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      n[U] a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of a population toward some cause or position
      Propaganda is information that is not impartial and used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis, or using loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented.
      Propaganda can be used as a form of ideological or commercial warfare.
      National Socialist propaganda provided a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of their policies, including the pursuit of total war and the extermination of millions of people in the Holocaust.
      The pervasive use of propaganda by the Nazis is largely responsible for the word "propaganda" itself acquiring its present negative connotations.
      Dr. Joseph Goebbels was the head of Germany's Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda.
      His masterful use of propaganda for Adolf Hitler and the NSDAP made him an archetype of the modern spin doctor in public conscience.
      The Olympics were of great propaganda value to the regime.
      n[UC] complete control of the means of producing or selling a commodity or service ¶ a company that has the control ¶ sth that only one person or group of people has
      Bell was able to fund the Labs, as they had a government monopoly on the telephone system and were enormously profitable.
      The U.S. government's interest in Microsoft had begun in 1991 with an inquiry by the Federal Trade Commission over whether Microsoft was abusing its monopoly on the PC operating system market.
      What sane investor would not invest into what would effectively become a monopoly?
      Among these new "rights" and "privileges" for corporations include more job offshoring, protections to allow monopolies to raise prices, as well as new corporate controls established over natural resources.
      Monopoly is an American-originated board game originally published by Parker Brothers. The game is named after the economic concept of monopoly—the domination of a market by a single entity.
      If someone has a monopoly on something, that thing belongs to them, and no one else can share it.
      Celebrities don't have a monopoly on being interesting.
      n[CU] a sea creature with eight legs, a shell, and two large claws ¶ the flesh
      Highly prized as seafood, lobsters are economically important, and are often one of the most profitable commodities in coastal areas they populate.
      Cooks boil or steam live lobsters. The lobster cooks for seven minutes for the first pound and three minutes for each additional pound.
      According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the mean level of mercury in American lobster is 0.31 ppm.
      A traditional lobster roll is a sandwich filled with lobster meat soaked in butter and served on a steamed hot dog bun or similar roll.
      Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, freshwater lobsters, or mudbugs, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters.
      A crustacean is an animal with a hard shell and several pairs of legs, which usually lives in water. Crabs, lobsters, and shrimps are crustaceans.
      Our standard order is: The steamed dumpling appetizer, General Tso's chicken, beef with broccoli, shrimp with lobster sauce and vegetable lo mein.
      n[C] a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids etc) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways
      "Lefty loosey" and "righty tighty" is a saying which helps one to remember how to turn a valve on or off.
      The simplest, and very ancient, valve is simply a freely hinged flap which drops to obstruct fluid flow in one direction, but is pushed open by flow in the opposite direction. This is called a check valve, as it prevents or "checks" the flow in one direction.
      A valve stem is a self-contained valve which opens to admit gas to a chamber (such as air to inflate a tire), and is then automatically closed and kept sealed by the pressure in the chamber, or a spring, or both, to prevent the gas from escaping. They are most commonly used on automobile and bicycle wheels, but also for many other applications.
      Schrader valves (also called American valves), Dunlop valves, (also called Woods valves or English valves), and Presta valves (also called Sclaverand valves or French valves) are commonly found in bicycle inner tubes.
      A 'piston valve' is a device used to control the motion of a fluid along a tube or pipe by means of the linear motion of a piston within a chamber or cylinder.
      The modern trumpet has three valves on top.
      A heart valve normally allows blood flow in only one direction through the heart.
      Veins are often closer to the skin and contain valves to help keep blood flowing toward the heart, while arteries carry blood away from the heart.
      A safety valve is a valve mechanism which automatically releases a substance from a boiler, pressure vessel, or other system, when the pressure or temperature exceeds preset limits.
      In electronics, vacuum tube, electron tube (in North America), tube, or valve (in British English) is a device that controls electric current through a vacuum in a sealed container.
      n[C] a raised structure that is built over and into the water so that boats can stop and take on or put down passengers or goods ¶ a type of upright support
      The lighter structure of a pier allows tides and currents to flow almost unhindered, whereas the more solid foundations of a quay or the closely spaced piles of a wharf can act as a breakwater, and are consequently more liable to silting.
      In American English, pier may be synonymous with dock.
      The longest Pleasure pier in the world is at Southend-on-sea, Essex, and extends 2,158 meters (1.34 mi) into the Thames estuary.
      With a length of 2,745 feet (836.68 m), the longest pier on the West Coast of the United States is the Santa Cruz Wharf.
      A wharf or quay is a structure on the shore of a harbor or on the bank of a river or canal where ships may dock to load and unload cargo or passengers.
      A pier, in architecture, is an upright support for a structure, such as an arch or bridge.
      Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge was incredibly difficult. The support piers had to be sunk in waters with 60-mile-an-hour tidal surges and 15-foot-high swells.
      Compare peer and pier.
      adj not proud ¶ low in social class or position ¶ simple and ordinary
      v[T] make sb feel less proud ¶ easily defeat
      Paul is a decent and humble man.
      Edwin Hubble was a talented but humble man.
      Madiba has achieved a lot in his 94 years of life, although he has always remained modest and humble.
      "Sorry, it's not part of my heartwarming and personal narrative in which a humble boy from New Delhi overcame poverty and prejudice and journeyed to America to reach for the stars." "Your father drives a Bentley."
      Iacocca rose from humble beginnings to become boss of Ford.
      "In my humble opinion" is used humorously to give your opinion about something.
      If you eat humble pie, you admit that you were wrong about something.
      What they had on the table was a simple, humble meal.
      Anton Ego, a restaurant critic, was humbled by Remy, an idealistic and ambitious young rat.
      "Leonard, prepare to be humbled and weep at the glory of my genius," said Sheldon.
      n[C] a collection of documents, or the location they are stored
      The National Archives (TNA) is an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice of the United Kingdom.
      The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
      The archive bit is a file attribute used by Microsoft operating systems, by OS/2 and by AmigaOS. Typically its state indicates whether or not the file has been backed up.
      An archive file is a file that is composed of one or more computer files along with metadata.
      Archive files are used to collect multiple data files together into a single file for easier portability and storage, or simply to compress files to use less storage space.
      n[C] a bird with a flat face and large eyes, that hunts at night
      All owls are carnivorous birds of prey and live mainly on a diet of insects and small rodents such as mice, rats and hares.
      Some owls are also specifically adapted to hunt fish.
      Most owls share an innate ability to fly almost silently and also more slowly in comparison to other birds of prey.
      Another characteristic of the owl which aids in their nocturnal prey capture is their eyesight.
      Owls are part of a small group of birds that live nocturnally, but do not use echolocation to guide them in flight in low-light situations.
      Eeyore mistakenly offers Piglet's house as a new home for Owl, after Owl's house had blown down.
      A night owl or evening person is a person who tends to stay up until late at night. The opposite of a night owl is an early bird, a lark as opposed to owl, someone who tends to begin sleeping at a time that is considered early and also wakes early.
      adj clear, not opaque ¶ easily understood or recognized, obvious
      Glass can be made transparent or opaque.
      Comb jellies are generally transparent or translucent.
      An operating system should mostly be transparent to the user, enabling him/her to get on with actually being productive.
      In her remarkably transparent style, Diane engages hearts, encouraging readers to find life lessons through their own challenges.
      This may be the most brazen and transparent lie of all, the one about the U.S. national debt, now over $15 trillion dollars.
      Plexiglas is a strong transparent plastic used instead of glass.
      Your lie was laughably transparent, where mine is exquisitely convoluted. While you were sleeping, I was weaving an un-unravelable web.
      A rhinestone is a jewel made from glass or a transparent rock that is intended to look like a diamond.
      adj convincing, plausible, or trustworthy
      What do the credible scientists say about the subject?
      There were numerous, credible reports that security forces tortured and mistreated prisoners and detainees.
      However, there are credible reports of local government authorities failing to uphold the law.
      Zhang's recollection is a credible source, as it was published fourteen years ago in an article in a Chinese academic journal, Japanese Studies, well before the current escalation of tensions.
      International observers say the polling was fair and credible.
      v[T] prevent sb/sth from having sth
      How could I live with myself if I knew I was depriving the world of Ross's music?
      "If someone wants to give us a present, we don't wanna deprive them of that joy," said Monica.
      "The doctor says it's completely normal with all the hormones. Plus, you're sleep deprived," said Ross.
      Because of this politically hostile milieu, survivors were deprived of the normal and needed grieving process following their massive trauma and had to repress their suffering in silence and isolation.
      It enables them to deprive Chinese workers of some benefits they deserve.
      adj shiny because of being rubbed ¶ elegant and confident ¶ highly skilled, or of high standard
      Get your nails filed, cuticle massaged and your nails polished.
      She held back her skirts and turned her feet one way and her head another way as she glanced down at the polished, pointed-tipped boots.
      The bases of the poles are made of polished granite.
      Becoming a polished and confident interviewee takes experience, and the only way you get this experience is by going through the interview process multiple times.
      Romney is too sharp and polished to fall for it.
      We had a polished performance; we worked hard and got that result we were looking for.
      The Fire HD isn't as polished, fluid or versatile as the iPad.
      Android, then, would seem the natural alternative unless Windows provides a comparable, more polished, more professional OS experience for productivity tablets.
      v[IT] repeatedly try to persuade people to buy your goods or services ¶ sell tickets that you have bought at one price at a higher price ¶ praise sb/sth in order to persuade people that they are important or worth a lot
      also a noun
      Outside the station, motorcycle-taxi drivers are touting for business.
      He is a man who made his money touting tickets.
      He's being touted as everything for doing nothing.
      While the company hasn't yet said what the clock speed of the processor is, we're guessing it's something below the 1GHz touted for its tablet cousin.
      The administration has touted the collaboration between the CIA and the military in counterterrorism operations, contributing to a blurring of their traditional roles.
      The ticket tout looked surprised when I didn't bother bargaining with him.
      A tout or scalper is a person who buys tickets for a concert, sports match etc and sells them at a higher price, usually on the street near a sports ground, theatre etc.
      v[T] go around or avoid a place ¶ ignore a rule, system or sb
      n[C] a road that takes traffic around the edge of a town rather than through its center
      Interstate 40 bypasses Radiator Springs to the west.
      Robert Bales was bypassed for promotion.
      It looks like Bush bypassed the legal requirements for a commutation.
      For over 50 years they have talked about a bypass around Galt from Highway 24 to the 401 and there still isn't one.
      Bypass surgery refers to a class of surgeries involving rerouting a tubular body part.
      Fortunately for him, the little capillaries around the blockage had created their own bypass around the artery.
      v[T] give comfort or sympathy to sb who is sad or disappointed
      n[C] panel for the controls of electronic or mechanical equipment ¶ a special cupboard for a TV, computer etc
      He could never be consoled for the loss of his wife.
      I consoled myself that my constant advice at least kept it under some control.
      A video game console is a device for playing video games.
      A handheld game console is a lightweight and portable device for playing video games.
      The system console, computer console, root console, operator's console, or simply console is the text entry and display device for system administration messages, particularly those from the BIOS or boot loader, the kernel, from the init system and from the system logger.
      Win32 console is a text user interface implementation within the system of Windows API, which runs console applications.
      Console is a log viewer developed by Apple Inc. and included with OS X.
      n[C] a race between two or more teams, for example teams of runners or swimmers
      v[T] pass on ¶ lay again
      The 4 × 100 meters relay or sprint relay is an athletics track event run in lanes over one lap of the track with four runners completing 100 meters each.
      If people do something in relays, several small groups of them do it, one group after another, so that the activity is continuous.
      The group is also looking for volunteers to work in relays (compare shift) to push the stretcher.
      A relay is a repeater, a device that re-transmits signals.
      Late afternoon rover time, Opportunity stops driving and sends pictures to Earth, using its high-gain antenna and a relay from the Mars Odyssey orbiter.
      It relayed the video to Earth as a phase-modulated digital signal, at 9 bits per pixel.
      This is relayed by nerve impulses to the peripheral nervous system and then to the central nervous system.
      Once the room has been repainted we will need the carpet relaid.
      The Dakar Rally (or simply "The Dakar"; formerly known as the "Paris–Dakar Rally") is an annual rally raid.
      Rally raid, also known as cross country rallying is a form of long distance off-road racing that takes place over several days.
      n[U] the letters sb sends and receives ¶ the activity of sending and receiving letters ¶ a relationship or connection between two things
      Throughout his government service and thereafter, he criticized the Constitution in private correspondence.
      I requested all correspondence between the authors and the journal regarding the paper.
      Please note that we will not enter into any correspondence on this until the SFA clarifies the position.
      In 1892 he also encouraged the concept of correspondence school courses to further promote education, an idea that was put into practice by Columbia University.
      There is no direct 1:1 correspondence between class and wealth, although there is often a strong relationship.
      v[IT] steal things from houses or stores during a war or after a disaster
      n[U] stolen money or goods
      Throughout its existence, officers and units of the 6th Army (a German field army) were deeply implicated in massacres, rapes, looting and mass starvation in all theatres of their operation.
      Göring worked closely with the Reichsleiter Rosenberg Taskforce, an organization tasked with the looting of artwork and cultural material from Jewish collections, libraries, and museums throughout Europe.
      In 2003, when the National Museum of Iraq was looted, he was chosen to lead the investigation.
      A U.S. soldier examines a solid gold statue, part of Hermann Goering's private loot, found by the 7th U.S. Army in a mountainside cave, on May 25, 1945.
      Who am I gonna meet in a blackout? Power company guys? Eligible looters?
      Compare these words: loot, pillage, plunder, and ransack.
      n[U] timber ¶ unwanted pieces of furniture
      v[IT] give as a burden or an inconvenience to sb ¶ move in a slow, heavy and awkward way
      Scarlett O'Hara is a strong character who doesn’t hesitate to manage even the lumber mill business.
      That loft up there is a sort of lumber room without any lumber.
      Six years later, James, now using the alias Logan, works as a lumberjack (sb whose job is to cut down trees) in Canada, where he lives with his girlfriend Kayla Silverfox, a schoolteacher.
      It's also a good one to visit if you're lumbered with a larger group of pre-teens - children under 12 get in for free.
      Coal trucks lumbered past belching fumes, and an environment that just over a week ago we would have regarded as quiet countryside appeared busy and overdeveloped.
      n[C] a hollow place in a wall, often made to hold a statue ¶ suitable or comfortable position, place, job etc ¶ an opportunity to sell a particular product to a particular group of people
      The word "niche" derives from the Latin nidus or nest, via the French niche.
      Kiwis are considered "unbirdlike" and fill an ecological niche elsewhere occupied by mammals such as anteaters and hedgehogs.
      After years of searching, I've finally found my niche in life - doing projects and work I'm passionate about.
      India is a very comfortable place for us because we have already made a niche here.
      A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focused.
      Despite offering the lowest incentives in the industry, the niche brand reported the industry's biggest percentage jump in U.S. new-vehicle sales.
      n[C] natural or artificial lake used as a source or store of water ¶ a large quantity of sth that can be used ¶ sth where a liquid is kept before it is used
      Reservoirs may be created in river valleys by the construction of a dam or may be built by excavation in the ground or by conventional construction techniques such as brickwork or cast concrete.
      Reservoirs may change the local micro-climate increasing humidity and reducing extremes of temperature, especially in dry areas.
      The term reservoir may also be used to describe naturally occurring underground reservoirs such as those beneath an oil or water well.
      By direct military intervention, the West had regained total control over the Middle Eastern oil reservoir.
      He had not yet begun to exhaust the reservoirs of his resources.
      It was simply a metal variation, of the early Greek and Roman oil reservoir lamp, once made from pottery.
      There was a very large iron oil reservoir a few yards from the office, something like the largest-sized cylindrical steam boilers, supported on a strong wooden framework.
      n[C] a man who is believed to have magic powers ¶ sb who is very good at sth
      Gandalf is a character in J. R. R. Tolkien's novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. He appears as a wizard.
      Merlin is a legendary figure best known as the wizard featured in the Arthurian legend.
      As a supremely talented wizard, Dumbledore displays numerous examples of extraordinary powers.
      Greenspan was once regarded as a financial wizard but is now blamed by some for the crisis.
      Wizards and templates can help you create brochures, calendars, and Web pages.
      n[C] U-shaped thin wire or piece of metal
      v[T] fasten sth with ~
      adj main or standard
      n[C] main food or product ¶ a large or important part of sth
      A staple is a type of two-pronged fastener, usually metal, used for joining or binding materials together.
      Large staples might be used with a hammer or staple gun for masonry, roofing, corrugated boxes and other heavy-duty uses.
      Smaller paper staples are used with a stapler to attach pieces of paper together; such staples are a permanent and durable fastener for paper documents, unlike the paper clip.
      The legs of a staple can be allowed to protrude out the back side and folded over to provide greater binding than the friction of straight legs.
      Surgical staples are used for the closing of incisions and wounds, a function also performed by sutures.
      Nina stapled the order form to the invoice.
      Flax, he believed, would become New Zealand's staple product.
      Kimchi is one of Korea's staples.
      Bread, potatoes and other staples continue to rise in price.
      Royal gossip is a staple of the tabloid press.
      n[C] a raised flat platform ¶ one of a series of flat areas cut out of a hill like steps, and used to grow crops
      v[T] form sth into ~
      A terrace as an architectural term is an external, raised, open, flat area in either a landscape (such as a park or garden), around a building, or as a roof terrace on a flat roof.
      Terraces are used primarily for leisure activity such as sitting, strolling, or resting.
      In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming.
      On our way to reach these hill tribe villages we passed through numerous terraced rice fields perched on steep hillsides, where huge buffalo graze and watch white-skinned tourists suspiciously.
      A terrace or terracing in sporting terms refers to the traditional standing area of a sports stadium, particularly in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. A terrace is a series of concrete steps which are erected for spectators to stand on.
      In architecture and city planning, a terrace(d) house, terrace, row house, linked house or townhouse (though the last term can also refer to patio houses) is a style of medium-density housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, where a row of identical or mirror-image houses share side walls.
      n[C] the flat and soft part of a bed that you lie on
      Early mattresses contained a variety of natural materials including straw, feathers or horse hair.
      In North America the typical mattress sold today is an innerspring; however there is increasing interest in all-foam beds and so-called hybrid beds, which include both an innerspring and high-end foams.
      In 2000, Simmons Bedding Co. invented the "no-flip" mattress by removing the padding on one side of the mattress, a construction style that has since been adopted by most North American mattress manufacturers.
      They're flipping Monica's mattress.
      Despair fills the mattress showroom. My kingdom is suddenly without a queen. I'm so depressed I'm going to slash my prices! Check it out! Four ninety-nine for a pillow top queen set!
      If this bed isn't new, then how come there is plastic on the mattress?