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      ramp
      ræmp
      n[C] a sloping surface or roadway connecting different levels
      also a verb
      -
      A wheelchair ramp is an inclined plane installed in addition to or instead of stairs.
      In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that typically uses grade separation, and one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without directly crossing any other traffic stream.
      A stack interchange is a four-way interchange whereby left turns are handled by semi-directional flyover/under ramps.
      To go left, vehicles first turn slightly right (on a right-turn off-ramp) to exit, then complete the turn via a ramp which crosses both highways, eventually merging with the right-turn on-ramp traffic from the opposite quadrant of the interchange.
      Speed bumps are the common name for a family of traffic calming devices that use vertical deflection to slow motor-vehicle traffic in order to improve safety conditions. Variations include the speed hump (or speed ramp), speed cushion, and speed table.
      In 1946, America had ramped up (increased) to a historical level of industrial productivity, putting out battleships and bombers and rifles and Jeeps and artillery pieces at an amazing rate.
      The right-wing media ramped up the outrage, and before Sherrod had a chance to defend herself, the Obama administration demanded her resignation.
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      ni`tro`gen
      'naitrədʒən
      n[U] a chemical element (symbol N), or a gas
      -
      Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
      Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins) and also in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).
      The human body contains about 3% by mass of nitrogen, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen.
      Nitrogen gas is the largest constituent of the Earth's atmosphere (78.082% by volume of dry air, 75.3% by weight in dry air).
      The nitrogen dioxide remains dissolved in the nitric acid coloring it yellow or even red at higher temperatures.
      Careful, Leonard. iquid nitrogen, 320 degrees below zero.
      There's antimony, arsenic, aluminium, selenium, and hydrogen and oxygen and nitrogen and rhenium, and nickel, neodymium, neptunium, germanium.
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      pe`cu`li`ar
      pi'kju:liə
      adj strange, sometimes in an unpleasant way ¶ particular, unique
      -
      Generally, high quality leather doesn't have any peculiar smell.
      It's a place so singular and remote that it has its own peculiar time zone, 1.5 hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time.
      It's also peculiar that Amazon has the entire 2nd season available, but you can't buy a physical copy.
      The problem which we meet here is by no means peculiar to economics but arises in connection with nearly all truly social phenomena.
      The Lord your God has chosen you, to be his peculiar people of all peoples that are upon the earth.
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      moan
      məun
      v[IT] make a long deep sound, usu expressing unhappiness, suffering or sexual pleasure
      n[C] a long deep sound ¶ a complaint
      -
      "I'm getting fat," she moaned.
      We argued with airlines. We bitched and moaned about extra fees, leg room and crappy food.
      He moaned at Henry for getting him into the mess.
      He moaned and groaned about having to sit through the show.
      She moaned and cried out for help continuously in the weeks before her death.
      "I want to bite this lip," he murmurs against my mouth, and carefully he tugs at it with his teeth. I moan, and he smiles.
      Try to imagine Death himself at the beginning playing on an out-of-tune violin and calling up the dead to dance until dawn. You will hear the wind moaning in the trees, the skeleton bones rattling in the xylophone, and finally the crowing of a rooster heralding the sunrise and the end of the gruesome festivities.
      It is so easy in life to find something or other to have a little moan about.
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      dub
      dʌb
      v[T] make sb a knight by touching him on the shoulder with a sword ¶ give sb/sth a name/description ¶ change the original spoken language of a film or tv program into another language ¶ copy a recording
      n[U] a sub-genre of reggae music
      -
      Khan soon dubbed himself "Amir of the West."
      Tom Brady has been dubbed the greatest quarterback ever by many people.
      The sound effects are removed in the English dubbed version, which some argue makes it worse.
      The films are dubbed into Spanish with English subtitles.
      In sound recording, dubbing is the transfer or copying of previously recorded audio material from one medium to another of the same or a different type.
      One type of dubbing device combines two different storage media, such as an audio cassette deck that incorporates a Compact Disc recorder.
      Dub is a genre of music which grew out of reggae music in the 1960s, and is commonly considered a subgenre, though it has developed to extend beyond the scope of reggae.
      Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. Sometimes it is used in a broad sense to refer to most types of popular Jamaican dance music.
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      con`cur
      kən'kə:
      v[I] agree
      -
      I concur with our liberal friends: it's time for an open discussion.
      On these grounds I regret that I am unable to concur with the Court in its present judgment.
      The United States Senate voted to admit West Virginia on July 14, 1862, and the House concurred that December.
      Curtin concurred in the dispatch of the 8th Division to Malaya and made strong efforts to persuade union officials of the needs of the war crisis.
      I concur, but you changed the subject. What are we doing for Valentine's Day?
      Compare concur and concurrence.
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      bi`og`ra`phy
      bai'ɔgrəfi
      n[CU] the life story of a person written by sb else
      -
      A biography or simply bio is a detailed description or account of a person's life.
      Several years ago I read a biography of Jonathan Pollard.
      Her daughter Margaret Davis began writing award-winning books, biographies of prominent Los Angeles figures and families.
      Her official biography states that she enjoys hill walking.
      An autobiography is written by the person themselves, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter.
      Memoir is a literary nonfiction genre. More specifically, it is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private that took place in the author's life.
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      di`spatch
      disp'ætʃ
      v[T] send sb/sth somewhere ¶ deal with sb or to finish a job quickly and effectively
      also a noun
      -
      The 62nd was dispatched to Quebec in May 1776 and was among the regiments to surrender at Saratoga Oct 1777.
      The incident was dispatched to police two minutes after he called and entered as a high priority call.
      A messenger was dispatched to the White House to warn First Lady Dolley Madison of the impending arrival of the British.
      In computer science, the event loop, message dispatcher, message loop, message pump, or run loop is a programming construct that waits for and dispatches events or messages in a program.
      In the mixed doubles event, Denmark's Kamilla Rytter Juhl this time with a new partner Mads Pieler Holding easily dispatched their opponents from France, Mittelheisser/Lefel, in 2 quick games, 21-8 21-15 in just 20 minutes of play.
      In a dispatch from Sir Alexander Cochrane to Major General Robert Ross dated September 12, 1814, Cochrane indicates that from his position four miles from Fort McHenry, there were many preparations being made by awaiting Americans.
      A dispatch rider is a military messenger, mounted on horse or motorcycle (and occasionally in Egypt during WWI, on camels).
      On 24 May 1962 the Government announced the dispatch of military advisers to assist in the training of South Vietnamese forces.
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      e`ter`nal
      i'tə:nəl
      adj lasting forever or for a very long time, everlasting, never-ending
      -
      Jesus speaks of those who "will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life."
      Theologians and mystics distinguish between eternal life and everlasting existence.
      Rome is referred to as "The Eternal City", a notion expressed by ancient Roman poets and writers.
      Eternal Inflation is an inflationary universe model, which is itself an outgrowth or extension of the Big Bang theory.
      In geometric terms, the eternal triangle can be represented as comprising three points - a jealous mate (A) in a relationship with an unfaithful partner (B) who has a lover (C).
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      ac`ces`so`ry
      ək'sesəri
      adj not the most important when compared to others
      n[C] an a piece of equipment or a decoration that is not essential ¶ sth that you wear or carry to match your clothes ¶ sb who helps a criminal
      -
      On my Dell Studio 1555 PC running Windows 7 Home Premium, the Accessory programs folder is missing from the All Programs list above the Start button.
      Of all bicycle accessories, brakes are of some of the most important things on your bicycle.
      Our company is a high end designer handbag and fashion accessories company, thus we are certainly a niche market.
      An accessory is a person who assists in the commission of a crime, but who does not actually participate in the commission of the crime as a joint principal.
      In the United States, a person who learns of the crime and gives some form of assistance before the crime is committed is known as an "accessory before the fact".
      A person who learns of the crime after it is committed and helps the criminal to conceal it, or aids the criminal in escaping, or simply fails to report the crime, is known as an "accessory after the fact".
      If I'm going down, you guys are going down with me. Harboring a fugitive? That's one to three years minimum. Good luck Chandler.
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      tu`i`tion
      tju'iʃən
      n[U] teaching
      -
      Tuition payments, known primarily as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in British English, refers to a fee charged for educational instruction during higher education.
      The total cost of college in the U.S. is called the cost of attendance or the "sticker price" and in addition to tuition it can include room and board, travel expenses, books, fees, and other expenses such as computers.
      One cause of increased tuition is the reduction of state and federal appropriations to state colleges, causing the institutions to shift the cost over to students in the form of higher tuition.
      In order to cope with the rising cost of tuition, many students have started working part-time.
      According to the College Board, the average tuition price for a 4-year public college in 2008-2009 was $6,585 compared to 2004 when the price was slightly above $5,000.
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      wink
      wiŋk
      v[I] close one eye and open it again quickly to communicate sth ¶ blink
      also a noun
      -
      "Ladies first," he winked at me while holding the door open, allowing me to walk in.
      He told me he loved me and I found out he winked at my friend.
      I can still remember the myriad sparkles like tiny flashlights winking on the water.
      If you wink at something bad or illegal, you pretend not to notice it.
      If you say that you did not sleep a wink or did not get a wink of sleep, you mean that you're unable to sleep at all.
      "A nod's as good as a wink" is used to tell someone that you have understood something, although it was said in an indirect way.
      If you tip someone the wink, you give them private information.
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      ex`ca`vate
      'ekskəveit
      v[IT] dig
      -
      If a scientist or archaeologist excavates an area of land, they dig carefully to find ancient objects, bones etc.
      The excavated city of Pompeii offers a snapshot of Roman life in the 1st century, frozen at the moment it was buried on 24 August AD 79.
      To excavate means to dig a hole in the ground, for example in order to build there.
      Howard's task was to create a vehicle that could excavate soil on the Mars' surface.
      A trench is a type of excavation or depression in the ground that is generally deeper than it is wide, and narrow compared to its length.
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      re`pro`duc`tion
      ri:prə'dʌkʃən
      n[CU] the act or process of producing babies, young animals, or plants ¶ the act of copying sth ¶ a copy of sth
      -
      It gets passed on in the genetics of reproduction.
      Although sexual reproduction is the case with a wide array of animals and even plants, quite a few organisms reproduce by some asexual means.
      Once an invention is patented every unauthorized reproduction of that invention is an infringement, whether the reproducer is aware of the original invention or not.
      For print-technical reasons and to ensure accurate reproduction of your figures, graphs or pictures in Acta Horticulturae, please provide, in addition to the Word document, the original images you "placed" into your Word Document.
      This app is a faithful reproduction of an original version of this 1866 manuscript.
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      nun
      nʌn
      n[C] a member of a religious community of women
      -
      A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically one living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
      The first step to becoming a nun is to be Catholic. You must also be unmarried or widowed.
      Nuns wear many different kinds of robes depending on their order. Classically, they wear a robe which may be black, white, brown, grey, or even other colors.
      While in common usage the terms "nun" and "sister" are often used interchangeably, they are considered different ways of life, with a "nun" being a religious woman who lives a contemplative and cloistered life of meditation and prayer for the salvation of others, while a "religious sister", in religious institutes like Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity, lives an active vocation of both prayer and service, often to the needy, ill, poor, and uneducated.
      A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers/sisters, or nuns, or the building used by the community, particularly in the Roman Catholic Church and in the Anglican Communion.
      The terms "convent" or "nunnery" almost invariably refers to a community of women in modern English usage, while "monastery", "priory" or "friary" is used for men; but in historical usage they are often interchangeable.
      As with monks, there is quite a lot of variation in nuns' dress and social conventions between Buddhist cultures in Asia.
      The Tibetan Nuns Project is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating and supporting nuns in India from all Tibetan Buddhist lineages.
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      en`rich
      in'ritʃ
      v[T] make sb/sth richer ¶ improve the quality, flavor etc of sth
      -
      Spiritual beliefs can inform and enrich one's life.
      That means that they want to enrich themselves with your labor and your hard earned money.
      You can enrich the soil, alter drainage, irrigate and choose degrees of sunlight for a plant but you can't alter the climate.
      The small farmers and indigenous communities can continue being the creators of a biological and genetic diversity that has enriched the food culture of the whole planet.
      Nowadays less Filipinos read and enrich the mind through books, editorials or websites.
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      off`set
      ɔf'set
      adj placed away from a center line ¶ placed at an angle to sth
      v[T] balance or compensate ¶ set off
      also a noun
      -
      An off-axis or offset dish antenna is a type of parabolic antenna.
      Offset printing or web offset printing is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface.
      An offset loan is a type of lending arrangement, usually for a mortgage, in which a borrower also maintains a savings account with the lender. Instead of receiving interest on the savings account, the interest payment due on the loan is calculated only on the net balance of the loan less the savings account.
      The distance between the mounting surface of the back of a wheel and its axis is called an offset.
      In computer engineering and low-level programming (such as assembly language), an offset usually denotes the number of address locations added to a base address in order to get to a specific absolute address.
      Zero-based indexing is best thought of in terms of the index being an offset from the beginning of the array.
      Data alignment means putting the data at a memory offset equal to some multiple of the word size, which increases the system's performance due to the way the CPU handles memory.
      When describing a periodic function in the time domain, the DC (Direct Current) bias, DC component, DC offset, or DC coefficient is the mean value of the waveform.
      A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere.
      An offset in law, is a reduction in the amount of a judgment granted to a losing party based on debts owed by the prevailing party to the losing party. For example, if an employee successfully sued an employer for wrongful termination, the employer might be entitled to an offset if the employer could demonstrate that it had previously made an overpayment to that employee which had not been returned.
      Every time the rich want a tax cut they claim it will be offset by economic growth and every time the result is not economic growth but a rise in the wealth gap.
      Could you please advise me the reasons behind the rule that states that a tax payer wanting to offset expenses against tax has to fill in a self assessment form?
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      sub`jec`tive
      səb'dʒektiv
      adj ≠objective
      -
      Something that is subjective is based on personal opinions and feelings rather than on facts.
      I think this is a subjective point.
      That is a personal and subjective view of the situation.
      Health-related quality of life is an individuals' subjective perception of health status on physical, emotional and social functioning.
      English is said to have two cases, the subjective and the objective.
      This is very interesting. Cultural perceptions are subjective.
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      in`take
      'inteik
      n[CU] the act of taking sth in ¶ the amount of sth that you eat or drink ¶ a place where liquid, air etc enters a machine ¶ the number of people who join a school, profession etc
      -
      Once the economy tanked, so did the revenue intake.
      During pregnancy, most women need to eat about 300 calories a day more than their usual daily intake.
      Other effects of moderate alcohol intake include dizziness and talkativeness.
      Daily per capita intakes of calories, proteins, and fats for the period 1980-1999 are shown in Figure 1.
      Fossil Fuels require a giant air intake to supply the huge quantities of oxygen they require.
      Its annual intake of cadets has halved to about 1,000.
      After a couple of minutes, he hears a sharp intake of breath, and a low, guttural groan.
      Compare inhale and intake.
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      cor`al
      'kɔrəl
      n[U] red, pink or white hard substance formed on the sea bed from the bones of tiny sea creatures
      n[C] the animal produces ~
      -
      A coral "head" is a colony of myriad genetically identical polyps.
      Some corals can catch small fish and plankton using stinging cells on their tentacles.
      Corals can be major contributors to the physical structure of the coral reefs that develop in tropical and subtropical waters, such as the enormous Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland, Australia.
      The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,600 kilometers over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometers.
      The Coral Sea is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, and in the northeast approximately by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands.
      The color coral pink is a pinkish orange color.
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      bu`reauc`ra`cy
      bjuə'ra:krəsi
      n[UC] a complicated and annoying system of rules and processes ¶ officials appointed to manage such a system
      -
      A bureaucracy is "a body of non elective government officials" and/or "an administrative policy-making group."
      Historically, bureaucracy referred to government administration managed by departments staffed with nonelected officials.
      In modern parlance, bureaucracy refers to the administrative system governing any large institution.
      Since being coined, the word "bureaucracy" has developed negative connotations for some.
      Bureaucracies are criticized when they become too complex, inefficient, or too inflexible.
      I had to deal with the university's bureaucracy before I could use my left hand to eat.
      Red tape is an idiom that refers to excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making.
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      ac`tiv`ate
      'æktiveit
      v[T] make a piece of equipment or a process start working
      -
      To activate Easter Egg in almost any Android phone, go to Settings - About Device.
      To activate Facebook via SMS, go to your Facebook account settings and click "Mobile" on the left side of the page.
      I thought about the Wizard of Oz and how Dorothy could click her shoes together to go home. After uploading your required destination to the shoes via a piece of custom made mapping software and a USB cable, the GPS, which is embedded in the heal, is activated by a heal click.
      When a threat response is activated, the brain allocates fewer resources to the prefrontal cortex (where most conscious thought takes place, hence making us a little' dumber' for a while).
      When activated by warm liquid, and fed by sugar or starch, the yeast releases tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide gas.
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      di`vert
      di'və:t
      v[T] change the direction in which sb/sth moves ¶ change the use of sth such as time or money ¶ distract, amuse or entertain
      -
      There should be a national plan to minimize or even stop this outflow and divert the water to places where it is most wanted.
      We discovered with dismay that corrupt officials of the bank who are trying to divert your funds into their private accounts have unnecessarily delayed your payment.
      To divert a phone call means to send it to a different number or place from the one that was dialed by the person making the call.
      You can divert your calls to another number (mobile or landline) by entering a special diversion code.
      This is especially useful if you want to divert your calls to your mobile phone or a colleague's office or friends home.
      Jazz and blues fans are the most easily diverted on the roads and a quarter have got into car accidents by being too tuned into their music.
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      crouch
      krautʃ
      v[I] move your body close to the ground by bending your knees and leaning forward slightly ¶ lean forward with your head and shoulders bent, esp in order to get closer to sth
      also a noun
      -
      If you stoop, you bend your body forward and down.
      Crouching is lowering yourself, somewhat bending the knees and somewhat bending the trunk forward to avoid being seen.
      Squatting is the extreme form of this, where you are practically sitting on your heels.
      I decided to look at the scene from a childs eyes, so I crouched down and was rewarded with a much fuller panorama.
      Crouching down I stroked his fur, told him he was a good boy, and a few minutes later, he passed.
      There was a man on a bike, pedaling furiously. His head was down as he crouched over the handlebars, barely looking in front of him.
      We were heading back to camp for breakfast when eagle-eyed tracker Mike Sithole spotted a leopard crouched under a bush about 50m from the road.
      When he hears a wolf he shrinks little by little until he has made himself unnoticeable as possible, then scurries away in a crouch.
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      e`rect
      i'rekt
      adj in a straight upright position ¶ swollen and stiff from sexual excitement
      v[T] build ¶ put up ¶ establish
      -
      We can give up and go with the flow, or we can stand erect, hold our heads high.
      A kiss makes my nipples stand erect.
      "Place the condom on the head of the erect penis (EP) and gently unroll it so it covers the entire penis," said the executive producer (EP).
      The dictator erected yet another monument.
      The instruction booklet claimed it would only take 30 seconds to erect the tent.
       Below is Thun Castle, which was erected by the Zaehringer dynasty around 1190 A.D.
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