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      n[CU] sacred place ¶ safety and protection ¶ refuge
      A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine.
      In 1470, when the Lancastrians briefly restored Henry VI to the throne, Edward's queen was living in London with several young daughters. She moved with them into Westminster for sanctuary, living there in royal comfort until Edward was restored to the throne in 1471 and giving birth to their first son Edward during that time.
      We raised 16.8 million Kenyan shillings (US$216,000) towards the construction of the fence around the wildlife sanctuary.
      A half sunken crater forms a sanctuary for the Hawaiian Green Sea Turtle.
      After the war, Cairo became a sanctuary for Nazis, who advised the military and the government.
      adv mostly, mainly, largely
      This was because they are predominantly illegal immigrants, working without a green card.
      They were predominantly white and came from families in higher-income brackets.
      The sugar, which is found predominantly in fruit, honey and high-fructose corn syrup, tickles taste cells.
      Sunflower production occurs predominantly in the central regions of the United States.
      The city's population is predominantly Irish.
      He works in a predominantly female environment.
      n[C] any piece of artillery that uses gunpowder or other propellants to launch a projectile
      v[I] hit sb/sth while moving fast
      A cannon is any large tubular firearm designed to fire a heavy projectile over a considerable distance.
      First invented in China, cannon were among the earliest forms of gunpowder artillery, and over time replaced siege engines-among other forms of ageing weaponry-on the battlefield.
      Cannon also transformed naval warfare in the early modern period, as European navies took advantage of their firepower.
      Cannon in general have the form of a truncated cone with an internal cylindrical bore for holding an explosive charge and a projectile. The thickest, strongest, and closed part of the cone is located near the explosive charge.
      Field artillery cannon in Europe and the Americas were initially made most often of bronze, though later forms were constructed of cast iron and eventually steel.
      Canon Inc. is a Japanese imaging and optical products corporation.
      A water cannon is a device that shoots a high-velocity stream of water. They are used in firefighting, large vehicle washing and riot control.
      A water gun (or water pistol, squirt gun, or water blaster) is a type of toy gun designed to shoot water.
      Monica cannoned into Rachel, knocking her to the ground.
      A loose cannon is a person, usually a public figure, who often behaves in a way that nobody can predict.
      adj ridiculous
      Nothing could have been more absurd.
      It would be absurd to undertake too many projects at once or to do a patch of work here and another there without finishing the whole of an individual project.
      It's an absurd idea. I don't know why anyone imagines that it should be so.
      Unheard of! Absurd!
      Of course they're movies. Were you expecting me to come up with an example involving a real-life time machine? That's absurd.
      Compare "absurd" and "preposterous".
      v[I] shake violently with cold, fear etc
      also a noun
      Compare these words: quake, shake, shiver, shudder, tremble, and vibrate.
      The elevator rose with a shudder.
      The ship shuddered as it hit the rocks.
      The train shuddered to a halt.
      The airplane shuddered in the turbulence.
      I shudder to think how much this is all going to cost.
      She shuddered at the thought that she could have been killed.
      She recoiled with a shudder.
      She gave an involuntary shudder.
      A cold shudder ran through her.
      Britain's second biggest supermarket chain has sent a shudder through its rivals by slashing its prices.
      v[I] fly without thrust ¶ move smoothly and quietly ¶ do or achieve things easily
      also a noun
      Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust. It is employed by gliding animals and by aircraft such as gliders.
      Although the human application of gliding flight usually refers to aircraft designed for this purpose, most powered aircraft are capable of gliding without engine power.
      Hang gliding is an air sport in which a pilot flies a light and non-motorized foot-launch aircraft called a hang glider.
      Gliders are delivered to the Cotentin Peninsula by Douglas C-47 Skytrains. 6 June 1944.
      Now you can experience the sights, sounds and thrills of gliding on snow trails in comfort, without learning any new skills.
      The day was spent sailing around catching glimpses of dolphins gliding gracefully through the water.
      Rachel Green seemed to glide through life.
      Even if you just fancy watching your friends taking a glide around, ice skating is a fun Christmas pastime that has become incredibly popular in the UK in recent years.
      adj of, in or forming a series
      also a noun
      A serial killer is, traditionally, a person who has murdered three or more people over a period of more than a month, with down time (a "cooling off period") between the murders.
      Some sources, such as the FBI, disregard the "three or more" criterion and define the term as "a series of two or more murders, committed as separate events, usually, but not always, by one offender acting alone" or, including the vital characteristics, a minimum of two murders.
      The motivation for serial killing is usually based on psychological gratification.
      Seven is a 1995 American detective-psychological thriller film. The detectives find a set of fingerprints, as well as additional clues at both murder scenes, and believe they're chasing a serial killer relating to the seven deadly sins.
      A serial number (also manufacturer's serial number or MSN) is a unique code assigned for identification of a single unit. Although usually called a number, it may include letters, though ending with digits.
      In telecommunication and computer science, serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus. This is in contrast to parallel communication, where several bits are sent as a whole, on a link with several parallel channels.
      Serial communication is used for all long-haul communication and most computer networks, where the cost of cable and synchronization difficulties make parallel communication impractical.
      SATA is Serial ATA, a computer bus technology for connecting hard disks and other devices.
      adj decided by a rule
      All schools must follow the prescribed curriculum.
      The level of toxic chemicals was within the prescribed limits.
      A caucus chair is a Member selected to serve as chair, with duties as prescribed by his or her caucus.
      ISOC would like to stress the absolute need for any enforcement provisions to be prescribed according to the rule of law and due process.
      First you must satisfy an income and assets test. This means that your income and assets must be below prescribed limits.
      Carry them in a pillbox or the pill bottle, and take them as prescribed with meals eaten away from home, instead of waiting until you return home.
      n[CU] a social gathering of relatives, friends etc ¶ coming together again ¶ being united again
      Class of '91 reunion. Ross and Chandler enter.
      The reunion is held every two years.
      They're plenty of people who just see their sisters at Thanksgiving and just see their college roommates at reunions and just see Joey at Burger King.
      This is so much fun. This is like a reunion in the hall.
      Let's have a party to celebrate our reunion.
      We affirm our friendship with the People of Cuba and look toward their reunion with the rest of our hemispheric family.
      Now, Saba and her family travel west, headed for a better life and a longed-for reunion with Jack.
      n[CU] a tall evergreen coniferous tree with wide spreading branches ¶ the hard red wood of the tree
      Cedars share a very similar cone structure with the firs.
      Cedars are very popular ornamental trees.
      Cedar Rapids is the second largest city in Iowa and is the county seat of Linn County.
      You can expect to pay $90 to $300 per square for cedar shingles.
      Cider is an alcoholic drink made from apples.
      n[U] the act or ability of keeping/remembering sth
      Recruitment and retention of students, along with their graduation rates, are among those indicators.
      Recruitment and retention of nurses and nurse aides is a growing concern.
      In medicine, water retention is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the circulatory system or within the tissues or cavities of the body.
      For example, if you're an auditory learner, you might read the notes aloud, or discuss important study points with others, for better retention of information.
      The UN will vote on the retention of sanctions against Iraq.
      Compare detention and retention.
      n[C] a formal and very serious promise
      Traditionally an oath is either a statement of fact or a promise with wording relating to something considered sacred as a sign of verity.
      Nowadays, even when there's no notion of sanctity involved, certain promises said out loud in ceremonial or juridical purpose are referred to as oaths.
      Witnesses are required to take the oath.
      Legal substitute for those who conscientiously object to making a sacred oath is to give an affirmation instead.
      To swear is a verb used to describe the taking of an oath, to making a solemn vow.
      An oath of office is an oath or affirmation a person takes before undertaking the duties of an office, usually a position in government or within a religious body, although such oaths are sometimes required of officers of other organizations.
      Lyndon B. Johnson taking the presidential oath of office in 1963, after the assassination of John F. Kennedy
      Upon enlisting in the United States Armed Forces, each person enlisting in an armed force (whether a Soldier, Sailor, Coast Guardsman, Airman, or Marine) takes an oath of enlistment required by federal statute in 10 U.S.C. § 502.
      Messing around with clients is against Phoebe's oath.
      adj very important and urgent ¶ expressing a command
      also a noun
      In my opinion, it is imperative that these insurance benefits be extended to workers in all occupations.
      To meet these stringent latency requirements, it was imperative for us to avoid routing requests through multiple nodes.
      The book is intentionally short and takes a very imperative tone.
      An example of a verb in the imperative mood is "be" in the English sentence "Please be quiet".
      The imperative is a grammatical mood that forms commands or requests, including the giving of prohibition or permission, or any other kind of exhortation.
      Survival is the very first imperative.
      v[IT] defeat, get control, succeed, or become successful
      Peter has conquered the business world and the intellectual world.
      It's time for him to conquer the physical world.
      The people of Israel wandered around and lived in the Sinai desert for a span of forty years before conquering Canaan.
      Rachel was not determined to conquer her fear of playing swings.
      Ross has finally conquered his fear of spiders.
      Command & Conquer (abbreviated as C&C or CnC) is a real-time strategy video game franchise, first developed by Westwood Studios.
      v[IT] find position ¶ steer, or sail along ¶ understand or deal with
      How to navigate the surface of the Earth with less than a GPS or compass?
      I'll drive the car; you navigate.
      Slim navigated the Dease River during the construction of the Alaska Highway and piloted the Keno on her last voyage to Dawson City back in 1960.
      If you aren't familiar with things like "corporate culture", expected behaviors, and your supposed value in the matrix, go to any corporation's web page, and navigate to the "About us" page.
      Dr. Schlitz discusses the elements of transformation that each of us face in our daily lives, and how we can navigate through the huge changes that are moving through our society.
      n[U] heavy-duty paper
      Corrugated metal or cardboard has been folded into a series of small parallel folds to make it stronger.
      I got a cardboard box from a case of motor oil.
      A carton is a small box made of cardboard or plastic that contains food or a drink.
      Phoebe Sr. reaches into a large cardboard box next to her and brings out a puppy.
      Monica and Rachel have pictures of their faces pasted onto cardboard cutouts of Pamela Anderson and Yasmine Bleeth wearing their Baywatch swimsuits.
      The reader will smell a cardboard character (stereotypical character) before flipping the third page.
      n[C] a lightweight narrow boat
      v[I] travel in a ~
      A canoe is a lightweight narrow boat, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle.
      Canoes are used for racing, whitewater canoeing, touring and camping, freestyle, and general recreation.
      Whitewater canoeing is the sport of paddling a canoe on a moving body of water, typically a whitewater (water running very quickly over rocks) river.
      Robinson Crusoe then built a canoe and left his servant, Friday, at the mouth of the river.
      A double scull is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing.
      Australian rowing selectors concentrated their efforts in the men's sculls for the 2000 Olympics on the quad at the expense of the doubles and singles.
      Where did you get this dingy rubber dinghy?
      n[UC] the desire to do or have sth that you know is bad or wrong, or sth makes you have the desire
      Resist the temptation to buy the item until you're certain you need it.
      I finally gave in to the temptation and had a cigarette.
      His view was that 1% of people would never steal, another 1% would always try to steal, and the rest of us are honest as long as we're not easily tempted. Locks remove temptation for most people.
      You simply can't resist the temptation of doubling once again as the odds are just incredible.
      Don't give in to the temptation of listing keywords in your title tag, because that just makes your site look spammy.
      There was still money in her purse, and her next temptation presented itself in the shape of a matinee poster.
      adj serving to beautify the body ¶ superficial
      Cosmetic surgery is an optional procedure that is performed on normal parts of the body with the only purpose of improving a person’s appearance and/or removing signs of aging.
      Though cosmetic or aesthetic surgery is the best-known kind of plastic surgery, most plastic surgery is not cosmetic; plastic surgery includes many types of reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns.
      I work in selling ingredients via a broker to cosmetic chemists and scientists of major cosmetic corporations.
      The road needs to be fixed rather than simply making cosmetic adjustments.
      Opponents described the reforms as a purely cosmetic exercise.
      She dismissed the moves as a cosmetic exercise to win votes.
      v[T] make sb annoyed or impatient ¶ cause discomfort
      I was very irritated by constant interruptions.
      A woman came home from work late, tired and irritated, to find her 5-year old son waiting for her at the door.
      My bladder gets really irritated when I eat or drink things that are acidic.
      Daily sun protection is essential, but many of the chemicals found in sunscreens can irritate sensitive skin.
      "The pea irritated my skin," the Princess groaned.
      To irrigate land means to supply it with water in order to help crops grow.
      n[C] informal name
      also a verb
      He gave Olivia so many unbelievable firsts and wonderful dates, he fit his nickname of Captain Incredible.
      Anderson earned the nickname "General Superintendent" of the Underground Railroad for his efforts in Northwestern Ohio.
      I asked her to make up a nickname and she picked Dragon.
      The bear nicknamed Yosemite is still considered a potential threat to public safety.
      A successful government school nicknamed "teacher heaven" was organized by principal Lois Lindahl in Miami, Florida.
      v[T] involve sth that cannot be avoided
      This can entail the following steps, depending upon the final look you want.
      For most EMS patients, their care entails transportation to a medical facility (e.g., hospital emergency department).
      Smith's research basically entailed setting up theoretical "wind tunnels" to test how free-markets would respond in various conditions.
      Peter has built up a vast business, entailing an intolerable burden of work.
      "Entail" is an old word meaning to arrange for property to be given to someone when you die.
      Sir Richard inherited his uncle's entailed property.
      v[IT] try to hold, move, or find sth awkwardly
      We hear some fumbling at the door, then silence.
      Monica looks through the window and sees Ross practicing and fumbling around with the pipes.
      Joey takes out a pack of cigarettes and a lighter. He fumbles and drops the lighter.
      They both get up and Monica expects Joey to take the lead, but he doesn't, and they fumble around for a little bit.
      A fumble in American and Canadian football occurs when a player who has possession and control of the ball loses it before being downed (tackled) or scoring.
      Joey starts to return the fumble and Chandler grabs Joey's shirt and rips it off of his back.
      If you fumble with your words when you are speaking, you have difficulty saying something.
      Whatever of a talker I try very hard to be, I stutter/stammer and fumble for words.
      v[I] have a strong desire to achieve sth
      At that time, all serious artists aspired to go to Paris.
      I don't think it's realistic for someone heading up an in-house IT department to aspire to being an "innovation partner."
      He marries a woman who can secure him heirs and help him place his foot on the bottom rung of the ladder of Roman offices to which he aspires.
      From an early age, Mr. Feiffer aspired to be a cartoonist.
      Jenny, I am a thirty year old aspiring editor and this is one of the most powerful short stories I have read in years.
      n[CU] action of excluding, or sb/sth that is excluded
      The Exclusion Bill sought to exclude the king's brother and heir presumptive, James, Duke of York, from the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland because he was Roman Catholic.
      An exclusion zone is a zone established by a sanctioning body to prohibit specific activities in a specific geographic area.
      Social exclusion is the process in which individuals or entire communities of people are systematically blocked from rights, opportunities and resources that are normally available to members of society and which are key to social integration.
      But it was wrong that he was so possessive of her, to the exclusion of other things.
      I've been working to the exclusion of everything else.