific study of this
      If that happens, the forest's ecology will begin to unravel.
      Students work together in small groups exploring ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah.
      Through hands-on investigations and working with experts, students study the history of water resource policy, development of the West, and its impacts on the flora, fauna and ecology of our region.
      Ecology is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology and Earth science.
      Ecology and evolution are considered sister disciplines of the life sciences.
      n[C] a piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland
      New Territories (abbreviated to NT or N.T.) is a peninsula in the south of China that constitutes one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula.
      The Kowloon Peninsula and the area of New Kowloon are collectively known as Kowloon.
      The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 684 miles (1,100 km) from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan (East Sea) to the east, and the Yellow Sea to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the first two bodies of water.
      The Arabian Peninsula, also known as Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent, is the world's largest peninsula. It is located in the Asia continent and bounded by (clockwise) the Persian Gulf on the northeast, the Strait of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman on the east, the Arabian Sea on the southeast and south, the Gulf of Aden on the south, the Bab-el-Mandeb strait on the southwest, and the Red Sea on the southwest and west.
      n[UC] a tune
      A melody, also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.
      In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm.
      Melodies often consist of one or more musical phrases or motifs, and are usually repeated throughout a composition in various forms.
      Nobody had her gift for melody, and she's got that gorgeous voice, and all that passion.
      Beethoven solved the problem by sharing the melody between the two instruments.
      A malady is an illness or disease.
      v[IT] arrange things in a straight line ¶ organize sth so that it has the right relationship to sth else ¶ join sb as an ally
      The value can be one of the following: left - the text is aligned to the left; center - the text is aligned in the center; right - the text is aligned to the right; justify - the text is aligned to both the left and right.
      The neatly aligned columns clearly define the different areas of text and create a logical flow of words, thus enhancing readability.
      The result is a technology portfolio that costs more than it should, is poorly aligned with business strategy, and quickly turns into "shelfware."
      Because these agencies are very closely aligned to one another, they cooperate extensively, they exchange information.
      Many Latin countries are more aligned with Iran than they are with the U.S.
      adv completely, totally
      She's a black woman from the most humble background and utterly lacking in talent, yet she's fabulously wealthy.
      She's in hiding. She's utterly humiliated.
      Chandler and Monica are utterly shocked.
      How could I have misread the situation between us so utterly?
      He was utterly calm while everyone was freaking out.
      n[C] an imaginary line around which any body rotates ¶ a line that divides a shape into two parts ¶ a line used in a coordinate system
      During one orbit around the Sun, the Earth rotates about its own axis 366.26 times.
      The larger of these two axes, which corresponds to the largest distance between antipodal points on the ellipse, is called the major axis or transverse diameter.
      The modern Cartesian coordinate system in two dimensions (also called a rectangular coordinate system) is defined by an ordered pair of perpendicular lines (axes), a single unit of length for both axes, and an orientation for each axis.
      The Axis powers, also known as the Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries, or the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.
      The Central Powers were one of the two warring factions in World War I, composed of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.
      U.S. President George W. Bush used the term Axis of evil in his State of the Union Address on January 29, 2002, and often repeated it throughout his presidency, to describe governments that he accused of helping terrorism and seeking weapons of mass destruction. Iran, Iraq and North Korea were portrayed by George W. Bush during the State of the Union as building nuclear weapons.
      The term axis of resistance was first employed by the Libyan daily newspaper Al-Zahf Al-Akhdar in response to American president George W. Bush's claim that Iran, Iraq and North Korea formed an "Axis of evil."
      adj having a title in the aristocracy ¶ with the title of
      Hereditary titles often distinguish nobles from non-nobles, although in many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, and a hereditary title need not indicate nobility.
      Meanwhile, I'm working on a book titled The Intention Economy: What Happens When Customers Get Real Power.
      A few months ago I read a blog titled The Super Mom, or something like that I will not post the real title in case some of my readers know this person.
      In 2009, I came across a book titled The Back of the Napkin by Dan Roam.
      The stairwell doesn't appear plumb, but tilted.
      n[U] the job or activity of managing the relationships between countries ¶ art of or skill in dealing with people
      Diplomacy (from Greek "making a deal with other countries") is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
      Informal diplomacy (sometimes called Track II diplomacy) has been used for centuries to communicate between powers.
      Soft power, sometimes called hearts and minds diplomacy, as defined by Joseph Nye, is the cultivation of relationships, respect, or even admiration from others in order to gain influence, as opposed to more coercive approaches.
      Gunboat diplomacy is the use of conspicuous displays of military strength as a means of intimidation in order to influence others.
      Nuclear diplomacy is the area of diplomacy related to preventing nuclear proliferation and nuclear war.
      In diplomacy and international relations, shuttle diplomacy is the action of an outside party in serving as an intermediary between (or among) principals in a dispute, without direct principal-to-principal contact.
      We agree that the job should be done with tact and diplomacy.
      adj wonderful ¶ huge ¶ mythical
      "I am a fabulous mom! I bought my son his first condoms," said Mrs. Bing.
      You look fabulous honey, you really do.
      Joey, sweetheart, you were fabulous!
      The mine produced fabulous wealth over the ensuing 45 years.
      Despite the Queen's fabulous wealth, she spent not one penny on cousin Nerissa's burial.
      In Greek mythology, Argus is a fabulous creature with a hundred eyes, some of which were always awake.
      adj ≠flexible
      A rigid substance or object is stiff and does not bend, stretch, or twist easily.
      It may be safer to mount the instrument on a rigid support.
      Rigid methods, systems etc are very strict and difficult to change.
      This is not a rigid principle as there are many exceptions to it.
      There must be rigid control to ensure an adequate envelope of protection for the timber.
      Someone who behaves in a rigid way is very unwilling to change their ideas or behavior.
      She is a narrow-minded and rigid person.
      Give him something that will wake him up in a cold sweat in the middle of the night, hands clutching his covers, body rigid (stiff) with terror.
      n[UC] sth that is certain, or the state of being certain
      Of course, it is impossible to know with absolute certainty just how high the losses are at any given moment.
      By late 1991, Congressional reports and CIA assessments maintained a "high degree of certainty that the government of Iran has acquired all or virtually all of the components required for the construction of two to three nuclear weapons."
      At this point, no one knows with any certainty whether layoffs will be taking place or not at a particular worksite.
      Although we believe that the market will continue to rise in the coming year, there are no certainties when it comes to stocks.
      But that forecast is by no means a certainty.
      n[C] sb whose IQ is below 20
      Imbecile: 20-49; moron: 50-69; average: 91-110.
      I'm such an idiot. I guess I should've caught on when she started going to the dentist four and five times a week. I mean, how clean can teeth get?
      Oh yeah, that is the part to focus on, you idiot!
      Chandler continues to smile like an idiot, and Jill Goodacre looks frightened.
      I am really an idiot. You see, I was filling out my friend's form, and instead of putting her information, I put mine.
      n[CU] cloth, or the industry of making cloth
      A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn.
      Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibers together (felt).
      We are a textile recycling company that prevented 43 million pounds of textiles from reaching the landfill last year.
      In 1962, Buffett began buying up shares of a struggling textile company called Berkshire Hathaway.
      Corduroy is a textile composed of twisted fibers.
      n[U] small stones used for making paths and roads
      Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic.
      Both sand and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of concrete.
      Large gravel deposits are a common geological feature, being formed as a result of the weathering and erosion of rocks.
      Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is often produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone, limestone, or basalt.
      As of 2006, the United States is the world's leading producer and consumer of gravel.
      n[C] a long level piece of ground used by planes when they land and take off ¶ catwalk
      According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft".
      Runways may be a man-made surface (often asphalt, concrete, or a mixture of both) or a natural surface (grass, dirt, gravel, ice, or salt).
      Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, which is generally one tenth of the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in degrees: a runway numbered 09 points east (90°), runway 18 is south (180°), runway 27 points west (270°) and runway 36 points to the north (360° rather than 0°).
      In fashion, a runway or catwalk is a narrow, usually flat platform that runs into an auditorium, used by models to demonstrate clothing and accessories during a fashion show.
      When a model scores an exclusive for a fashion label it means that they have been picked to walk for that particular designer only.
      v[I] run, ride, or swim very fast for a short distance
      also a noun
      He sprinted along the deserted platform and jumped down onto the tracks.
      If you see a mouse sprinting across the kitchen floor, you can be certain that it has a group of furry friends close by.
      He turns and sprints up the hill in front of me.
      I find one final little nugget of energy, and make a sprint over the finish-line.
      As soon as I am outside I break into a sprint.
      The 100 metres, or 100-metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions.
      Sprint Corporation, commonly referred to as Sprint, is a United States telecommunications holding company that provides wireless services and is also a major global Internet carrier.
      n[C] one of the parts that form sth when they combine ¶ sb who votes in a particular area
      adj forming part of sth
      The main constituents of the atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen.
      Two constituents of a musical composition are melody and harmony.
      He said he thinks the majority of his constituents support the road, so he had to vote in favor of it.
      A constituent assembly (sometimes also known as a constitutional convention or constitutional assembly) is a body or assembly of representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a constitution.
      It is now a constituent member of the ACNA.
      n[C] young of domestic cattle or many species of large mammal ¶ the back and upper part of the lower leg
      Calves are reared to become adult cattle, or are slaughtered for their meat, called veal.
      Cattle (colloquially cows) are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
      Cows usually had calves in spring, which meant that milk was easily available from spring to summer.
      Moon-calf is the abortive fetus of a cow or other farm animal.
      Within the posterior compartment, the two largest muscles are known together as the calf muscle and attach to the heel via the Achilles tendon.
      Let me put it this way, takes care of the bathroom problem, and it keeps your calf warm.
      Compare calf, shin, lap, and thigh.
      adj not firm or strong ¶ lacking strength or energy
      v[I] walk lamely ¶ move slowly or with difficulty
      also a noun
      Soggy, limp lettuce and soggy, limp tomato with a few slices of onion and a handful of grated cheese were the constituent parts of this masterpiece of the genre.
      She gave me a limp handshake, asked me to sit down, and had me repeat my reasons for coming to see her.
      This wet heat, even at 8:30 in the morning, takes some getting used to. By the time I'm in the back of Bob's wonderfully air-conditioned Tahoe SUV, I feel limp.
      Ross called Chandler Sir Limps-a-lot after he lost a toe tip.
      Another plane escorted the bomber, its pilot calling out altitude and air speed as Crouse's plane limped back to base, riddled with holes.
      The economy limped to a slightly better state by September.
      I have a slight limp sometimes on the right side and residual paralysis of my right hand.
      v[T] form a border around sth
      also a noun and an adjective
      As we reached the summit of a lofty hill, the Yuba River broke upon our view, winding like a silver thread beneath us, its banks dotted with white tents, and fringed with trees and shrubbery.
      His hair was half shaved and the left side fringed on his face.
      Ross bought a fringed leather pants.
      If you have a fringe, your hair is cut so that it hangs down over your forehead.
      Perhaps the best tool men have for minimizing a prominent forehead is bangs (fringes).
      Bangs cover a large forehead and draw attention to the haircut rather than to the forehead.
      Straight bangs can be combined with a variety of hairstyles.
      A fringe is a decoration attached to clothes, or other objects such as curtains, consisting of a row of hanging strips or threads.
      I am on the fringe (edge) of the middle class.
      Rural communities often consist of hardy folks who choose to live on the fringes of society.
      She seemed on the verge of tears.
      This is not a fringe (not mainstream) issue; rather it affects individuals to a huge extent.