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      spec`ta`cle
      'spektəkəl
      n[CU] a very impressive show or scene ¶ a strange, embarrassing, or interesting sight
      -
      But viewers had to wrap up warm to see the dramatic spectacle as clear skies meant temperatures early this morning plunged.
      All the passengers were on deck enjoying the novel and magnificent spectacle.
      The earth boomed, toppling apartment buildings and snapping sturdy beams on the freeways. It was a sad spectacle of death and destruction.
      Rachel made a spectacle of herself by wearing a hideous pink bride's maid dress and hanging her asses out.
      Glasses, also known as eyeglasses (formal) or spectacles, are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes.
      How to reduce the weight and thickness of spectacle lenses?
      "I ordered the smoked salmon appetizer, but I can't see it, I can't see it!" said Phoebe, peering through her spectacles.
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      rot
      rɔt
      v[IT] decay, decompose
      also a noun
      -
      Sugars rot your teeth and encourage a calorie-rich but nutrient-low diet that contributes to obesity.
      The forest floor is usually dark and damp. It contains a layer of rotting leaves and dead animals called litter.
      The roof timbers were affected by rot and insect attack.
      Dry rot is wood decay caused by certain species of fungi that digest parts of the wood which give the wood strength and stiffness.
      It's a bit like Animal Farm - it starts with little things, then the rot sets in (conditions begin to get worse).
      He may not have been convicted of murder, but we all know he's responsible for 4 dead women. May Thomas Dee Huskey die soon and rot in hell.
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      con`sol`i`date
      kən'sɔlideit
      v[IT] strengthen ¶ combine, join
      -
      He consolidated his lead in the National League when he won the latest round.
      France will be hoping to consolidate their position when they tackle Argentina and Samoa later this month.
      With this new movie he has consolidated his position as the country's leading director.
      Annual measures are useful for keeping track of aspects of your business where you measure or consolidate the information on an annual basis.
      Second, Manulife One allows you to consolidate your debts at a competitive low rate(s).
      That finding informed the likes of the Henry Fords, Rockefellers, J.P. Morgans of this world to consolidate their business empires by applying the principles of centralized planning.
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      con`duc`tor
      kən'dʌktə
      n[C] sb who directs the performance of an orchestra, a chorus etc ¶ sb whose job is to collect payments from passengers on a bus, or a train guard ¶ substance that conducts heat or electricity
      -
      The primary duties of the conductor are to unify performers, set the tempo, execute clear preparations and beats, and to listen critically and shape the sound of the ensemble.
      Conductors act as guides to the orchestras and/or choirs they conduct.
      Until the 1970s and early 1980s, conductors, or clippies, were a common feature of many local bus services in larger towns and cities in the UK and Ireland.
      Conductors were portrayed in the British TV series On The Buses.
      A conductor (UK: guard) is a railway train crew member responsible for operational and safety duties that do not involve actual operation of the train.
      The conductor title is most common in North American railway operations, but the role is common worldwide under various job titles.
      For example, a wire is an electrical conductor that can carry electricity along its length.
      Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
      An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely, and therefore make it very hard to conduct an electric current under the influence of an electric field.
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      reef
      ri:f
      n[C] a rock, sandbar, or other feature lying beneath the surface of the water
      v[T] make a sail smaller
      -
      Many reefs result from abiotic processes-deposition of sand, wave erosion planing down rock outcrops, and other natural processes-but the best-known reefs are the coral reefs of tropical waters developed through biotic processes dominated by corals and calcareous algae.
      The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from outer space and is the world's biggest single structure made by living organisms.
      Artificial reefs such as shipwrecks are sometimes created to enhance physical complexity on generally featureless sand bottoms in order to attract a diverse assemblage of organisms, especially fish.
      The reef knot or square knot is an ancient and simple binding knot used to secure a rope or line around an object.
      Reefing is a sailing maneuver intended to reduce the area of a sail on a sailboat or sailing ship, which can improve the ship's stability.
      They set sail with the sails reefed against the strong winds.
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      proph`et
      'prɔfit
      n[C] sb who is believed to speak through divine inspiration ¶ sb who predicts sth
      -
      In religion, a prophet is an individual who is claimed to have been contacted by the supernatural or the divine, and to speak for them, serving as an intermediary with humanity, delivering this newfound knowledge from the supernatural entity to other people.
      The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy.
      Muhammad, also known as Al-Nabi (The Prophet), is regarded by Muslims as the last prophet of God.
      Al-Anbiya, "The Prophets", is the 21st chapter of the Qur'an.
      The Daily Prophet is the most widely read daily newspaper in Britain's wizard community.
      "The Prophets" is the Jewish holy men whose writings form part of the Old Testament (first part of the Bible).
      A prophet of doom is a person who holds or expresses pessimistic views about something, especially about the future of the world.
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      e`rode
      i'rəud
      v[IT] gradually destroy
      -
      If rock or soil erodes or is eroded by the weather, sea, or wind, it cracks and breaks so that it is gradually destroyed.
      High tides are eroding the cliff.
      It's eroding several feet a year.
      The legs of the Sphinx were eroded away.
      If someone's authority, right, or confidence erodes or is eroded, it is gradually destroyed or removed.
      Repeated exam failure had eroded his confidence.
      If the value of something erodes or is eroded by something such as inflation or age, its value decreases.
      Inflation will erode the value of our savings.
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      wal`nut
      'wɔ:lnʌt
      n[CU] an edible nut that shaped like a human brain ¶ the tree or wood
      -
      Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree commonly used for the meat after fully ripening.
      During the ripening process the husk will become brittle and the shell hard and encloses the kernel or meat, which is usually made up of two halves separated by a partition.
      Walnuts are a nutrient-dense food: 100 grams of walnuts contain 15.2 grams of protein, 65.2 grams of fat, and 6.7 grams of dietary fiber.
      China was the world's largest producer of walnuts, with a total harvest of 1.06 million metric tonnes.
      The pecan is native to south-central North America.
      A hazelnut is the nut of the hazel.
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      dye
      dai
      n[UC] a substance used to change the color of sth
      also a verb
      -
      A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
      Both dyes and pigments appear to be colored because they absorb some wavelengths of light more than others.
      In contrast with a dye, a pigment generally is insoluble, and has no affinity for the substrate.
      Ancient peoples used fermentation to make beer and used plants to produce dyes and medicines.
      A good way to prevent dye discoloration is to put a thin layer of petroleum jelly or any oil-based preparation around the hairline.
      To prevent dye from creeping down, apply petroleum jelly to the hairline.
      Someone who has had a dye job has used a substance to change the color of their hair.
      Since the picture was taken, Heidi has dyed her hair.
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      pil`grim
      'pilgrim
      n[C] a traveler who is on a journey to a holy place
      -
      The great Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca (now in Saudi Arabia), is obligatory for every able Muslim.
      More than two million pilgrims visit Mecca annually for the Hajj.
      A modern phenomenon is the cultural pilgrimage, which while also about personal journey, involves a secular response. Destinations for such pilgrims can include historic sites of national or cultural importance, and can be defined as places "of cultural significance: an artist's home, the location of a pivotal event or an iconic destination."
      Pilgrims or Pilgrim Fathers, is a name commonly applied to early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States.
      The first use of the word pilgrims for the Mayflower passengers appeared in William Bradford's Of Plymouth Plantation.
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      den
      den
      n[C] animal's hidden home ¶ a place where secret or illegal activities happen ¶ a secret place where kids go to play ¶ a room where sb can be undisturbed
      -
      The story of Daniel in the lions' den is found in the sixth chapter of the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew Bible.
      The story of Sir Xi Men in the vixens' den is not well-known.
      It worked for Las Vegas, but unless you're planning to open up a gambling den, let's get back to reality.
      The novel centers on an opium den in Bombay.
      I had a treehouse named Sky Den when I was a kid.
      "This place is mine!" Ross growled like an old lion defending his den and then he retreated to his den leaving Monica stunned.
      In academic administrations such as colleges or universities, a dean is the person with significant authority over a specific academic unit, or over a specific area of concern, or both. Deans are occasionally found in middle schools and high schools as well.
      Alien's Lair plays in the final stage of Contra.
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      mo`tor`cy`cle
      'məutəsaikəl
      n[C] a two or three wheeled motor vehicle
      -
      The first commercial design for a self-propelled bicycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of and built by Edward Butler in England in 1884.
      In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, and the first to be called a motorcycle.
      "You know a motorcycle is a chopper and you're Chip," said Monica.
      A chopper is a type of motorcycle that is either modified from an original motorcycle design ("chopped") or built from scratch to have a unique hand-crafted appearance.
      Howard has a two-cylinder scooter with a basket in the front.
      A scooter is a motorcycle with step-through frame and a platform for the operator's feet.
      Mike disobeys his parents and rides a dirt bike.
      There are various types of off-road motorcycles, also known as dirt bikes, specially designed for off-road events.
      Harley-Davidson Inc, often abbreviated H-D or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer.
      German troops on motorcycles with sidecars invaded the Soviet Union during Operation Barbarossa.
      A sidecar is a one-wheeled device attached to the side of a motorcycle, scooter, or bicycle, producing a three-wheeled vehicle.
      Germany during World War II equipped its military with a wide range of motorcycles with engine displacements of up to 800 cc. The more common motorcycle brands used in combat were Zündapp, BMW, DKW and NSU.
      The motorcycle skidded to stop and Laura Croft came off it.
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      ir`ri`gate
      'irigeit
      v[T] supply water to an area of land ¶ wash a wound with a flow of liquid
      -
      Untreated wastewater is used to irrigate land, with the result that 1.4 million hectares are now contaminated with metals and toxins.
      Twenty-percent of US irrigated farmland depends on it.
      Saudi billionaire Al Amoudi is constructing a 20-mile canal to irrigate 10,000 hectares to grow rice.
      The use of the Nile for irrigation dates back to at least 4000 B.C. in Egypt.
      We became wound care specialists. We learned the proper way to irrigate the wound and re-dress it.
      Colonic irrigation is a medical procedure in which a person's colon is washed by injecting water or other fluids into it.
      It really irritates her to have a colonic irrigation.
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      ro`bust
      rə'bʌst
      adj strong and healthy ¶ strong and unlikely to break ¶ strong and unlikely to have problems ¶ firm and determined ¶ having a lot of flavor
      -
      Cyril Yeeda is a robust young man with a charming smile and ready wit.
      After a month or so on a strengthening diet, he felt robust enough to try a few steps.
      Lithium-ion batteries are generally more robust and lighter but are far more expensive.
      The CL-S700R features a robust metal housing protecting the printer's components against dirt and damage.
      It's a spacious car with a dependable and robust engine.
      "Canada's strong and robust economy, with its enormous energy potential, represents a tremendous opportunity for American business and a crucial element of continental energy security," the Prime Minister said.
      A more robust approach by the government is needed immediately.
      We found no robust proof that financial globalization helped countries to grow more quickly.
      He is confident that his model is robust enough to be expanded indefinitely.
      Strong meat needs a robust wine to go with it and the Moss Wood Mornington Peninsula 2009 Pinot Noir from Australia did the job admirably.
      In such a poor country, food has traditionally been robust, spicy but lacking in sophistication.
      Flavorful ginger, garlic and a medley of spices produce a robust heat, while also providing an array of health benefits.
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      tomb
      tu:m
      n[C] a large grave
      -
      Chinese archaeologists said that after five years of research they have confirmed that there is a 30-meter-high building buried in the tomb of Qinshihuang, Chinese first emperor more than 2,000 years ago.
      The Ming tombs are a collection of imperial mausoleums built by the Chinese Ming dynasty emperors.
      The Western Qing tombs are located some 140 km (87 mi) southwest of Beijing in Yi County, Hebei Province.
      Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb over a 10 to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC.
      The tomb is the central focus of the entire complex of the Taj Mahal.
      Angelina Jolie achieved international fame as a result of her portrayal of videogame heroine Lara Croft in Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001).
      Ross doesn't want his tombstone to read, "Ross Gellar, Three Divorces."
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      ep`ic
      'epik
      n[C] a poem etc that tells a long story about brave actions and exciting events
      adj of or like an ~, heroic, grand
      -
      An epic is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation.
      An epic is traditionally a genre of poetry, known as epic poetry.
      However in modern terms, epic is often extended to other art forms, such as epic theatre, films, music, novels, plays, television shows, and video games, wherein the story has a theme of grandeur and heroism, just as in epic poetry.
      The Iliad is an ancient Greek epic poem traditionally attributed to Homer.
      Ben-Hur is a 1959 American epic historical drama film.
      Wilson, Dick (1971). The Long March 1935: The Epic of Chinese Communism's Survival. Penguin Press. pp. 283 pages. ISBN 0-14-006113-4.
      They died especially during the months of that epic struggle known as the 'Flanders Offensive' of 1917 when the British and French tried to roll back the German positions.
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      in`ter`im
      'intərim
      adj intended to be used or accepted until sth permanent exists, temporary
      also a noun
      -
      Provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a very large government.
      After the end of the crop year, July 31, an interim payment and a final payment are paid to farmers, in addition to their initial payment so they will have received 100 percent of the return from the pool for the grain they delivered.
      The review is expected to take six months, with an interim report issued halfway through.
      Fortunately, my good friends at Amazon were able to deliver a new laptop a couple of days later, but in the interim I had to suffer with only my office workstation (I really don't like to go the office and try to avoid it whenever possible), my iPad (which revealed its shortcomings as a productivity tool) and my Android phone (which sucks me into countless wasted hours playing games, which is about all it is good for).
      "In the interim" means "in the period of time between two events."
      Rachel's job was done by Gavin in the interim before she returned to work.
      Despite everything that had happened in the interim, they had remained good friends.
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      rum`ble
      'rʌmbəl
      n[C] a long deep sound or series of sounds
      v[I] make a ~
      -
      The current may be against us, and the accelerating thrum of history may just be the rumble of the bulldozers as they push the dirt over our graves.
      Adolf Hitler committed suicide in the distant rumble of gunfire.
      Thought I heard the thunder rumbling in the sky; It was Hitler over Europe, saying: 'They must die'; We were in his mind, my dear, we were in his mind.
      Israel intensified its aerial assaults and sent tanks rumbling toward the Gaza border for a possible invasion.
      Along with the sounds of rumbling freight trains, the air of Elysian Valley was once filled with the aroma of freshly baked bread.
      My stomach is rumbling just thinking about how fantastic our dinner was.
      If someone is rumbled, the truth about them or something they were trying to hide is discovered.
      "Rachel and Ross looks suspicious, do you think they've rumbled us?" Joey asked Phoebe.
      If you say that something rumbles on, you mean that it continues for a long time after it should have been settled.
      Meanwhile, Northern Ireland's goal drought rumbled on.
      It was 5:30 in the morning, and you had rambled on for 18 pages. Front and back!
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      chore
      tʃɔ:
      n[C] small routine task ¶ boring and unpleasant task
      -
      Cleaning out the basement is a real chore.
      It's Rachel's turn to do the chores.
      She's always lying to get out of domestic chores.
      If you are a close friend of the family, a great way to express sympathy is through actions such as: pick up their dry cleaning, shop for groceries, deliver meals, or even help with household chores.
      To one person the occupation of "shopping" feels like "a real chore", to another it's "fun", to yet another it's "a chance to relax".
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      gar`nish
      'ga:niʃ
      v[T] add sth to food or drink to decorate it
      also a noun
      -
      Garnish it with fresh coriander and serve hot with rice.
      Sushi may be garnished with baran, a type of plastic grass or leaf.
      A garnish is an item or substance used as a decoration or embellishment accompanying a prepared food dish or drink.
      A garnish makes food or drink items more visually appealing.
      Sometimes a garnish and a condiment will be used together to finish the presentation of a dish.
      Cocktail garnishes are decorative ornaments that add character or style to a mixed drink, most notably to cocktails.
      Garnishment is an American legal order for collecting a monetary judgment on behalf of a plaintiff from a defendant.
      Maybe it's Sergeant Sagittarius coming back to flirt some more. Perhaps he didn't tarnish the badge enough.
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      ad`mi`ral
      'ædmərəl
      n[C] the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers
      -
      Chester William Nimitz was a Fleet Admiral of the United States Navy.
      An admiral of the fleet (also known as fleet admiral or grand admiral) is a military naval officer of the highest rank.
      A vice admiral is typically senior to a rear admiral and junior to an admiral.
      Vice Admiral Halsey and Enterprise slipped back into Pearl Harbor on the evening of December 8.
      Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.
      A rear admiral at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Chester W. Nimitz was promoted directly to admiral and ordered to replace Admiral Husband Kimmel as Commander-in-Chief of the US Pacific Fleet.
      Isoroku Yamamoto participated in the second London Naval Conference of 1930 as a Rear Admiral and the 1934 London Naval Conference as a Vice Admiral.
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      per`fume
      'pə:fju:m
      n[UC] scent
      also a verb
      -
      Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living spaces "a pleasant scent."
      The precise formulae of commercial perfumes are kept secret.
      Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets of notes, making the harmonious scent accord.
      Eau de Cologne or simply cologne (German: "Water of Cologne") is a perfume originating from Cologne, Germany.
      The term "cologne" can be applied to perfume for men or women, but modern convention dictates, in the English language, that it should be assumed the term is most likely when talking about men's fragrance, though this convention does not exist in German.
      "Is that Penny's perfume I smell?" Howard asked Raj.
      "God, Tiffany, you smell so great!" "It's my new perfume. Why don't you come closer where you can really appreciate it?"
      "What perfume are you wearing?" Penny asked Amy. "It's my dandruff shampoo. I had dry scalp."
      The red (Noir de Blanc) was perfumed like a white might be, with lovely fruit and "white" aromas.
      The exterior facade is nearly entirely consumed by flora, consisting of 4500 plants of some 25 different varieties. To the inside, each floor is perfumed with a specific fragrance, including scents of rosemary, saffron and lavender that vary the experiences within.
      Fragrant Hills Park is an imperial garden at the foot of the Western Mountains in the Haidian District, in the northwestern part of Beijing, China.
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      ar`te`ry
      'a:təri
      n[C] blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
      -
      Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the tissues, except for pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to the lungs for oxygenation.
      Usually veins carry deoxygenated blood to the heart but the pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood.
      Widened pulse pressure is one possible result of advanced disease within the major arteries.
      Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the medical term for an event commonly known as a heart attack.
      An MI occurs when blood stops flowing properly to a part of the heart, and the heart muscle is injured because it is not receiving enough oxygen.
      Usually this is because one of the coronary arteries that supplies blood to the heart develops a blockage due to an unstable buildup of white blood cells, cholesterol and fat.
      The event is called "acute" if it is sudden and serious.
      People who have multiple blockages of their coronary arteries, particularly if they also have diabetes, may also be treated with bypass surgery (CABG).
      Atherosclerosis is the gradual buildup of cholesterol and fibrous tissue in plaques in the wall of arteries (in this case, the coronary arteries), typically over decades.
      The artillery is the part of the army that uses large guns.
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      ad`dict
      'ædikt
      n[C] sb who is unable to stop taking harmful drugs ¶ sb who is very interested in something and spends a lot of time doing it
      -
      I felt like a heroin addict grateful to get my dose this morning.
      She is a morphine addict and mentally unstable.
      I'm a sports addict, recently run my first marathon and somehow managed to gain weight while training.
      Government is a spending addict and needs rehab.
      A co-dependent person is in an unsatisfactory relationship with sb who is ill or an addict, but does not want the relationship to end.
      Twelve years old and addicted to pork, No one thought Monica would marry.
      Chandler: Joey's a sex addict.
      Joey: What?! No I'm not!
      Monica: It's ok! It's good! It's good. It's a disease!
      Joey: No! No! I am not a sex addict!
      Monica: Yes you are! That's the only way to explain all this stuff!
      Chandler: Are you sure Joe? Are you sure you're not just a sex addict?
      Joey: No! And if anyone's a sex addict here, it's Monica! Yeah. Yeah. She has been trying to get me back in the sack ever since London!
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      cos`mic
      'kɔzmik
      adj relating to space or the universe ¶ very big,important,or difficult to understand
      -
      Similar comments can be made about the cosmic microwave background.
      Cosmic rays are immensely high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System.
      By one estimate, as much as 40,000 tons of cosmic dust reaches the Earth's surface every year.
      We are laughably primitive on a cosmic scale despite our arrogance.
      One thing physics has taught us is that events at the smallest possible scales can have consequences of cosmic proportions.
      Compare cosmetic and cosmic.
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