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      rust
      rʌst
      n[U] the reddish-brown coating that forms on some metals ¶ a plant disease
      also a verb
      -
      Rust is an iron oxide, usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
      Given sufficient time, oxygen, and water, any iron mass will eventually convert entirely to rust and disintegrate.
      Surface rust is flaky and friable, and provides no protection to the underlying iron, unlike the formation of patina on copper surfaces.
      Stainless steel differs from carbon steel by the amount of chromium present.
      Unprotected carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and moisture.
      "Treeger said that we could have all this cool stuff from the basement." "Really? We get all this rusty crap for free?"
      The red-haired guy does not like to be called rusty.
      Lightning McQueen is offered the Dinoco sponsorship by Tex but turns it down, saying that he would rather stay with the Rust-Eze team that brought him this far.
      The Rust Belt is the informal description for a postindustrial region straddling the Northeastern and the East North Central States, referring to economic decline, population loss and urban decay due to the shrinking of its once powerful industrial sector.
      Rust fungi are highly specialized parasites with several unique features.
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      length`y
      'leŋθi
      adj ≠brief
      -
      You may get into a lengthy process if you apply for a study permit outside of Canada, so it would be better if you leave Canada with a valid study permit in hand.
      After the lengthy discussion period, a motion was presented for members to vote upon.
      Fifteen years is a lengthy period of time.
      The road was one-way only, so lengthy delays were often experienced at both ends.
      If a lengthy report is given, obtain the notes from the person giving the report and summarize.
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      gar`ment
      'ga:mənt
      n[C] a piece of clothing
      -
      There has been a massive wave of workers' strikes, especially in the textile and garment industry, with women in the lead.
      Having dropped out of school at 15 she went to work in a garment factory.
      They met working in the NYC garment district sweat shops, married, and in 1910 immigrated to Montreal, Quebec.
      The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a cloth of perhaps 20 ft (6 m) in length which was wrapped around the body and was generally worn over a tunic.
      Undergarments are clothes worn under other clothes, often directly next to the skin. Panties or knickers are Undergarments.
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      prone
      prəun
      adj likely to do sth or suffer from sth, esp sth bad ¶ lying flat, esp face downwards
      -
      Backaches are common, and you may begin to feel more clumsy and prone to falls.
      We are a flawed species, prone to emotional outbursts, irrational behavior, alternately driven by greed and fear, with a dose of delusional thinking and always hoping for the best.
      Hand-rolled code is far more error-prone than simply using a routine that's already been debugged.
      Will it be BP (British Petroleum), the accident-prone oil giant?
      I have to make my way cautiously so that I don't step on her prone body stretched out beside my bed.
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      swarm
      swɔ:m
      n[C] a large group of insects or people
      v[I] move in a ~
      -
      When I was about twelve years old, I was attacked by a swarm of yellow jackets and stung several hundred times, head to toe.
      By the time of the Caesars, the Egyptians were famous for a swarm of government officials who did nothing but roam the country collecting exorbitant taxes and telling farmers what to plant.
      I carried her back to the ICU where a swarm of doctors treated her immediately.
      They were quickly swarmed by the gentlemen and ladies of the press.
      German troops swarmed across the border driving the Russians back in disarray.
      Compare these words: flock, herd, and swarm.
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      growl
      graul
      v[IT] make a low frightening sound ¶ snarl
      also a noun
      -
      Our dog growled outside.
      "Hold still, you bastard," Tom growled, reaching up under Harry's shirt.
      My dog snapped and growled at him.
      "What the hell is going on, Sam?" he asked in a low growl.
      By the time the gun was reloaded, the bear reached the tree, and, with a fierce growl, pursued Mr. Eddy round it.
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      glo`ri`ous
      'glɔ:riəs
      adj deserving or bringing great fame and success ¶ very beautiful or impressive ¶ wonderful ¶ sunny and hot
      -
      Our forces in South India have won a glorious victory.
      It would have led Russia into a glorious future of prosperity.
      In the year 1923, on the slopes of a hill having glorious views of the Kandyan peaks, work began on the construction of a building.
      The birds left Scandinavia in glorious sunshine but as they crossed the North Sea, they flew into fog and rain.
      It had been a great day and I had a glorious afternoon to drive back to Melbourne.
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      no`ti`fy
      'nəutifai
      v[T] inform
      -
      If you observe conduct that runs contrary to this principle, you have a responsibility to notify the human resources department or contact the compliance line.
      At the same time, he said Congress deserves to be notified when such a critical issue arises.
      All previous applicants and new registrants will be notified, via email, when the 2014 ticket application is available.
      They have settled for two lights that flash when it is dark and rainy, notifying drivers to slow down to 35 miles per hour from 50.
      Please notify me of follow-up comments via email.
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      schol`ar`ly
      'skɔləli
      adj spending a lot of time studying and knowing a lot about a subject ¶ connected with academic study
      -
      Sheldon is a very well-educated and scholarly man.
      Columbia emerged as a preeminent national center for educational innovation and scholarly achievement.
      The leap from scholarly writing to magazine deadlines is sort of like the leap from cross-country skiing to downhill.
      The only scholarly journal devoted solely to the study of the literary culture of the fledgling United States, Literature in the Early American Republic (LEAR) is a peer-reviewed scholarly annual that promotes discussion of all facets of the literature that arose during the period roughly spanning from the adoption of the Constitution in 1789 to the death of James Fenimore Cooper in 1851.
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      blush
      blʌʃ
      v[I] become red in the face because of embarrassment, shame etc
      also a noun
      -
      Rachel couldn't concentrate and she blushed every time the teacher looked at her.
      "There it is, you're blushing!" "No, I'm not blushing, I'm sun burnt! From, you know, the rain."
      What her lips concealed, her eyes, her blushes, and many little involuntary actions, betrayed.
      White Zinfandel, often abbreviated as White Zin, is an off-dry to sweet, pink-colored blush wine.
      Monica is flushed and in a sweat, and is decidedly sniffing her armpits.
      Look at her reaction to the good-night kiss. No change in respiration, pupils undilated, no flushing of the chest.
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      pas`ture
      'pæstʃər
      n[UC] land used for grazing
      v[IT] graze
      -
      Pasture lands in the narrow sense are enclosed tracts of farmland, grazed by domesticated livestock, such as horses, cattle, sheep or swine.
      "It is now time for me to move on to new pastures," said Lao Luo.
      Sounds good but I wonder how many new pastures can be discovered by a company like this, in the context of a super competitive mobile industry.
      "A window of opportunity opens up along the course of things, that present a chance of bigger pockets, happier hearts and greener pastures," he answered.
      Pastured poultry is a sustainable agriculture technique that calls for the raising of laying chickens, meat chickens (broilers), and/or turkeys on pasture, as opposed to indoor confinement.
      What is wrong with pastured eggs costing more, they're more nutritious.
      Free range denotes a method of farming husbandry where the animals, for at least part of the day, can roam freely outdoors, rather than being confined in an enclosure for 24-hours each day.
      Little House on the Prairie is a media franchise that started with a series of children's books.
      Yeah well next thing you know, he'll be telling you that your high heels are good for his posture!
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      hor`ri`fy
      'hɔrifai
      v[T] appal
      -
      Compare these words: clarify, electrify, glorify, horrify, petrify, purify, terrify, and verify.
      In recent years, Pennsylvanians were horrified to learn that so many young people were sexually assaulted by clergymen.
      A Spanish MP has been horrified to learn that the FBI used an online photograph of him to create an image showing what Osama bin Laden might look like in the present day.
      The woman said that she was horrified to see reports of Saturday's attack on TV.
      Where is my strong Ross Skywalker to come rescue me? (Ross stands up horrified) There he is.
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      i`vo`ry
      'aivəri
      n[UC] a hard, white material, derived from the tusks and teeth of animals, or sth made of ~
      -
      It has been important since ancient times for making a range of items, from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans, and dominoes.
      Elephant ivory has been the most important source, but ivory from many species including the hippopotamus, walrus, pig, elk, sperm whale, and narwhal have been used.
      By the mid-19th century, elephants were being slaughtered for their ivory at an alarming rate, just to keep up with the demand for high-end billiard balls - no more than eight balls could be made from a single elephant's tusks.
      Today, in an effort to protect threatened animal populations, many countries restrict or ban the sale, transport and use of ivory.
      Ivory Coast is a country in West Africa. It borders Liberia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Ghana.
      From the 19th century the term ivory tower has been used to designate a world or atmosphere where intellectuals engage in pursuits that are disconnected from the practical concerns of everyday life.
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      bur`i`al
      'beriəl
      n[UC] the act of burying
      -
      The Oxford English Dictionary defines a cemetery as a "burial-ground generally; now esp. a large public park or ground laid out expressly for the interment of the dead, and not being the 'yard' of any church.
      From about the 7th century, European burial was under the control of the Church and could only take place on consecrated church ground.
      Those who could not pay for a headstone at all usually had some religious symbol made from wood on the place of burial such as a Christian cross.
      Starting in the early 19th century, the burial of the dead in graveyards began to be discontinued, due to rapid population growth in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, continued outbreaks of infectious disease near graveyards and the increasingly limited space in graveyards for new interment.
      A natural cemetery or eco-cemetery or green cemetery is a new style of cemetery and is an area set aside for natural burials (with or without coffins).
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      pre`view
      'pri:vju:
      n[C] an advance showing or viewing
      also a verb
      -
      We attended a media event yesterday to see a sneak preview of the brand new Microsoft Store in Yorkdale Mall, opening today in the under-construction new wing.
      You can download it on Kindle but also you get a free preview online.
      We also previewed a clip from the debut song.
      I'm surprised that it is previewing Windows 8 so early, when it won't even have more details until its developer conference in September.
      A premiere refers to the debut (first public performance) of a finished body of work.
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      pro`to`type
      'prəutətaip
      n[C] the first design/example of sth
      -
      Cameron emphasized: "It's a prototype vehicle, so it's gonna take time to iron out the bugs."
      It's only in the prototype stage right now, so it's got a way to go, but it's still pretty impressive.
      I hadn't! Photo 152 was a prototype.
      Ok, we have a lot of options here, a number of prototypes for you to try on.
      They're these prototype sneakers that I have to come up with ideas on how to sell them which I can't do because no self-respecting adult would ever wear these.
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      no`to`ri`ous
      nəu'tɔ:riəs
      adj infamous
      -
      Now, 4G is a notorious battery hog.
      Car rental companies are notorious for not rotating the tires on their cars regularly.
      When he was 14, he became obsessed with the memoir of a notorious British double agent; his favorite film was From Russia with Love.
      The groom is a man notorious for abusing all three of his previous wives as well as his mistresses.
      The bar has become notorious as a meeting-place for drug dealers.
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      in`dict
      in'dait
      v[IT] accuse or charge
      -
      He was indicted for vehicular homicide.
      I remain hopeful that a grand jury will decide to indict, so the truth can be determined in a court of law.
      However, Buddhist theory indicts especially the natural desires.
      The public prosecutor indicted Sipowicz, head of the 57th precinct, for torturing OJ Simpson while investigating the killing of his wife.
      Start investigating, indicting, prosecuting and convicting the clowns and criminals who currently control both the White House and the Dummocrat Congresss.
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      verge
      və:dʒ
      n[C] edge, brink
      also a verb
      -
      It just seems like Ross is the kind of a guy that would marry a woman on the verge of being a lesbian and then push her over the edge.
      "No, I'm not!" Ross pauses to collect himself, as he is on the verge of tears saying this.
      In some areas a wider verge offers opportunity for later road widening, should the traffic usage of a road demand this.
      The Solomon Islands is on the verge of bankruptcy, the Finance Minister said last night.
      The NSA believes it's on the verge of breaking a key encryption algorithm.
      A good many of them have been on the verge of starvation.
      Korea looked on the verge of war but the assassination of Kim Fat IV took the sting out of the situation and calmed down it.
      Chandler sighed a heavy sigh of what almost verged on regret, "Fine, spend all of the money on the boots."
      "Really?" Monica was so thrilled that she verged on manic.
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      i`dle
      'aidl
      adj not busy or lazy ¶ not in use or useless
      also a verb
      -
      Inactive/Away: You're logged on but your computer has been idle or you've been away from your computer for a specified period of time.
      He has little patience for idle chatter or small talk, little interest in mingling at cocktail parties, at social functions, or even in the crowded hallway.
      The engines go from their loud idle to full-revs prior to takeoff.
      Any idea that China would sit idle to see its rightful land stolen by a foreign country will always remain a mere illusion.
      On the contrary 90% of them are just filthy tramps who are too bone idle to clean up after themselves.
      It is idle to dread what you can not avoid.
      The idol in an idyll is idle.
      The day idled away. Some of us went fishing. Some of us went on long walks. Some of us went for a bike ride along the lakes.
      In the Buffalo area, approximately 6,650 workers at GM and its major suppliers have been idled by the strike.
      During the Great Ice Storm of 1998, there was no power at the federal office in Quebec where I worked as a consultant, so I was idled.
      My mother has a 98 Toyota Starlet. There is a quite noticeable loud whining noise once the car is about over 20kms. One mechanic told us it could be the timing belt, but when the car is idling or reved, there's no sound.
      A timing belt, timing chain or cam belt is a part of an internal combustion engine that synchronizes the rotation of the crankshaft and the camshaft(s) so that the engine's valves open and close at the proper times during each cylinder's intake and exhaust strokes.
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      jeal`ous
      'dʒeləs
      adj envious ¶ feeling or showing fear or resentment of possible rivals in love or affection ¶ wanting very much to protect or keep sth
      -
      You're jealous of Princess Caroline?
      You've always been jealous of my hair.
      Oh honey, are you jealous of Paolo? Oh, come on, I'm so much happier with you than I ever was with him.
      I remember your first birthday! Ross was jealous of all the attention we were giving you. He pulled on his testicles so hard! We had to take him to the emergency room!
      That's Mark. From Bloomingdales? You were insanely jealous of him.
      Compare envy and jealous.
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      re`volve
      ri'vɔlv
      v[IT] turn or spin around a central point, or make sth do this
      -
      Rachel, sweetheart, you'll finally realize the world doesn't revolve around you.
      Because the book's plot revolves around a "mystery", it holds the reader's interest.
      The most lurid gossip about Perry, however, has always revolved around sex.
      A revolving loan fund gets its name from the revolving aspect of loan repayment, where the central fund is replenished as individual projects pay back their loans, creating the opportunity to issue other loans to new projects.
      A revolver is a repeating firearm that has a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers and at least one barrel for firing.
      The revolution of the Earth around the sun was proposed by Copernicus.
      Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, or r/min) is a measure of the frequency of a rotation.
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      skel`e`ton
      'skelitən
      n[C] the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism
      -
      There are two different skeletal types: the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, and the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside the body.
      The bird skeleton is highly adapted for flight.
      The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage.
      "The disease had reduced Sheldon to a skeleton." "Yeah, he's unhealthily skinny."
      "A skeleton in the closet/cupboard" is a secret which would embarrass someone if it became known.
      Here is a skeleton outline of how to put your CV/resume together before you start filling in the various different sections.
      A skeleton crew is the minimum number of personnel needed to operate and maintain an item at its most simple operating requirements, such as a ship or business, during an emergency and, at the same time, to keep vital functions operating.
      It is likely that there will only be a skeleton bus service during the strike on Wednesday.
      I would be the skeleton crew for Christmas at the office.
      A skeleton key is a key that has been filed in such a way as to bypass the security measures placed inside a warded lock.
      Skeleton is a fast winter sliding sport in which a person rides a small sled down a frozen track while lying face down, during which the rider experiences forces up to 5 g and reaches speeds over 130 km/h (80 mph).
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      crank
      kræŋk
      n[C] a L-shaped bar or handle ¶ sb who has unusual ideas ¶ sb who easily gets angry or annoyed
      also a verb
      -
      A crank is an arm attached at right angles to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the shaft. It is used to convert circular motion into reciprocating motion, or vice-versa.
      The crankset (in the US) or chainset (in the UK), is the component of a bicycle drivetrain that converts the reciprocating motion of the rider's legs into rotational motion used to drive the chain or belt, which in turn drives the rear wheel.
      Cranks are constructed of either an aluminum alloy, titanium, carbon fiber, chromoly steel, or some less expensive steel.
      Is Mr. Heckles a silly old crank?
      Don't be silly. Ben loves you. He's just being Mr. Crankypants.
      Oh, she was a cruel, cranky, old bitch!
      "Listen, what'd you say we crank it up a notch?" "I'm intrigued."
      You know, honey, as flattered as I am, that you saw me first, I don't think we should be cranking anything up.
      Guys! Guys! You gotta let me nap! Ugh, I'm gonna get cranky!
      Oh! Someone's a little cranky today 'cause they have to do it in a cup! Oh! They gave you the kiddy size.
      If you crank up a machine or a device, you start it or make it function harder or at a greater level.
      If you crank up the volume of something, you turn it up until it is very loud.
      If you crank something out, you produce a lot of something very quickly.
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      or`phan
      'ɔ:fən
      n[C] a child whose parents are dead
      v[T] make a child an ~
      -
      An orphan is a child whose parents are dead or have abandoned them permanently.
      In the common use, an orphan does not have any surviving parent to care for him or her. However, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS), and other groups label any child that has lost one parent as an orphan.
      In this approach, a maternal orphan is a child whose mother has died, a paternal orphan is a child whose father has died, and a double orphan has lost both parents. This contrasts with the older use of half-orphan to describe children that had lost only one parent.
      The story is about an orphan, Oliver Twist, who endures a miserable existence in a workhouse and then is placed with an undertaker.
      Little Orphan Annie was a daily American comic strip.
      There also was a young boy, left orphaned with his younger brother, who knew that crying will not make things better, and instead aspired to become stronger along with his brother.
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