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      v[I] gather closely together ¶ curl one's body up into a small space, snuggle
      also a noun
      About 20 youth sat huddled together cross-legged on the gymnasium floor.
      I was too young to remember details of those games, I only remember my entire family huddled around the TV watching those games.
      Sheldon huddled under the blanket while Penny sang "Soft kitty, warm kitty..."
      Raj, Howard, and Leonard huddled up inside a tent and waited for the snowstorm to pass.
      The executive board huddled (hold a private/secret meeting) to discuss the layoffs.
      If people get or go into a huddle, they form a small group away from other people in order to discuss something.
      A huddle of women gathered at the opposite side.
      In sport, a huddle is an action of a team gathering together, usually in a tight circle, to strategize, motivate or celebrate.
      They often like to cuddle, but don't expect them to remain in that mood for a very long time.
      v[IT] consider
      Here is the first question to ponder: What happened to all the railroads in North America?
      She ponders for a moment.
      In the spring of 1819, Jefferson pondered what to do with the legacy.
      She finds herself not only pondering on the mother-daughter bond with both Shoko and Helena, but also on her own cultural identity.
      I pondered over this remark and thought it was correct.
      n[U] a condition in which sb is very fat in a way that is unhealthy
      Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.
      A diet that is high in fat can lead to obesity.
      Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.
      Dieting and exercising are the main treatments for obesity.
      And here, look, they got these wheels to pop out from the bottom so you can roll around because, apparently, walking is too much exercise. Kids, kids, roll your way to childhood obesity!
      adj very shocking and unacceptable ¶ very unusual and unconventional
      It's outrageous that the poor should pay such high taxes.
      It is outrageous that these buildings remain empty while thousands of people have no homes.
      I have to say that Congresswoman Michele Bachmann's outrageous and false charges against a top aide to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, Huma Abedin reaches that threshold.
      Phoebe says the most outrageous things sometimes.
      I find the Mohawk hairstyle outrageous.
      v[T] create particular conditions that exist in real life using computers, models etc ¶ pretend to feel or have
      If you would like to simulate this at home, you could do so by pretending your house is on fire.
      This particular model, a mock-version of the M4 Carbine, does not fire any projectiles and is simply a rubber molding that simulates the weight of the actual firearm.
      Have tornadoes been simulated in laboratories?
      Penny found it impossible to simulate interest in physics.
      In live simulation, actual players use genuine systems in a real environment.
      In virtual simulation, actual players use simulated systems in a synthetic environment.
      In constructive simulation, simulated players use simulated systems in a synthetic environment.
      v[I] work together with sb ¶ help the enemy who has taken control of your country during a war
      I am very much looking forward to the opportunity to collaborate closely with the State of New York on an issue that carries both emotional and economic implications among many residents.
      She collaborates well with others, seeks their input and considers differing points of view.
      In May 1952 three television networks collaborated to produce a live broadcast of a guided tour of the White House led by President Truman.
      According to the studies of historian Gunnar S. Paulsson, during the Nazi occupation of Warsaw 70,000-90,000 Polish Gentiles aided Jews, while 3,000-4,000 were blackmailers who collaborated with the Nazis in persecuting the Jews.
      Other collaborators, such as Emile Dewoitine, managed to have important functions after the war.
      n[C] a way of considering sth ¶ a place from which you can see sth
      "Viewpoint" and "point of view" are synonyms.
      One viewpoint is, "Suck it up, you made a vow, you made a commitment, stay married for the sake of the kids."
      Another viewpoint is, "You only live once, people change, you shouldn't have to live unhappy and unfulfilled, the kids need to see what a happy, fulfilled marriage/partnership looks like."
      All that's left for you to do is find a good viewpoint and take the photo.
      The viewpoint by the side of the road gave us a stunning panorama of the whole valley.
      v[T] spoil
      In Afghanistan, we and our allies prevented the Taliban from stopping a presidential election, and although it was marred by fraud, that election produced a government that is consistent with Afghanistan's laws and constitution.
      The third round of the parliamentary elections was marred by widespread police cordons at polling stations aimed at limiting opposition voters, as well as multiple clashes between police and opposition voters which left at least eight persons dead.
      His presidency has been marred by allegations of corruption, electoral fraud, economic stagnation, poverty and gross human rights violations including extrajudicial killings, arbitrary arrests and imprisonment of journalists and authors, and brutal crackdown on peaceful demonstrators, including University student demonstrators.
      In a statement, the museum said that though patinas were marred by the water, the museum believed that "roughly eighty percent of the works can be restored with cleaning, while the remainder will require other minor restoration work."
      n[C] a structure with triangular lateral surfaces converging to an apex
      The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.
      There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.
      The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis.
      Mesoamerican pyramids, pyramid-shaped structures, are an important part of ancient Mesoamerican architecture (meso - middle).
      The Louvre Pyramid is a large glass and metal pyramid, surrounded by three smaller pyramids, in the main courtyard of the Louvre Palace in Paris.
      The glass pyramid acts as the main entrance to the Louvre Museum.
      The pyramid was built in 1989 by the renowned American architect I.M. Pei.
      The cheerleaders formed a pyramid by standing on each other's shoulders. Rachel was on top of the pyramid.
      Penny was gonna be named head cheerleader.
      In order for the pyramid structure to work, partners must leave, either of from their own volition or from these mandatory retirement schemes.
      To be on top of a social pyramid is to be on top of a process of surplus extraction (compare hierarchy).
      A pyramid scheme is an unsustainable business model that involves promising participants payment or services, primarily for enrolling other people into the scheme, rather than supplying any real investment or sale of products or services to the public.
      n[C] a bird of the pigeon family
      v pt of dive
      Doves feed on seeds, fruits, and plants.
      A dove is a bird that looks like a pigeon but is smaller and lighter in color.
      In general, the terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used somewhat interchangeably.
      Noah spent five or six months aboard the ark, at the end of which he sent out a raven.
      But the raven stopped to feast on carrion, and so Noah cursed it and sent out the dove, which has been known ever since as the friend of mankind.
      The dove and olive branch came to symbolize the Holy Spirit and the hope of salvation and, eventually, peace.
      I dove into Kim Harrison's new book.
      adj not central, mainstream, or important
      Side notes, sometimes known as historical or marginal notes, tell you about the history of an existing Act which is mentioned in a bill.
      Importantly, the conference will focus on desire within both mainstream and marginal communities.
      We don't want to see it just as a marginal language.
      In the Northern Zone there has been a marginal increase to 345 tonnes.
      A marginal seat or swing seat is a constituency held with a small majority in a legislative election, generally one conducted under a single-winner voting system. The opposite is a safe seat. These seats only require a small swing to change hands and therefore are typically the focus of most campaign resources.
      In economics and finance, marginal cost is the cost of producing one more unit of a good.
      In microeconomics, marginal revenue is the additional revenue that will be generated by increasing product sales by 1 unit.
      v[T] pull a car or boat along behind another vehicle, using a rope or chain
      also a noun
      Will the owner of a 1995 Buick LeSabre please see the front desk? Your car is about to be towed.
      It was embarrassing and humiliating - after delivering gas to a customer, our tow truck had to be towed back by the customer's car.
      Crossovers are typically based on front-drive cars with limited towing and off-road abilities.
      Kevin called to see how much a tow to Alice Springs would be.
      A tow truck (also called a wrecker, a breakdown truck, recovery truck or a breakdown lorry) is a vehicle used to transport disabled or illegally parked motor vehicles to another location (generally a repair garage or impound lot), or to recover vehicles which are no longer on a drivable surface.
      Ross enters with Monica in tow (following closely).
      n[C] animals such as humans, cats, and dolphins
      Mammals range in size from the 30-40 mm bumblebee bat to the 33-meter blue whale.
      Except for the five species of monotremes (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young.
      The platypus is a semiaquatic mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.
      The first mammals appeared in the Late Triassic epoch (about 225 million years ago).
      "By that logic I should answer all the anthropology questions because I'm a mammal," said Sheldon.
      n[C] sb who is unable to walk or move properly because of a disease or injury
      v[T] disable ¶ damage or weaken seriously
      I feel like my pelvis is bruised. I walk like a cripple.
      Franklin D. Roosevelt's paralytic illness began in 1921 at age 39, when he got a fever after exercising heavily during a vacation in Canada.
      Is your pet having difficulty rising from a sitting position, reluctant to use the stairs, unable get into the car, or limping after exercise?
      An emotional cripple is someone who cannot express their feelings to other people.
      Who was the crippled president?
      For those who are interested, this is because in the UK, police are crippled by over-excessive paperwork.
      n[C] a minor planet
      The asteroid belt is the region of the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
      It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called asteroids or minor planets.
      Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System. The larger ones have also been called planetoids.
      The inner Solar System is the traditional name for the region comprising the terrestrial planets and asteroids.
      The four inner or terrestrial planets have dense, rocky compositions, few or no moons, and no ring systems.
      They plan to use a spacecraft to transport a team to the comet, so that its path toward Earth can be intercepted with nuclear weapons (Deep Impact).
      A massive meteor shower destroys the orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis and bombards a swath of land from America's East Coast including New York City through Finland (Armageddon).
      n[pl] domesticated animals
      Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor.
      This article does not discuss poultry or farmed fish, although these, especially poultry, are commonly included within the meaning of "livestock".
      Some people may use the term livestock to refer to only domestic animals or even to only red meat animals.
      Livestock are generally raised for profit.
      Older English sources, such as the King James Version of the Bible, refer to livestock in general as "cattle", as opposed to the word "deer", which then was used for wild animals which were not owned.
      The heavy rains and flooding killed scores of livestock.
      n[C] the maximum number or amount of sb/sth which is officially allowed ¶ share
      With nearly 2 1/2 million people converging in The Sacred Land, the Saudi authorities have understandably imposed quotas.
      New laws in 1965 ended the quota system that favored European immigrants, and today, the majority of the country's immigrants hail from Asia and Latin America.
      In addition, the current administration has set a quota of one female Members of Parliament (MP) in each of the 64 districts.
      A disk quota is a limit set by a system administrator that restricts certain aspects of file system usage on modern operating systems.
      The function of using disk quotas is to allocate limited disk space in a reasonable way.
      Your company gets a quota of 10 GB + 500 MB for each user at your company for attaching files.
      Charles Schwab had a mill manager whose people weren't producing their quota of work.
      n[UC] the fact of sth happening/existing ¶ sth that happens/exists
      This is a frequent occurrence along the coast where icebergs are brought into shore by irregular tidal currents or strong winds.
      It's an extremely rare occurrence for me.
      Dog bites are a common occurrence in the United States.
      Suicides are already an everyday occurrence on the continent.
      Many of these occurrences end with Penny singing the song "Soft Kitty" to Sheldon to make him feel better.
      Occurrence is the most neutral and does not indicate a particular type of happening; an event is often a happening of importance; an incident can refer to a conflict or disagreement, often involving violence.
      v[T] blind sb briefly with too much light ¶ impress sb a lot
      n[U] bright light or impressive quality
      I'm half-dazed and dazzled by the light.
      What should you do if dazzled by the lights of an oncoming vehicle? Slow down and stop if necessary.
      Professor Sherman is a pretty tough guy to impress, but Ross know how to dazzle him.
      He dazzled the interviewers with his knowledge, enthusiasm and passion and he got the job.
      He was awestruck by the dazzle of the coins and lights.
      Don't lose yourself in the razzle and dazzle of what's being offered.
      n[C] spade ¶ the part of a large machine or vehicle that digs or moves earth
      also a verb
      A shovel is a tool for digging, lifting, and moving bulk materials, such as soil, coal, gravel, snow, sand, or ore.
      Shovels are common tools that are used extensively in agriculture, construction, and gardening.
      Most shovels are hand tools consisting of a broad blade fixed to a medium-length handle.
      A toy shovel is a common plaything on sandy beaches, in sandboxes, or in yards, gardens, lawns, and fields.
      A trowel in general is a small, single-hand implement for digging, scooping, spreading, or otherwise manipulating dirt or other bulk materials (such as mortar). They are a type of spade.
      A bulldozer is a crawler (continuous tracked tractor) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work.
      The contractor had promised to take away the small pile of leftover dirt in the foreground. It took repeated nagging to get him to do that, and in the end, he just came with his pickup truck and we shoveled it onto the back of it.
      Ross shoveled food into his mouth as fast as he could and then he said: I grew up with Monica! If you didn't eat fast you didn't eat!
      We've groveled and shoveled the money to Quebec and given them concessions that no other Province has.
      adj full of or covered in mud ¶ (colors) dull ¶ not clear
      v[T] make sth ~
      There was now a giant muddy footprint on my 'dry clean only' jacket and my scarf was dripping.
      Sherlock Holmes is looking around curiously, and notices some muddy shoes and a dirty coat hanging up.
      The trenches were muddy and when it rained, it would get filled with slushy mud and rainwater.
      You can mix colors to get fantastic effects, but be careful not to mix more than two colors or you get muddy brown.
      Sounds that are muddy are not clear.
      The question of Obama's birth has been a subject of speculation, rumor and a lot of questions with no facts to put anything to rest. It has been muddy water since he first appeared on the political scene and now it is about as clear as Mississippi mud.
      The real world is muddy and messy and full of things that we do not yet understand.
      Muddy Waters, LLC is a pioneer in on-the-ground, freely published investment research.
      Muddy waters make it easy to catch fish. Opacity creates opportunities to make money.
      Wen Ji walked around the edge of the field, taking care not to muddy her shoes.
      If someone muddies the waters, issue, etc, they make a simple situation confused and more complicated than it really is (used to show disapproval).
      v[T] send out gas, heat, light, sound etc
      It is now well known that the human body emits a broad spectrum of electromagnetic and acoustic radiation.
      As people shift from other foods to beef, methane emitted by the cows becomes a major cause of global warming.
      The 1W LEDs can handle emitting solid beams of light with low beam temperature.
      Dentists can tell you why your breath emits a smell so bad or why your teeth start to fall one by one.
      A lot of climate skeptics claim that volcanoes emit more CO2 than humans do.
      v[T] pay part of the cost of sth
      Subsidized housing is government supported funding or financial assistance for its citizens to help provide or afford housing.
      We subsidize prices for farmers to help keep prices lower at this market.
      The US Federal government subsidizes agriculture to a certain extent, using price supports to keep prices above a certain floor, and the US is also a net exporter of food, so that may be blunting the impact of rising food prices.
      It was created in the 1990s when President Bill Clinton and a Republican Congress agreed to expand subsidized health coverage to families where the parents work but don't have insurance for their children.
      Pete Wilson opted for a public-private program that subsidized private insurance coverage with public dollars in what became the Healthy Families program.
      v[I] become worse, ≠ improve
      It shows how Detroit has deteriorated over the past decades.
      The situation in Syria continues to deteriorate.
      As Alzheimer's progresses, brain function gradually deteriorates.
      But while we've achieved hard-earned milestones in Iraq, the situation in Afghanistan has deteriorated.
      Cotton consumption in China, the world's largest user, may shrink 11 percent this year as a deteriorating economy hurts demand and causes a buildup in commodities.
      The financial markets have deteriorated into a Las Vegas casino atmosphere.
      adj cautious
      "Ok. So, which boxes are mine?" Monica asked in a wary way.
      "Who called here? Did she sound blond?" Joey asked warily.
      Be wary of the man who urges an action in which he himself incurs no risk.
      Although there are practical steps you can take to increase gas mileage, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) warns you to be wary of any gas-saving claims for automotive devices or oil and gas additives.
      A girl is always wary of a guy's intention, especially when they don't really know her.