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      v[I] move in a circle ¶ move around ¶ move about or flow freely ¶ spread widely among persons or places
      v[T] distribute
      Alcohol in the blood circulates through the lungs and vaporizes into the air, so it's possible to measure the alcohol level in the blood and the rest of the body by measuring the alcohol vapor in exhaled air.
      One month after conception, the unborn child already has blood circulating in his or her veins.
      This allows air to circulate and cool your laptop.
      If you circulate or mingle at a party, you move around and talk to different people.
      I like electric convection ovens, as the fans circulate heat more evenly.
      Rumors have circulated around Patong saying that there were more deaths than what was officially reported.
      A transcript of the Minister's speech was circulated throughout the Department.
      I've circulated a happy birthday card for everyone to sign.
      v[IT] cut roughly or violently ¶ gain access to a computer, network etc ¶ be able to deal with sth ¶ cough loudly
      also a noun
      If you hack something or hack at it, you cut it with strong, rough strokes using a sharp tool such as an axe or knife.
      When he hacked at the ice with a spade, he soon gazed in horror as it slipped from his numb hands and drifted to its resting place at the bottom.
      If you hack at or hack something which is too large, too long, or too expensive, you reduce its size, length, or cost by cutting out or getting rid of large parts of it.
      The story had been hacked to pieces by a censor.
      If you hack your way through an area such as a jungle or hack a path through it, you move forward, cutting back the trees or plants that are in your way.
      He hacked his way through the scrub and undergrowth.
      For three hours, he hacked his way through dense nettle and dead heather.
      If someone hacks into a computer system, they break into the system, especially in order to get secret information.
      He made a name for himself in the '00s by breaking into computer networks, TV networks and even companies like AOL, Yahoo! and The New York Times. As he hacked his way into these companies' sites, he offered to help fix the holes for free.
      "By the way, a six-year-old could hack your computer system," said Sheldon.
      If you think Montrealers are an example of openness to diversity, perhaps it is better you stay in Montreal. You could not hack it here in Toronto.
      Rachel swallowed the cherry whole and is now hacking like a heavy smoker in the morning.
      Phoebe groans, hacks, and then freezes with her eyes open and her tongue hanging out.
      A hack is a journalist whose work is low in quality or lacks imagination, or an unimportant politician.
      A hackathon (also known as a hack day, hackfest or codefest) is an event in which computer programmers and others involved in software development, including graphic designers, interface designers and project managers, collaborate intensively on software projects.
      The marathon is a long-distance running event with an official distance of 42.195 kilometers.
      Software cracking is the modification of software to remove or disable features which are considered undesirable by the person cracking the software, especially copy protection features or software annoyances like nag screens and adware.
      n[C] preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past
      The study of fossils across geological time, how they were formed, and the evolutionary relationships between taxa (phylogeny) are some of the most important functions of the science of paleontology.
      A substantial hurdle is the difficulty of working out fossil ages.
      Beds that preserve fossils typically lack the radioactive elements needed for radiometric dating.
      Petroleum is a fossil fuel derived from ancient fossilized organic materials.
      The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil.
      Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms.
      Coal is a fossil fuel.
      Amber is fossilized tree resin (not sap).
      v[T] make beer ¶ make a hot drink by mixing leaves etc with boiling water
      also a noun
      Homebrewing is the brewing of beer, sake (a Japanese alcoholic drink made from rice), and other beverages through fermentation on a small scale as a hobby for personal consumption, free distribution at social gatherings, amateur brewing competitions or other non-commercial reasons.
      Brew the tea and whip the cream and call your clan to the table.
      The water for tea brewing mustn't be too hot.
      One type of dual coffee maker contains a compartment to brew the coffee and two spouts to serve it.
      1805 was a turbulent time. War was brewing between North America and Britain.
      An e-learning storm is brewing on the horizon.
      The other theme is tea. In one picture, Will makes a brew for his colleagues in mugs with their names on them.
      Wolverine opened the fridge and got himself a cold brew (beer).
      At Xavier's School for Gifted Youngsters you'll find a strange brew (combination) of X-men.
      adj enormous
      It is a time for immense change and transformation.
      They took on an immense, probably insuperable challenge.
      As you read the details of the immense harm that both parties have done to our country, you might find yourself wondering what can be done to change our course.
      That is the immense pressure that comes with playing for the Lakers, particularly at the center position.
      Despite the extraordinary nature of the event and its immense implications for the War on Terror and for U.S. foreign policy in general, most mainstream media outlets are devoting little or no attention to it.
      There also have been immense political and military costs to the U.S. for its consistent support of Israel during Israel's half-century of disputes with the Palestinians and all of its Arab neighbors.
      adj female or not masculine
      Although women in higher paying industrial jobs often preferred to remain at work in the postwar years, they were expected to give up their war jobs for more traditional feminine roles once the war ended.
      Chandler throws Joey his keys in a very feminine way and leaves.
      Chandler puts his hand on the chest in a feminine way.
      Rachel grins as Ross removes the girlie jacket.
      Some people, especially men, describe a boy as a sissy when they disapprove of him because he does not like rough, physical activities or is afraid to do things which might be dangerous.
      'Stewardess' is the feminine form of 'steward'.
      adj forming a essential part of sth ¶ included as part of sth, rather than supplied separately ¶ having all parts that are necessary for completeness
      n[C] a complete thing, whole
      Our partners have been an integral part of our work and our success in microfinance.
      Board games, especially chess, were integral to medieval courtly culture, as they were regarded as essential to honing tactical skills for the battlefield.
      We bought a four bedroom detached family home with integral garage.
      I think that the breakthrough with iTunes was the design of the three-tier device as an integral system.
      Given a function f of a real variable x and an interval [a, b] of the real line, the definite integral is defined informally to be the signed area of the region in the xy-plane bounded by the graph of f, the x-axis, and the vertical lines x = a and x = b, such that area above the x-axis adds to the total, and that below the x-axis subtracts from the total.
      adj difficult to understand ¶ not well known
      v[T] hide ¶ make sth ~
      It feels like they are speaking Klingon to you or some other obscure language.
      Sometimes what I need for my work is in a research paper, sometimes it's within an ancient piece of computer code, sometimes it's on an obscure website, and sometimes it's inside the mind of someone whom I need to track down and ask for help.
      Even when 99% of the Sun's surface is obscured during the partial phases of a total eclipse, the remaining photospheric crescent is intensely bright and cannot be viewed safely without eye protection.
      Are cyclists riding at the edge of the road or path obscured by vegetation along the roadway edge?
      But these achievements should not obscure the fact that although Israel's military is doing everything it can to suppress the missile fire, the terrorists have still managed to launch hundreds in the last two days, with a few even penetrating as far as the greater Tel Aviv area.
      n[C] sth sb does, esp sth that is very good or very bad ¶ signed legal document, esp about the ownership of property
      "There are no unselfish good deeds," said Joey.
      "I'm having so much fun doing good deeds," said Phoebe.
      The devil was behind every evil deed.
      They love not in word only, but in deed and in truth.
      For example, it is $500 to register a mortgage deed.
      adj having the necessary ability, authority, skill, knowledge etc ¶ satisfactory but not especially good
      They provide competent instructors like the ones who take me up the mountain and assist me with having a good time going down.
      Legal rules only provide a framework, a guide as to how one may behave, but certainty is only reached in instant cases, where law is actualized by a competent authority.
      In May 2011, Judge Burns ruled that Mr. Loughner was not competent to stand trial.
      A series of court cases in the 1970s won a mentally competent person the right to refuse medical intervention.
      A dispute arose and the lender brought an action before the Court of Arbitration at BCCI, which in turn, found that it was competent to hear the dispute and ruled that the borrowers under the agreement were jointly liable to pay a principal amount as well as the applicable interest rate.
      The NFL can no longer argue the replacement refs are doing a competent job.
      When an underfunded police department can't prevent crime, it sends a message: the government isn't doing a competent job.
      v[IT] clap
      v[T] praise or approve
      The audience rose to applaud the speaker.
      The crowd loudly applauded his speech.
      I found myself booing when they applauded.
      I will be in your audience applauding and cheering with the crowd.
      These educators should be strongly applauded for the work they do with struggling students.
      I know Mike Corbat very well, and I applaud the decision the board has made to name him CEO.
      Compare applaud and applause.
      n[U] an allotrope of oxygen, trioxygen
      Ozone is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell.
      Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet light and also atmospheric electrical discharges, and is present in low concentrations throughout the Earth's atmosphere.
      In total, ozone makes up only 0.6 ppm of the atmosphere.
      The ozone layer refers to a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's UV radiation.
      It contains high concentrations of ozone relative to other parts of the atmosphere, although it is still very small relative to other gases in the stratosphere.
      This catastrophic event releases 10 million times more energy than a typical nova explosion - the equivalent of 20 billion, billion, billion megatons of TNT. The system is only 3,260 light years away, close enough to destroy Earth's ozone layer and cause mass extinctions unless the planet is shielded by advanced technology.
      v[IT] produce new leaves or buds ¶ appear or begin to grow
      also a noun
      "The seed will sprout in from 3 to 8 weeks," thought Robinson.
      Harry Potter has sprouted a beard since we last saw him.
      Hundreds of mushrooms had sprouted up overnight.
      New businesses began to sprout up across the country.
      Bean sprouts are a common ingredient, especially in Asian cuisine, made from sprouting beans.
      In Chinese cuisine, common dishes that may use bean sprouts are fried rice, spring rolls, egg drop soup, and hot and sour soup.
      In Phad Thai bean sprouts are often added in to the pan for one quick stir before serving.
      Commercially grown sprouts have been associated with multiple outbreaks of harmful bacteria, including salmonella and toxic forms of Escherichia coli. Such infections, which are so frequent in the United States that investigators call them "sproutbreaks".
      Bamboo shoots or bamboo sprouts are the edible shoots (new bamboo culms that come out of the ground) of many bamboo species.
      The Brussels sprouts are typically 2.5-4 cm in diameter and look like miniature cabbages.
      A spout is a tube-shaped opening which allows liquids to be poured out of a container.
      If you squirt liquid or if it squirts somewhere, it is forced out in a thin fast stream.
      n[C] junction
      n[U] the act, process, or result of intersecting
      There are perhaps eight signals per intersection, so that's almost $600 per year in power per intersection.
      The violence incident unfolded about 1:45 a.m., when a group of four or five men broke into at near the intersection of Elmwood and Ashland avenues, police said.
      The crash was reported at the intersection of East Main Street and Grove Street around 1:30 a.m.
      He writes about the intersection of advertising, marketing and PR at The Social Media Marketing Blog.
      In a Venn diagram, that would be an individual located within the intersection of the sets "no longer want my time machine" and "need $800."
      Okay, these, are the ones you wanna sleep with. These are the women who believe exactly what you believe. These are the women who would be willing to sleep with you. And right there, in the little triple intersection, is your ideal mate.
      A crossroads is a place where two roads meet and cross each other.
      n[UC] a good/acceptable reason/explanation for sth
      This graph is one of the main reasons Conservatives can, with some justification, crow about their economic record.
      A lot of things are done with the justification that "I was just doing my job".
      However, that shouldn't divert our attention from the fact that the Big Bang model isn't just an arbitrary hypothesis with no justification.
      But I see no justification for putting more names on the ballot.
      All I can say in justification of my actions is that I was under a lot of pressure at work.
      adj having a bad effect on sth
      However, in some states incompetent and politically dominated personnel has been distinctly harmful.
      But this just wouldn't be helpful and might actually be harmful.
      This allows harmful chemicals to escape into the air.
      A parasite is generally harmful to some degree to the host that is harboring the parasite.
      A noxious gas or substance is poisonous or very harmful.
      Kryptonite is a type of rock that comes from the planet Krypton in the Superman stories. It is harmful to Superman.
      n[C] a very short electromagnetic wave ¶ a type of oven
      v[T] cook or heat sth in a ~
      Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz (0.3 GHz) and 300 GHz.
      A microwave oven, often colloquially shortened to microwave, is a kitchen appliance that heats food by bombarding it with electromagnetic radiation in the microwave spectrum.
      Percy Spencer invented the first microwave oven after World War II from radar technology developed during the war.
      Microwave heating is more efficient on liquid water than on frozen water, where the movement of molecules is more restricted.
      Any metal or conductive object placed into the microwave will act as an antenna to some degree, resulting in an electric current. This causes the object to act as a heating element.
      The effect of microwaving thin metal films can be seen clearly on a Compact Disc or DVD (particularly the factory pressed type).
      Direct microwave exposure is not generally possible, as microwaves emitted by the source in a microwave oven are confined in the oven by the material out of which the oven is constructed.
      According to the United States Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health, a U.S. Federal Standard limits the amount of microwaves that can leak from an oven throughout its lifetime to 5 milliwatts of microwave radiation per square centimeter at approximately 5 cm from the surface of the oven. This is far below the exposure level currently considered to be harmful to human health.
      n[C] dissertation ¶ idea or theory
      He recently conducted a study as a part of his doctoral thesis at Cambridge University to find out exactly how models influence shoppers' purchasing decisions.
      You just summed up my master's thesis in a few sentences!
      She was in my class; we did our graduate thesis together.
      While I think he makes some reasonable arguments, his main thesis is untrue.
      The main thesis of this article is that acceptance of the legitimacy of the killing and destruction in a conventional war necessarily entails accepting the legitimacy of targeted killings in the war against terror.
      A thesis statement is a short statement that summarizes the main point or claim of an essay, research paper, etc., and is developed, supported, and explained in the text by means of examples and evidence.
      A thesis statement usually appears near the end of the introductory paragraph of a paper, and it offers a concise solution to the issue being addressed.
      n[U] the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft
      Civil aviation includes all non-military flying, both general aviation and scheduled air transport.
      General aviation includes all non-scheduled civil flying, both private and commercial.
      Each country regulates aviation differently, but general aviation usually falls under different regulations depending on whether it is private or commercial and on the type of equipment involved.
      The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of American civil aviation.
      Types of military aviation: fighter aircraft, ground attack aircraft, bombers, transport aircraft, surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and missiles.
      v[I] make a short low sound in the throat ¶ say a few words in a rough voice
      also a noun
      The pigs were grunting contentedly as they ate their food.
      Cheryl, "the beautiful pig", grunts and throws her purse in the mess. Ross grunts.
      Leonard, Sheldon, Raj, and Howard hauled the time machine prop upstairs, grunting with effort.
      Penny grunted something about being late.
      "She moans and groans all the time," said Sheldon.
      Grunting and groaning, Ross, Rachel, and Chandler heaved the couch upstairs.
      Ugly Naked Guy stooped and lifted the end of one of the bars, and then dropped it with a grunt.
      A grunt is a person who does hard physical work for low pay (compare coolie) or a soldier in the infantry (foot soldier).
      adj attractive, tempting
      I love how warm and inviting and homey it feels.
      Using custom designed graphics and the HTML widget, Terresa was able to create a unique and inviting looking website.
      As an architect I find their new store designs to be very comfortable and inviting.
      The hotel features a stunning lobby area with a warm and inviting fireplace as well as an outdoor terrace perfect for a relaxing afternoon.
      A nice surprise and out in the moonlight - just romantic and inviting.
      adj very unhappy or uncomfortable, or making sb ~ ¶ always bad-tempered, dissatisfied, or complaining ¶ cold and wet ¶ very bad in quality, or very small in amount
      If you mope, you feel miserable and do not feel interested in doing anything.
      Seasonal influenza - the flu - is caused by one of several strains of influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat and lungs, making life miserable for a week or two for many people - and deadly for some.
      In a world which is already difficult, these children face miserable lives.
      "I spent last year being so unbelievably miserable," said Ross.
      When we first met Emily, she was soaking, her feet were wet. Who wouldn't be miserable?
      Mr. Heckles is not a miserable old coot.
      Stoner admitted he lacked confidence on his Honda in miserable weather conditions at Valencia.
      The miserable performance of this management has caused deep harm to such investors.
      n[U] a yellow or brown sauce with a strong taste
      Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant.
      The whole, ground, cracked, or bruised mustard seeds are mixed with water, salt, lemon juice, or other liquids, and sometimes other flavorings and spices, to create a paste or sauce ranging in color from bright yellow to dark brown.
      Commonly paired with meats and cheeses, mustard is a popular addition to sandwiches, salads, hamburgers, and hot dogs.
      Mustard is also used as an ingredient in many dressings, glazes, sauces, soups, and marinades; as a cream or a seed, mustard is used in the cuisine of India, the Mediterranean, northern and southeastern Europe, Asia, the Americas, and Africa, making it one of the most popular and widely used spices and condiments in the world.
      As a condiment, mustard averages approximately 5 calories per teaspoon.
      In sushi preparation, sushi chefs usually put the wasabi between the fish and the rice because covering wasabi until served preserves its flavor.
      If someone does not cut the mustard, their work or their performance is not as good as it should be or as good as it is expected to be.
      The sulfur mustards, or sulphur mustards, commonly known as mustard gas, are a class of related cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on the exposed skin and in the lungs.
      adj relating to alcohol or containing alcohol ¶ caused by drinking alcohol
      n[C] sb who who regularly drinks too much alcohol
      An alcoholic beverage is a drink that typically contains 3% - 40% alcohol (ethanol).
      Alcoholic beverages are divided into three classes: beers, wines, and spirits (distilled beverages).
      The global alcoholic drinks industry is expected to exceed $1 trillion this year.
      It was not until the invention of the microscope followed by the pioneering scientific work of Louis Pasteur in the late 1860's that yeast was identified as a living organism and the agent responsible for alcoholic fermentation and dough leavening.
      "'You're such a nice guy' means 'I'm gonna be dating leather-wearing alcoholics and complaining about them to you'," said Chandler.
      "I knew it. He moves to America and becomes an alcoholic," said Dr. Koothrappali.
      n[C] a 3-D shape that tapers smoothly from a circular base to a point called the apex or vertex
      What is the formula for the volume of a cone with base area b and height h?
      During the late summer and fall, squirrels gather massive collections of pine cones and store them in ground burrows that can contain tens of thousands of nuts.
      Traffic cones, also called traffic pylons, road cones, highway cones, safety cones, witch's hat, or construction cones, are usually cone-shaped markers that are placed on roads or footpaths to temporarily redirect traffic in a safe manner.
      If you cone something off, you put a row of traffic cones around an area to prevent people or cars from going there.
      Traditionally, but unofficially, the Wellington Statue in Glasgow is decorated with a traffic cone.
      The presence of the cone is given as the reason the statue is in the Lonely Planet 1000 Ultimate Sights guide (at number 229) as a "most bizarre monument".