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      adj not important/relating to
      Big mining ventures and foreign capital rendered poor farmers irrelevant.
      The absorption of heat by atmospheric CO2 is irrelevant to the detectors on the missiles.
      Whether or not he's head of the CIA is almost irrelevant to him testifying.
      This is so generic as to be irrelevant.
      On the plus side, it was a good kiss. Reasonable technique, no extraneous (irrelevant) spittle. On the other hand, no arousal.
      Dr. Gablehauser, I have a series of important multi-loop calculations and simulations to run. All he's doing is reducing irrelevant data.
      n[C] an article of jewellery which is worn around the neck
      "The Necklace" or "The Diamond Necklace" is a short story by Guy De Maupassant.
      "How can I accept a restaurant from Peter? I couldn't even accept a necklace from Stu Vincent in the seventh grade," said Monica.
      Rachel, you remember the gold necklace I gave you last year? Can I see it?
      "Here it is. I love it. I wear it all the time," Rachel comes out of her bedroom with a silver necklace.
      My parents are making me choose between money and you. I choose you. No, I think we'll have to return the car. And that necklace, yeah, that, too.
      Rajesh, do you wanna make a bracelet for your mom to go with the necklace?
      adj flat and level
      also a noun
      If the sign is overhead, the sign shall be mounted at least 8 feet above the facility, and there shall be at least 2 feet of horizontal clearance between the pole and the edge of the bicycle facility.
      The horizontal axis represents time.
      It eventually would discard the CEO position in favor of a horizontal management committee made of numerous partners.
      Leonard told Joey: "There's no urgency. The scene is a struggle, it's a race. Also, what you did was horizontal. Don't be afraid to explore the vertical. And don't learn the words. Let the words learn you."
      Medium ruled (or College ruled) paper has 9/32 in (7.1 mm) spacing between horizontal lines.
      A ledge is a horizontal projection forming a narrow shelf on a wall.
      A tiller is horizontal bar used to turn the rudder of a small sailing-boat.
      The interface is pretty simple. You put your horizontal X coordinate here, vertical Y coordinate here. When you're happy with those, you press this button.
      v[IT] increase, enlarge, or intensify
      If she feels attacked she'll get defensive and that will escalate into a fight.
      If we don't control them, they can easily escalate into a 'time bomb' waiting to explode.
      It did not, however escalate into a Third World War because of many reasons.
      Fighting between the two sides escalated sharply.
      An escalator consists of a motor-driven chain of individual, linked steps that move up or down on tracks, allowing the step treads to remain horizontal.
      v[IT] turn over or upside-down, or make sth do this ¶ overrule or overthrow
      If something overturns or if you overturn it, it turns upside down or on its side.
      Police say tragic South Korean ferry overturned due to excess cargo on board.
      She completely overturned my preconceptions about movie stars.
      If someone in authority overturns a legal decision, they officially decide that that decision is incorrect or not valid.
      Sergey Aleynikov, an ex-Goldman-Sachs programmer, spent a year in prison for downloading source code of the firm's high-speed trading software before his sentence was overturned in February.
      To overturn a government or system means to remove it or destroy it.
      Syria's sandwiched in between these Sunni powers that want to destroy and overturn this regime.
      n[UC] a comparison between things which have similar features
      To understand sound, consider the analogy in which a stone is dropped into a body of water.
      Rachel came up with an analogy about a little goldfish in a pond that freezes over in the winter.
      We could make an analogy with the day night cycle.
      The way the mainstream macroeconomics textbooks build their flawed narrative is to draw an analogy between the household and the sovereign government and to assert that the microeconomic constraints that are imposed on individual or household choices apply equally without qualification to the government.
      This is perhaps best explained by analogy with the United States Senate.
      v[T] be a sign that sth is going to happen ¶ say publicly that sb/sth will be good or important
      n[C] a sign that sth will happen ¶ sb who carried messages from a ruler
      The morning is heralded by a crowing rooster as Monica and Rachel sleep in their beds.
      The 21st century has often been heralded as the "Asian century" - a century characterized by economic development, increased political power, and unprecedented social change.
      President Obama's 2010 health reform law has been heralded by its supporters as strongly beneficial for young Americans.
      President Obama is unshaken in his presumption that he is a herald of a new era, a revolutionary on the models of Jefferson, Lincoln, and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
      Heralds were originally messengers sent by monarchs or noblemen to convey messages or proclamations - in this sense being the predecessors of the modern diplomats.
      In the Hundred Years' War, French heralds challenged King Henry V to fight.
      Ahh, the bat. Ambassador of darkness, flitting out of his cave like a winged herald, sightless specter of the macabre.
      A courier is a messenger who carries news or important papers.
      adj done on purpose, planned, intentional, not accidental ¶ slow and careful
      v[I] think or talk carefully, ponder
      I see it as a deliberate, long range attempt, to bring down our present organization.
      It may look like a reckless tactic, but it was cool and deliberate.
      Professor Spafford speaks in a slow and deliberate way but he pees fast.
      Blueberry muffin or cranberry muffin? Rachel deliberated for hours and hours.
      Judge Koh will deliberate on those issues over the next few weeks.
      adj comparing different things ¶ measured or judged by comparing, relative ¶ (of adjectives and adverbs) expressing 'more'
      n[C] the form of an adjective or adverb that expresses 'more'
      It would also publish comparative data on private-sector vs. public-sector compensation.
      What the numbers say: These comparative figures are indicative.
      His dissertation is a comparative study on the use and treatment of the Indigenous peoples of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland and South Africa during the First World War.
      A comparative analysis shows that populations of seals, sea lions and sea otters increased in British Columbia following commercial whaling, unlike the declines noted in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands.
      His father had moved to the town in 1855 and installed the family in a fashionable middle class house in 221B Baker Street where they lived in comparative comfort until 1861.
      He attributes their comparative immunity to their simple code of life, and comparative freedom from anxiety, worry, and intemperance.
      Since when owning a small apartment is a sign of comparative wealth?
      'Prettier' is the comparative form of 'pretty' and 'more beautiful' is the comparative of 'beautiful'.
      n[C] a glass or plastic box containing objects for people to look at ¶ an event or situation that presents sb's abilities or the good qualities of sth in an attractive way
      also a verb
      A display case (also called a showcase or display cabinet, or a vitrine) is a cabinet with one or often more transparent glass or plastic sides and/or top, used to display objects for viewing, for example in an exhibition, museum, house, retail store, or restaurant.
      This is not an ideal showcase for public transportation as a solution to the energy problem.
      "It's not that big a deal, it's just a one-night showcase, but they invite a lot of casting people and agents," said Penny.
      Jack was looking for a film role that would showcase all his talents.
      Phoebe slowly walks over to Chandler, showcasing her bra.
      v[T] live or reside in
      The woods are inhabited by many wild animals.
      Both species jointly inhabit five different lakes.
      The Negro race everywhere is an oppressed race, whether it's a minority in the USA or a majority in South Africa or inhabits a so-called independent state, Liberia.
      Earth is inhabited by millions of different organisms, all of which likely arose from one early life-form that came into existence about 3.5 billion years ago.
      Lord Voldemort gained physical form by inhabiting snakes, though he disliked doing so because the bodies of such animals were ill-equipped to perform magic.
      n[C] a company of performers that includes clowns, acrobats, trained animals etc ¶ a situation in which there is too much excitement or noise ¶ a round area where several streets meet ¶ a place in ancient Rome where races etc took place
      A circus is a company of performers that may include clowns, acrobats, trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians, hoopers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, unicyclists and other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists.
      The term 'circus' also describes the performance which has followed various formats through its 250 year modern history.
      Can we go to the circus tomorrow?
      There is no doubt in my mind that the media circus around Homolka these days is doing nobody any good.
      Piccadilly Circus is a road junction and public space of London's West End in the City of Westminster.
      The Circus Maximus is an ancient Roman chariot racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy.
      The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.
      The Colosseum could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators, and was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology.
      n[CU] a tube used for putting water onto fires, gardens etc ¶ stockings, socks and tights
      v[T] wash or pour water on sth using a ~
      A hose is a flexible hollow tube designed to carry fluids from one location to another.
      Hoses are also sometimes called pipes (the word pipe usually refers to a rigid tube, whereas a hose is usually a flexible one), or more generally tubing.
      Pantyhose (called tights in the United Kingdom and a few other countries) are sheer, close-fitting legwear, covering the wearer's body from the waist to the feet.
      A stocking (also known as hose, especially in a historical context) is a close-fitting, variously elastic garment covering the foot and lower part of the leg.
      Hosiery, also referred to as legwear, describes garments worn directly on the feet and legs.
      And there are a lot of violent images associated with the Civil Rights Movement - police setting dogs and fire hoses on peaceful protesters, Dr. King's assassination, but these are important points of our history.
      When you hose something or someone down, you clean them using a hose.
      In Kuwait, one girl aged 20 had to get up at 4am sweep and hose down the driveway, clean the cars, then start preparing breakfast for the family.
      n[C] the end of a sleeve or the bottom of a trouser leg (turn-up)
      v[T] hit lightly
      A cuff is an extra layer of fabric at the lower edge of the sleeve of a garment covering the arms. In US usage the word may also refer to the end of the leg of a pair of trousers.
      The functional purpose of turned cuffs is to protect the material from fraying and, when frayed, to allow the cuffs to be repaired or replaced without major changes to the garment.
      "How long do you want the cuffs?" Joey's tailor asked.
      Rachel felt Joshua's pulse when she was him some cufflinks.
      Ross is fidgeting with the cuffs of his sweater while Mike blows his cheeks out.
      I could pretend to strip, but that's gonna cost extra. Ok, here's the extras, handcuffs, spanking...
      Rachel with furry cuffs, interesting...
      Rachel unlocks and opens the door to reveal a half-naked Chandler cuffed to the chair.
      The older cat turned sinuously and cuffed him, her claws out just enough to leave a thin red line on his neck.
      As Sam bent to get the comic book his father cuffed him sharply across the head. "Don't let me have to tell you again."
      An off the cuff remark or speaking is made without being prepared or thought about in advance (Compare improvisatory, impetuous, and spontaneous).
      n[UC] a sudden, severe, and involuntary muscle contraction, spasm ¶ severe pain in the stomach
      v[T] get or cause ~ in a muscle ¶ hinder, restrict
      Causes of cramping include hyperflexion, hypoxia, exposure to large changes in temperature, dehydration, or low blood salt.
      Muscle cramps may also be a symptom or complication of pregnancy, kidney disease, thyroid disease, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia or hypocalcemia (as conditions), restless-leg syndrome, varicose veins, and multiple sclerosis.
      "Ow, ow, ow, ow, leg cramp, leg cramp, leg cramp," groaned Carol.
      I got a cramp in my calf.
      I get a cramp in a neck muscle from time to time.
      Musician's cramp (a similar focal dystonia which affects some 1% of instrumentalists) has historically been grouped together with writer's cramp because of this and their common task-specificity.
      In medicine, a spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as a heart, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice.
      I had stomach cramps though out that time period.
      I was jolted at 6 am by the kind of cramps that make you want to die.
      Nothing cramps your life up like rigidity.
      adj causing destruction or damage
      I worry about the destructive effect that violent films may have on children.
      Clearing trees by burning is highly destructive of the forest environment.
      There may be a serious question to prevent destructive price cutting which many business organizations have insisted were necessary.
      In the very nature of the processes of recovery we must avoid the destructive influences of the past.
      For example, parenting is a role that requires a certain amount of self-sacrifice and giving a child's needs a high priority, although a parent could, nevertheless, still be codependent towards his/her own children if the caretaking or parental sacrifice reached unhealthy or destructive levels.
      Unresolved patterns of codependency can lead to more serious problems like alcoholism, drug addiction, eating disorders, sex addiction, and other self-destructive or self-defeating behaviors.
      n[C] flexible part of a whip ¶ a hit with a ~ ¶ a sudden or violent movement
      v[T] hit with a ~ or violent force ¶ bind
      There are also whips which combine both a firm stick (the stock or handle) and a flexible line (the lash or thong), such as hunting whips.
      Davy Jones made Bootstrap Bill Turner lash his son, Will Turner.
      Sailors were often sentenced to the lash on HMS Bounty.
      Caning is a widely used form of legal corporal punishment in Singapore.
      He lashed back at those who accused him of corruption.
      Rain was lashing down in heavy sheets and visibility was little more than a handful of yards.
      If an animal lashes its tail or its tail lashes, it moves it from side to side quickly and strongly, especially because it is angry.
      With a lash of its tail, the panther sprang at its prey.
      Rachel batted her eyelashes flirtatiously.
      She lowered her lashes in sudden embarrassment.
      There were many aircraft on board that were simply lashed to the ship because they could not fit in the hangar.
      Compare lash and leash.
      n[C] a living stump of a tree ¶ seat without a back or arms ¶ feces
      The origins of stools are lost in time although they are known to be one of the earliest forms of wooden furniture.
      Bar stools are a type of tall stool, often with a foot rest, which because of their height and narrowness are designed for seating in a public house or bar.
      However, bar stools are becoming more popular in homes, usually placed at the kitchen counter or at a home bar.
      A footstool (foot stool, footrest, foot rest) is a piece of furniture or a support used to elevate the foot.
      One of the most common stool tests, the fecal occult blood test can be used to diagnose many conditions that cause bleeding in the gastrointestinal system including colorectal cancer or stomach cancer.
      n[CU] an occurrence by chance of two or more events at one time ¶ when two ideas, opinions etc are the same
      Oh, you wanna hear a freaky coincidence? Guess who's doing laundry there too?
      It was not by coincidence that all religions were born in the vast wildernesses that pre-date modern society.
      His car just happened to fall onto railway tracks and, by sheer coincidence, induce multiple deaths from two passing trains.
      At first, I just thought it was pure coincidence.
      By more than coincidence, the Iranian hostages returned on that same day.
      There was a coincidence of interests between Germany and the Soviet Union.
      v[I] move away from the place you should be
      also an adjective and a noun
      The airplane strayed into Korean airspace.
      The ship strayed off course during the storm and was wrecked. Gulliver was washed ashore.
      This meeting is beginning to stray from the point.
      It seems to me that physics is straying into the world of philosophy because there is nothing left to measure in the natural occurring world.
      If your mind or your eyes stray, you do not concentrate on or look at one particular subject, but start thinking about or looking at other things.
      We would only look in each other’s eyes, no-one's eyes strayed below eye-height.
      A stray dog or cat has wandered away from its owner's home.
      Scamp, Lady and Tramp's son, saw a pack of stray dogs harassing the dogcatcher and became intrigued.
      Waifs and strays are children or animals that do not have a home.
      n[C] a violently rotating column of air
      The area where I work just outside Toronto was hit by a tornado.
      Tornadoes are often referred to as twisters or cyclones, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology, in a wider sense, to name any closed low pressure circulation.
      Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but they are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust.
      Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 177 km/h per hour, are about 76 m across, and travel several kilometers before dissipating.
      The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 483 km/h per hour, stretch more than 3.2 km across, and stay on the ground for more than 100 km.
      Twister is a 1996 American disaster drama film starring Helen Hunt and Bill Paxton as storm chasers researching tornadoes.
      Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by names such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone.
      A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops in the western part of the North Pacific Ocean between 180° and 100°E.
      The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the US and Canadian prairies during the 1930s.
      During World War II, about 3,860 kamikaze pilots were killed, and about 19% of kamikaze attacks managed to hit a ship.
      n[U] the process by which soil and rock are removed from the Earth's crust ¶ the process by which sth is gradually reduced or destroyed
      Erosion is the process by which soil and rock are removed from the Earth's crust by exogenic water flow or wind, and then transported to, and deposited in, other locations.
      The Grand Canyon is the result of erosion which creates one of the most complete geologic columns on the planet.
      The rock types in the Grand Canyon are rocks that get harder with age and are extremely resistant to erosion.
      Coastal erosion is the wearing away of land and the removal of beach or dune sediments by wave action, tidal currents, wave currents, drainage or high winds.
      While erosion is a natural process, human activities have increased by 10-40 times the rate at which erosion is occurring globally.
      This is another example of the erosion of Canada's democracy.
      n[U] lack of knowledge or information about sth
      His dislike is based on ignorance.
      I would have remained in ignorance if you hadn't mentioned it.
      The ignorance is astounding on this post.
      People may, through ignorance or self-deception, fail to understand or properly acknowledge the source of their deepest commitments and convictions.
      "Ignorance is bliss" means "if you do not know about something, you cannot worry about it".
      It is very easy to remain in ignorance, but it needs guts to see the truth.
      She remained in blissful ignorance of these events.
      n[U] holding opinions which differ from common or officially held ones
      v[I] have or express opinions that are different from those that are officially accepted
      Dissent is a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to a prevailing idea (e.g., a government's policies) or an entity (e.g., an individual or political party which supports such policies).
      A dissenting opinion (or dissent) is an opinion in a legal case written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment.
      When not necessarily referring to a legal decision, this can also be referred to as a minority report.
      Minority Report is a 2002 American science fiction thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg and loosely based on the short story of the same name by Philip K. Dick.
      Justice John Paul Stevens dissented. He argued that the FCC need explain why it changed its policy.
      English Dissenters were Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
      Compare consent and dissent.
      adj concerning the quality of sth rather than the quantity
      It is not just the amount of knowledge which distinguishes a young child from an older child. There is actually a qualitative difference in their thoughts.
      Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts.
      Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior.
      The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often used than large samples.
      In the conventional view, qualitative methods produce information only on the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only propositions (informed assertions).
      Quantitative methods can then be used to seek empirical support for such research hypotheses.