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      prep until or during
      adj not yet decided or settled ¶ imminent
      Where bail is not granted, the accused may be imprisoned pending trial.
      The board quietly approved the sale and transfer of the team, pending the negotiation of a purchase agreement.
      New financial regulations are pending in Congress, but both political parties get a lot of campaign contributions from the people they intend to regulate.
      As for pending (=impending) trade deals with Colombia, Korea and other countries, he said he would only sign them if they were the right deals for the U.S.
      Actual purchases and pending contracts in the first-half of 2004 are at a pace to move Cuba into the top 20 most important markets of U.S. food and agricultural exports.
      Each desk has a minimum of three letter trays labeled, in, out and pending. The pending tray is for documents that cannot be worked on at present.
      I'm following up on our pending friendship. And I look forward to hearing from you regarding its status. Sheldon Cooper.
      It just occurred to me that I never formally congratulated you on your pending nuptials.
      n[C] promise
      n[U] confidence ¶ insurance
      The reason why organizations are hesitant to put data into the public cloud is that - despite all the assurances they might get from cloud providers - they remain responsible themselves and cannot shift this responsibility to the cloud provider.
      They demanded additional assurances.
      Her stockings and boots and well fitting gloves had worked marvels in her bearing - had given her a feeling of assurance, a sense of belonging to the well-dressed multitude.
      Life insurance (or commonly life assurance, especially in the Commonwealth) is a contract between an insured (insurance policy holder) and an insurer or assurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money (the "benefits") in exchange for a premium, upon the death of the insured person.
      The next time I meet a woman I think is attractive, rather than holding back and being cautious, I'm going to assume the mantle of self-assurance.
      n[C] a group within a larger group, which have different ideas from the other groups ¶ argument and disagreement between groups
      A political faction is a group of individuals, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with a common political purpose.
      A faction or political party may include fragmented sub-factions, "parties within a party," which may be referred to as power blocs, or voting blocs. Members of factions band together as a way of achieving these goals and advancing their agenda and position within an organization.
      Factions are not limited to political parties; they can and frequently do form within any group that has some sort of political aim or purpose.
      The Alliance to Restore the Republic (commonly known as the Rebel Alliance, and, informally, as the Rebellion) is an interstellar faction of the fictional universe of Star Wars.
      Our country cannot be directed by faction and violence.
      Faction friction sears Workers' Party of Korea
      A faction is a a story, movie, or television program that is a mixture of real and imaginary events or people.
      Compare faction and fraction.
      v[T] impose or collect
      n[C] an amount of money that you have to pay
      A series of spending cuts would be levied automatically in the defense and domestic programs.
      ObamaCare is going to be one of the biggest tax hikes ever levied on Americans.
      Many owners and creators of content have expressed disappointment that the levy on copying for private use was not expanded to include a levy on digital audio devices, like the iPod.
      If we can already have a levy on the sale of blank audio media to indemnify creators of musical works, why not have an "iPod tax?"
      This is accomplished by placing levies on blank audio recording media that are "ordinarily used by individual consumers" for the private copying of music.
      Raj, I highly doubt there is any argument you can make, threat you might levy, rhetorical strategy, plea, invocation, supplication, or vetoomus that you can employ that would convince me to reconsider.
      n[C] small wave
      v[IT] move in small waves, or make sth do this
      The stone makes a splash and then these little ripples spread out around it and keep getting bigger and bigger.
      A ripple of laughter went through the cinema.
      A ripple of excitement ran through the staff later that morning when word came that he was out of surgery, in recovery and doing fine.
      He teasingly bit her nipple when she was riffling through the pages. A ripple of tremble ran through her.
      Playwrights undoubtedly respond creatively and critically to current affairs: the major global and national news stories of the last decade, from 9/11 in 2001 to the Credit Crash in 2008, have rippled through British theatres.
      News of his latest plan rippled over the Internet on Wednesday.
      One quickly notices this difference, the difference between a rippling brook and a rushing torrent.
      adj very large, powerful, or impressive
      adv very
      In the jungle, the mighty jungle the lion sleeps tonight.
      With one last mighty tug Monica and Rachel lose their grip and split, each holding one candlestick.
      The baby, seeing this, jumps across the apartment to the mighty bird's aid.
      The pen is mightier than the sword; the penis is longer than the pen.
      "High and mighty" means "arrogant".
      If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the mighty one.
      What choice did I have? The mighty Sheldor, level 85 blood elf, hero of the Eastern kingdoms, has been picked clean, like a carcass in the desert sun.
      An 8.2 magnitude earthquake devastates Pasadena, reducing mighty edifices to dust, engulfing the city in flames.
      n[UC] doing or saying the same thing many times ¶ sth that has been done or said before
      "Well, the key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition." "With certain obvious exceptions. Suicide, for example."
      "Amy, Bernadette, Penny. Amy, Bernadette, Penny. Amy, Bernadette, Penny." "He's never gonna stop doing that, is he?" "I don't mind. I'm hoping to put his love of repetition to good use someday."
      Repetition does not transform a guess into a fact.
      This is a repetition of Leonard's experiment.
      This is a repetition of what is said in John 1:3.
      v[I] hold on tightly ¶ stick to or stay close to ¶ be unwilling to abandon sth or stop doing sth
      He had fallen asleep in his mother's arms. His tiny hand clung to her.
      He loosened his grip and guided her back to the rail where she clung on, filling her lungs with the sea air.
      The little plankton even clung on after we got out of the water, so when you rubbed your skin it would light up.
      He shook his foot about madly in an attempt to dislodge the blob, but it clung like a leech.
      Great heaps of sea-weed clung to its base.
      She was soaked and her dress clung to her body.
      It clung to her body, revealing the narrow hips and high, tight breasts.
      Jobs clung to the belief that his fruit-heavy vegetarian diet would prevent not just mucus but also body odor, even if he didn't use deodorant or shower regularly.
      The motels that clung on were renowned for prostitution and drug use in recent years.
      I clung to the hope that this time he would keep his promise.
      Plastic wrap, cling film (UK), cling wrap or food wrap, is a thin plastic film typically used for sealing food items in containers to keep them fresh over a longer period of time.
      n[CU] blocking of the light of an astronomical object ¶ loss of brilliance, fame, power etc
      v[T] make an ~ ¶ outshine, overshadow
      The term eclipse is most often used to describe either a solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow crosses the Earth's surface, or a lunar eclipse, when the Moon moves into the Earth's shadow.
      In a total eclipse, the disk of the Sun is fully obscured by the Moon. In partial and annular eclipses only part of the Sun is obscured.
      If the Moon were in a perfectly circular orbit, a little closer to the Earth, and in the same orbital plane, there would be total solar eclipses every single month.
      However, the Moon's orbit is inclined (tilted) at more than 5 degrees to Earth's orbit around the Sun so its shadow at new moon usually misses Earth.
      Did the eclipse of radio by video really remake the musical/media world?
      In computer programming, Eclipse is an integrated development environment (IDE).
      When observed at points in space other than from the Earth's surface, the Sun can be eclipsed by bodies other than the Moon. Two examples include when the crew of Apollo 12 observed the Earth to eclipse the Sun in 1969 and when the Cassini probe observed Saturn to eclipse the Sun in 2006.
      For the first time, sales of smart phones have eclipsed that of feature phones in the US.
      An ellipse is an oval shape.
      n[C] a large area of land ¶ a group of organs and tubes in an animal's or person's body ¶ a piece of writing
      Many developers divide a large tract of land into lots as a subdivision.
      Large tracts of the area looked like the surface of the moon now, cratered and denuded.
      A census tract, census area, or census district is a geographic region defined for the purpose of taking a census.
      The function of the digestive tract and the related organs, the longevity of the heart, the formation and function of nerves and of blood vessels, the cleansing of the blood through the kidneys, the complexity of the inner and middle ear, the sense of taste and smell, and so many other things we barely understand -- each one is a marvel and beyond man's ability to duplicate.
      A neural pathway, neural tract, or neural face, connects one part of the nervous system with another.
      A tract is a literary work, and in current usage, usually religious in nature.
      adj quiet and serious because you are thinking ¶ well planned and carefully thought about ¶ showing that you think about and care for other people
      She got a thoughtful look on her face then and pursed her lips.
      After a long and thoughtful silence, Rachel said: "I'll take the blueberry muffin."
      Nice work Eric, a very comprehensive and thoughtful analysis.
      It's very kind and thoughtful of you and Pete.
      How thoughtful of you to cook up a taste of home for your boss!
      Thank you, that's very thoughtful.
      "Well, thank you. How thoughtful. Would you like a chocolate?" asked Sheldon.
      n[UC] the process of changing, improving, or making additions to sth ¶ sth that has been corrected and improved ¶ review
      We urge review and revision of those portions of the USA Patriot Act, and related executive and military orders and directives that erode constitutional rights and essential liberties of citizens.
      Another major revision to the script revolved around the Green sisters.
      Please note that all forecasts are subject to revision and random error.
      This is a study which is permanently open to revision.
      The main change in this edition is the revision of Table 6.13 to cover the carbon equivalent of emissions of all types of greenhouse gas, rather than just emissions of carbon dioxide allocated to Scotland.
      Parents are asked to assist their children during revision at home.
      n[C] a large group of trees grown to produce wood ¶ large farm or estate
      A plantation is a long, artificially-established forest, farm or estate, where crops are grown for sale, often in distant markets rather than for local on-site consumption.
      Tree plantations are usually easily distinguished from natural forests by the trees being planted in straight lines.
      Plantations were an important aspect of the history of the American South, particularly the antebellum (pre-American Civil War South).
      An individual owning a plantation was known as a planter.
      The wealthiest planters, such as the Virginia elite with plantations near the James River, owned more land and slaves than did other farmers.
      The later development of cotton and sugar cultivation in the Deep South also led to the establishment of large plantations which had hundreds of slaves.
      adj very unusual ¶ outstanding, extraordinary
      It is only in the very exceptional case in which a particular lawyer is essential to ensure a fair trial.
      In exceptional circumstances, however, aliens are subject to certain conditions regarding their travel.
      Exceptional GRE scores can open up new opportunities for grad school.
      If you really want an amazing dining experience, excellent food, exceptional service, and a memorable, intimate, romantic atmosphere, go to Monica's!
      A pip is a highly spirited and exceptional person.
      n[U] oil or semisolid lubricant
      v[T] put ~ on sth
      In general empty and clean pizza boxes should be recycled. However sometimes they are heavily contaminated with grease and food.
      If you're willing to add a little elbow grease (hard work and effort), the D.I.Y. approach can result in a higher quality, better performing PC.
      Cooking oil recovered from a waste water plumbing component called a grease trap is called brown grease in the industry.
      Brown grease is contaminated with rotted food solids and considered unsuitable for re-use in most applications. However there are new technologies to handle brown grease.
      Yellow grease, also known in industry as recycled vegetable oil, also termed used vegetable oil (UVO), waste vegetable oil (WVO), used cooking oil, is recovered from businesses and industry that use the cooking oil, typically collected used oil from deep fryers.
      Yellow grease is used to feed livestock, and to make soap, make-up, clothes, rubber, detergents, and biodiesel fuel.
      Greases are applied to mechanisms that can only be lubricated infrequently and where a lubricating oil would not stay in position.
      Pomade (hair styling wax) is sometimes called grease.
      Bake the cake in a greased pan for 25-30 minutes.
      If you grease someone's palm, you bribe them.
      n[C] advocate
      A proponent is a person who speaks publicly in support of a particular idea or plan of action.
      He was also the first proponent of the estate tax.
      Tim O'Reilly is a big proponent of the open-source movement.
      I'm a huge proponent of green energy and moving off oil immediately.
      McCarthy was a strong proponent of nuclear power, even offering to eat a gram of plutonium to show how safe it was.
      'Proponent' and 'opponent' are antonymous words.
      n[CU] the killing of a lot of people ¶ a very big defeat in a game or competition
      also a verb
      The Boston Massacre, known as the Incident on King Street by the British, was an incident on March 5, 1770, in which British Army soldiers killed five civilian men and injured six others.
      The Gnadenhutten massacre, also known as the Moravian massacre, was the killing of 96 Christian Lenape (Delaware) by colonial American militia from Pennsylvania on March 8, 1782 at the Moravian missionary village of Gnadenhütten, Ohio during the American Revolutionary War.
      The Peterloo Massacre (or Battle of Peterloo) occurred at St Peter's Field, Manchester, England, on 16 August 1819, when cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 that had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation.
      The Sharpeville massacre occurred on 21 March 1960, at the police station in the South African township of Sharpeville in Transvaal (today part of Gauteng).
      The Nanking Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against Nanking (current official spelling: Nanjing) during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
      In 1724, the rangers massacred 80 Abenakis (including two dozen women and children).
      In 1730, A French army of 1,400 soldiers and its Indian allies massacred about 500 Fox Indians (including 300 women and children) as they tried to flee their besieged camp.
      In 1805, Spanish soldiers led by Antonio Narbona massacred 115 Navajo Indians (mostly women, children and old men) in Canyon del Muerto, northeastern Arizona.
      During the War of 1812, twenty four settlers, including fifteen children, were massacred by a war party of Native Americans (mostly Shawnee, but possibly including some Delawares and Potawatomis) in a surprise attack on a small village located in what is today Scott County, Indiana.
      v[T] express an idea in a careful organized way ¶ create sth in a precise form
      It's a very good idea to do a keyword search for words relating to your problem on the newsgroup or mailing list archives before you post. It may find you an answer, and if not it will help you formulate a better question.
      He formulated the Monroe Doctrine, which declared the Americas off-limits to European meddling.
      A team formulating a process improvement objective may find it helpful.
      Obama formulated his plans based on this assumption.
      Infant formula is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age.
      These complex formulas recommended that parents mix cow's milk, water, cream, and sugar or honey in specific ratios to achieve the nutritional balance believed to approximate human milk reformulated in such a way as to accommodate the believed digestive capability of the infant.
      Compare these words: formulate, articulate, and enunciate.
      n[s] a polar region located at the northernmost part of the Earth
      adj of ~, or very cold
      The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, the United States (Alaska), Denmark (Greenland), Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland.
      The Arctic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by treeless permafrost.
      The area can be defined as north of the Arctic Circle (66° 33'N), the approximate limit of the midnight sun and the polar night.
      The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth.
      The region north of this circle is known as the Arctic, and the zone to the south is called the North Temperate Zone.
      The North Temperate Zone extends from the Tropic of Cancer (approximately 23.5° north latitude) to the Arctic Circle (approximately 66.5° north latitude).
      I was able to book a cruise to the Arctic to see a solar eclipse.
      I'm going to the Arctic Circle with Leonard, Walowitz, and Koothrappali.
      n[C] example or sample
      Another fish expert said he thought the odd specimen is the result of a fan-tailed goldfish and a normal goldfish mating and had probably been released into the lake from a private aquarium.
      This man was certainly the most wonderful physical specimen (a particular type of person, used humorously) I had ever encountered.
      On November 6, 1880, while examining a fresh blood specimen taken from a new hospital arrival, a moving object on the slide caught Laveran's eye.
      Each woman collected the first morning urine specimen for 10 consecutive days from the first day of each vaginal bleeding episode.
      The next morning, your husband will produce a semen specimen at 8am in the hotel and bring it to PFC laboratory before 9 am.
      v[T] make sth less sore or painful ¶ make sb feel calm or less worried
      Vitamin C-rich fruit juices, such as orange juice, will help you fight off the infection, while a drink of hot water, lemon and honey will help soothe a sore throat.
      Warm liquid can soothe a sore throat and further ease congestion, and tea is also rich in infection-fighting antioxidants, she adds.
      'Massage can gently soothe away your aches and pains,' said Phoebe.
      Monica soothed Emma by rocking it in her arms.
      Feeling tense? Paying attention to your breathing for a few minutes could soothe your nerves.
      n[CU] Resurrection Sunday
      Easter is a festival and holiday celebrating the Resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred three days after his crucifixion by Romans at Calvary.
      Good Friday is a religious holiday, observed primarily by Christians, commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary. The holiday is observed during Holy Week (the week before Easter).
      Easter eggs are decorated eggs that are often given to celebrate Easter or springtime.
      The Easter Bunny (also called the Easter Rabbit or Easter Hare) is depicted as a leporidae (a family of mammals that include the rabbits and hares) bringing Easter eggs.
      In the US, malls, shopping centers and most retail stores close only on Thanksgiving and Christmas and many on Easter Sunday as well, but remain open on all other holidays.
      We decided to spend the Easter break at the beach.
      n[C] the act of trying on clothes whose fit is being adjusted ¶ a small detachable part for a machine or apparatus ¶ furnishings or fixtures
      adj appropriate
      It is important to take the time to prepare for your fitting to be sure that your dress will fit your body as perfectly as possible on your big day.
      What are some general safety tips for working with or near electricity? Inspect tools, power cords, and electrical fittings for damage or wear prior to each use.
      Inspect all electrical fittings, and replace any bulbs required. Please don't risk substandard fittings; they could be lethal.
      A fitting is used in pipe plumbing systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, to adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes, such as regulating or measuring fluid flow.
      The 5 story red brick building was one of the grandest of its time, with 12 foot ceilings, brass fittings, and the very first manually operated Otis elevator in Toronto.
      Our bathroom is original with green fittings, pedestal basin, grey, green and pink mosaic tiles in the floor and pink glass wall tiles.
      The memorial is a fitting tribute to the more than 10,000 Canadian soldiers who lost their lives in France during the First World War.
      This Saturday's Final will be a fitting end to one of the most entertaining seasons of rugby yet.
      A female condom is a soft, loose-fitting plastic condom that lines the inside of the vagina.
      Keep all foodstuffs in tight-fitting containers.
      She is wearing a close-fitting denim jacket and a light T-shirt.
      n[UC] what happens or appears if you do not make any other choice or change ¶ failure to do sth (esp paying a debt)
      also a verb
      If something happens by default, it happens only because someone does not do something else.
      Windows XP support for this functionality is disabled by default.
      Most people are using Microsoft Outlook with the default settings.
      If you win a game, competition etc by default, you win it because your opponent did not play or because there were no other competitors.
      If the fine is not paid within the time provided by the judge, you can be sent to prison for a time in default of the payment.
      The letter stated that Jerry was in default on his loan contract.
      What if a default in zero-risk securities (e.g. US treasury bonds) is a black swan event?
      For example, one loan application, for a home in Miami, said that the borrower was an airline sales representative earning $15,500 per month, when the borrower worked for a temp agency and earned $2,666 per month. The borrower defaulted within seven months, the suit said.
      n[C] miracle, wonder
      v[T] show or feel surprise or admiration
      It is a marvel that the only casualties were a few cuts from falling glass during the whole day.
      Ross was a medical marvel.
      This tablet is, seemingly, a real credit to Samsung and in some respects it is a technological marvel, but for me, it is too late.
      Marvel Worldwide Inc., commonly referred to as Marvel Comics and formerly Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, is an American publisher of comic books and related media.
      I can't help but marvel at how diverse our culture really is.
      "I am a huge Dennis fan, having marveled over his genius for all these years," said Sheldon.
      Marvel Worldwide Inc., commonly referred to as Marvel Comics and formerly Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, is an American publisher of comic books and related media.
      Compare marvel and marvelous.