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      n[U] nearness in distance or time, closeness
      Having large numbers of people in close proximity and not using appropriate sanitation can potentially spark those epidemics
      Much has been made of the similarities with and proximity to the Columbine school shootings.
      The intensity, duration, and proximity of sound to the listener determine whether or not damage occurs and if that damage is reversible or permanent.
      For some travelers finding a hotel in close proximity to an airport is a priority.
      Leonard, you are my best friend. I've known you for seven years, and I can barely tolerate sitting on the couch with you. Imagine my attitude regarding prolonged physical proximity to Amy Farrah Fowler.
      Well, this project would have us working in close proximity to one another. And there's the vulgar adage that one should not defecate where one eats.
      n[C] sb who gets advantages from sth ¶ recipient
      The Ryan-Wyden proposal would shift substantial costs to Medicare beneficiaries.
      Texas has been the beneficiary of high oil prices and states like Ohio will be increasingly benefitting from the vast reserves of natural gas.
      If you are the beneficiary of a 401k plan or inherited the plan, the rules that apply to taking money out of the 401k plan are a little different.
      Rachel was the chief beneficiary of her father's will.
      The rich were the main beneficiaries of the tax cuts.
      v[T] make sth illegal, ban
      n[C] a hiding criminal, fugitive
      Mormon leaders officially outlawed polygamy during that time.
      "I think porn should be outlawed," said Miss Aoi.
      In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law. In pre-modern societies, the criminal is withdrawn all legal protection, so that anyone is legally empowered to persecute or kill them.
      Though the judgment of outlawry is now obsolete, romanticized outlaws became stock characters in several fictional settings.
      This was particularly so in the United States, where outlaws were popular subjects of newspaper coverage and stories in the 19th century, and 20th century fiction and Western movies.
      Thus, "outlaw" is still commonly used to mean those violating the law or, by extension, those living that lifestyle, whether actual criminals evading the law or those merely opposed to "law-and-order" notions of conformity and authority (such as the "outlaw country" music movement in the 1970s).
      Legend tells of a legendary outlaw, Robin Hood.
      "Just tell her I'm an outlaw," said Joey.
      Rachel and Chandler are desert stealers; they are living outside the law.
      n[C] progeny
      "There's no guarantee that our sperm is going to generate high-IQ offspring," said Sheldon.
      "You owe it to yourself and to posterity to protect the genetic integrity of your sister's future offspring," said Leonard.
      "Everybody knows genetic diversity produces the strongest offspring," said Raj.
      She's the offspring of a scientist and a musician.
      Their offspring are all very clever.
      How many offspring does a cat usually have?
      Collective offspring may be known as a brood or progeny in a more general way. This can refer to a set of simultaneous offspring, such as the chicks hatched from one clutch of eggs, or to all the offspring, as with the honeybee.
      v[T] estrange ¶ make sb feel that they do not belong in a particular group
      Complaining doesn't fix anything, and it alienates our potential allies.
      You had to be a white man for him to not alienate you.
      For over 20 years, UC Berkeley professor Peter Duesberg has believed that HIV does not cause AIDS, an opinion that he says has limited his academic career and alienated him from the scientific community.
      He doesn't have to worry about alienating southern white voters.
      The latest tax proposals will alienate many voters.
      Gina had become increasingly alienated from her family.
      v[I] stick firmly to sth
      Lighters with fuel are prohibited in checked baggage, unless they adhere to (act in accordance with) the Department of Transportation (DOT) exemption, which allows up to two fueled lighters if properly enclosed in a DOT approved case.
      This is because much of the dirt in air ducts adheres to duct surfaces.
      At issue was whether Chicago police adhered to a code of silence protecting a fellow officer accused of wrongdoing, including trying to suppress the video.
      Yes, well, I'm polymerized tree sap, and you're an inorganic adhesive. So whatever verbal projectile you launch in my direction is reflected off of me, returns on its original trajectory and adheres to you. (I'm rubber you're glue, your words bounce off me and stick to you.)
      I trust Penny will adhere to the Official California Restaurant Workers' Solemn Oath of Ethics and Cleanliness.
      If you were a dove, I'd call you Lovey-Dovey. Oh. Who am I kidding? This isn't a moment for strict adherence to the literal. You're just my little Lovey-Dovey, aren't you?
      v[IT] make a long high cry/sound ¶ say sth in a loud, sad, and complaining way
      also a noun
      Emma was wailing loudly.
      "What shall I do?" Rachel wailed.
      "I wanted to help, but there was too much pressure. So I turned to Chandler." Chandler wails loudly into his hands.
      There is someone pounding on the door and Phoebe sleepily walks over and answers it. As she nears the door, the pounding stops and she can hear the smoke detector's wail. "Phoebe Buffay?" "Fire Alarm?"
      Hey, Howard, you're a Jew. If there was another wailing wall exactly like the one in Jerusalem but close to taco stands and cheap prescription drugs, would you still be able to wail at it?
      Jews may often be seen sitting for hours at the Wailing-place bent in sorrowful meditation over the history of their race.
      Most can't even see a 5.5 ton emergency vehicle with blue lights blazing sirens wailing let alone why the road is closed.
      Brace yourself for a shock, bring out those handkerchiefs while wailing violins build to a crescendo around you.
      n[sU] rage
      But Downing Street reacted with fury.
      He was filled with fury.
      The police officer came to my window red-faced with fury.
      In a fury she shrieked and howled.
      At last, after a fury of (a state of very busy activity or strong feeling) plunges, he wrenched himself free.
      She and her staff worked like fury (with great effort or energy).
      In the stillness of the dawn, in the fury of the storm, I dream of you my queen, of things unseen, just you and me together; I'll love you, always and forever.
      In Greek mythology the Erinyes, aka Furies, were three female gods whose hair was made of snakes and who punished crimes.
      Someone who is furious is extremely angry.
      n[C] an enclosed area in a plane, boat or racing car where the pilot or driver sits
      A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft.
      In the Royal Navy, the term cockpit originally referred to the area where the coxswain was stationed. This led to the word being used to refer to the area towards the stern of a small decked vessel that houses the rudder controls.
      Malaysian officials released the transcript of the last communications from the cockpit of missing Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370.
      A cockfight is a blood sport between two roosters (cocks), or more accurately gamecocks, held in a ring called a cockpit.
      n[U] feeling that sb/sth is not important and deserves no respect ¶ disregard
      The contempt Sheldon felt for his fellow physicists was obvious.
      "In your face" is an exclamation of contempt.
      "Well, I mean, she didn't look through me with soul-sucking, ball-shriveling hatred and contempt," said Stuart.
      "They did not hide the contempt for the very idea that women should be treated respectfully as equals; they screamed at the top of their lungs that we were whores," said Penny.
      I hold politicians in contempt.
      The mainstream media treated them with contempt.
      I'm sorry but this argument is beneath contempt (does not deserve respect or attention).
      My bravery is simply the passion and at the same time the contempt of danger.
      Contempt of court, often referred to simply as "contempt," is the offense of being disobedient to or disrespectful towards a court of law and its officers in the form of behavior that opposes or defies authority, justice, and dignity of the court.
      Compare these words: contemptuous, condescend, derision, disdain, patronize, scoff, scorn, smug, and snobbish.
      n[CU] a large hariry nut-like fruit which has white flesh and milky juice inside it ¶ the flesh
      The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut.
      Coconut oil is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of matured coconuts harvested from the coconut palm.
      Do you have any coconut flavored cookies?
      Ray-ray and Melissa had the sarongs on, and they had the coconut bikini tops...
      They were on the sleeping porch, they couldn't stop giggling, and their coconuts kept knocking together.
      "If you're hungry, I brought home some mutton and coconut milk," said Sheldon.
      "You made Frodo pancakes?" "Yeah, I used coconut to do the hair on his feet."
      Pina colada is a sweet, rum-based cocktail made with rum, cream of coconut, and pineapple juice.
      v[T] get information or a reaction from sb, esp when this is difficult
      At last we've elicited the truth from him.
      The test uses pictures to elicit words from the child.
      In my day job as a newspaper reporter I manage to elicit a wide range of emotions from readers and sources.
      Women can confuse mothering with smothering. One elicits gratitude in men, the other, orneriness (being ornery).
      "I just asked and elicited what they wanted to do and I did it for them," said the secretary.
      n[U] a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions
      Cuisines are often named after the geographic areas or regions from which they originate.
      Global cuisines is a cuisine that is practiced around the world, and can be categorized by various regions according to the common use of major foodstuffs, including grains, produce and cooking fats.
      Regional cuisines may vary based upon food availability and trade, cooking traditions and practices, and cultural differences.
      Szechuan cuisine, Sichuan cuisine, or Szechwan cuisine is a style of Chinese cuisine originating from Sichuan province in southwestern China.
      Cantonese cuisine comes from Guangdong province and is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine.
      French cuisine consists of cooking traditions and practices from France, famous for the rich tastes and subtle nuances with long and rich history.
      n[C] a type of bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them
      v[T] attach sth using a ~
      Joey goes back into the apartment, runs back into the hallway, throws his shoulder against the door, and knocks it down off its hinges.
      Rachel tries pulling on the back of Rosita the chair, until the hinge breaks and the back falls off.
      Chandler is pounding out the hinge pins on the closet door to get it open.
      A sandwich board is a type of advertisement composed of two boards (holding a message or graphic) and being either: Carried by a person; or Set up (for example next to a store advertising its goods) in a triangle shape, hinged along the top.
      If a result hinges on something, it depends on it completely.
      He said a lot of their planning will be hinged on the spring budget, as they can't make promises on money that isn't there.
      n[C] a comic performer, esp in a circus ¶ a stupid/annoying person
      v[I] behave in a silly/funny way
      A clown is a comic performer who employs slapstick or similar types of physical humor, often in a mime style.
      Slapstick is the recourse to humor involving exaggerated physical activity which exceeds the boundaries of common sense.
      It was around this time that Chaplin began to conceive the Tramp as "a sort of Pierrot", or sad clown.
      Heckles was voted class clown (a student who frequently makes jokes), and so was Chandler.
      In Peking opera, the Chou (丑) is a male clown role.
      A jester was a historical entertainer either employed to entertain a ruler or other nobility in medieval or Tudor times or was an itinerant performer who entertained common folk at fairs and markets.
      A joker is a jester or a playing card.
      Look, these clowns are trying to take us for a ride and I'm not gonna let them!
      Look at this clown! Just 'cause he's got a bigger boat he thinks he can take up the whole river.
      "Monica stretched my boots out with her big old clown feet," said Rachel.
      He smiled broadly and clowned around, demonstrating his ability to do the Michael Jackson moonwalk.
      v[T] crush sth, esp food, so that it forms a soft mass
      also a noun
      Mashed potato is a dish prepared by mashing boiled potatoes.
      Mash the apple up so that the baby can eat it.
      In brewing and distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of milled grain (typically malted barley with supplementary grains such as corn, sorghum, rye or wheat), known as the "grain bill", and water, known as "liquor", and heating this mixture.
      Spoon the mash back into the potatoes, place them into a baking dish and return them to the oven.
      "MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors" was the original novel that inspired the film MASH and TV series M*A*S*H. The letters stand for 'Mobile Army Surgical Hospital'.
      n[C] any type of drink except water
      Although most beverages, including juice, soft drinks, and carbonated drinks, have some form of water in them, water itself is often not classified as a beverage.
      A non-alcoholic beverage (also known as a virgin drink) is defined in the U.S. as a beverage that contains less than 0.5% alcohol by volume.
      Schnapps is a term that refers to any kind of strong alcoholic beverage.
      Grappa is an alcoholic beverage, a fragrant, grape-based pomace brandy of Italian origin that contains 35%–60% alcohol by volume (70 to 120 US proof).
      Cider or cyder is a fermented alcoholic beverage made from apple juice.
      Tequila is a regional specific name for a distilled beverage made from the blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila.
      A social drinker is a person who drinks some form of alcoholic beverage occasionally or regularly in moderation, i.e., within sensible limits.
      Eggnog, or egg nog (About this sound pronunciation (help·info)), is a sweetened dairy-based beverage traditionally made with milk and/or cream, sugar, and whipped eggs (which gives it a frothy? texture).
      Hot chocolate, also known as hot cocoa, is a heated beverage typically consisting of shaved chocolate, melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk or water, and sugar.
      Yoo-hoo is an American chocolate beverage.
      Only in China has soymilk (doujiang) long been used as a beverage.
      Zima is a clear, lightly carbonated, alcoholic beverage.
      Diet sodas (alternatively marketed as sugar-free or zero-calorie) are typically sugar-free, artificially sweetened and non-alcoholic carbonated beverages.
      Minute Maid is a product line of beverages, usually associated with lemonade or orange juice, but now extends to soft drinks of many kinds, including Hi-C.
      Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.
      In film, television or video production, craft service refers to the department which provides food service and beverages to the other departments or crafts.
      Do I wait to greet them with a refreshing beverage?
      n[C] a vehicle designed for hauling in agriculture or construction
      A tractor is an engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort (or torque) at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction.
      The Tractors are cattle that reside in Radiator Springs, under custody of Frank. They are constantly being tipped over by Mater and Lightning while they are sleeping.
      Cow tipping is the purported activity of sneaking up on an unsuspecting upright cow and pushing it over for entertainment.
      Elizabeth Weitzman of the New York Daily News gave the film four out of four stars, saying "It achieves the near impossible, turning cars, trucks, tractors and farm harvesters into cute Disney characters whose fates you'll care about."
      In Canada and the USA, "tractor" may also refer to the road tractor portion of a tractor trailer truck, but also usually refers to the piece of farm equipment.
      This auction is for a Transformers G1 Optimus Prime tractor and trailer. Optimus stands 6" tall when transformed and his trailer is about 8 1/2" long.
      Continuous track, also called tank tread or caterpillar track, is a system of vehicle propulsion in which a continuous band of treads is driven by two or more wheels.
      Continuous tracks can be traced back as far as 1770 and today are commonly used on a variety of vehicles including bulldozers, excavators, tanks, and tractors.
      5♥-5♥-4♥-4♥: Ordinary consecutive 2-pair in a non-trump suit (or Tractor, for which the game is also named; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheng_Ji)
      n[C] the offspring of a jack and a mare
      A mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse.
      A mule is easier to obtain than a hinny, which is the product of a female donkey (jenny) and a male horse (stallion).
      Horses and donkeys are different species, with different numbers of chromosomes.
      Thick as a brick, strong as an ox, stubborn as a mule, sly as a fox, free as a bird were often phrases I heard growning up.
      Amy, little vixen. Just working it under all those layers of wool and polyester.
      "I was travelling by mule across Spain when I met Maimaiti Moore," said Ross, "He was a mulish (obstinate, stubborn) and foolish musketeer and muleteer (someone who leads mules)."
      adj thorough or strict
      "We follow a rigorous training regime and must stay in top condition, just like professional athletes such as basketball or hockey players," said Prof. Aoi.
      It requires intense focus, rigorous discipline, keen attention to detail, high pain tolerance, and an obsessive desire to produce great work.
      "All of our devices adhere to rigorous testing processes to ensure that we deliver products of the highest possible standard and quality," the company said in a statement.
      Magneto is sentenced to rigorous imprisonment for life.
      A rigorous analysis of the events must take into consideration the background circumstances.
      This 8,000 word report uses rigorous research methods and detailed analysis to confirm what many have claimed.
      Cargill deals with 140 chicken farms and all must meet very rigorous standards as specified by McDonald's.
      v[IT] spin/turn quickly, or make sb/sth do this
      also a noun
      During the next four years in addition to Obamacare kicking in the first of next year we are going to see the attempt to void our second amendment rights. That's when the feces is going to hit the whirling propeller and not with learned legal discussion and argument.
      The whirling loop of a lasso is kept under tension mainly due to its own rotation.
      He whirled her around and let her black hair whip his face while he smiled and smiled.
      Charlie and I quickly whirled around and saw a cloaked figure standing there.
      If your head is whirling, or if thoughts are whirling in your head, your mind is full of thoughts and ideas, and you feel very confused or excited.
      Leonard's head was whirling with the implications of Penny's words.
      His mind was in a whirl and he was worried.
      "I'll get it a whirl, I'll ask Penny out," Leonard declared.
      If you give an activity a whirl, you do it even though it is something that you have never tried before.
      Sheldon, you don't have to dive into the office social whirl but you do have to be part of the team.
      When you first read history, it's just a whirl of names and dates.
      A whirlpool is a swirling body of water produced by the meeting of opposing currents.
      The Whirlpool Corporation is an American multinational manufacturer and marketer of home appliances.
      adj man-made, artificial
      Synthetic biology is the design and construction of biological devices and systems for useful purposes.
      Synthetic leathers, at times made from plastics, are often used in clothing and fabrics.
      Synthetic fabrics are textiles made from man-made rather than natural fibers.
      Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by scientists to improve on naturally occurring animal and plant fibers.
      Synthetic oil is a lubricant consisting of chemical compounds that are artificially made (synthesized).
      n[C] a talk on a moral or religious subject ¶ lecture
      A sermon is an oration by a member of the clergy. Sermons address a Biblical, theological, religious, or moral topic, usually expounding on a type of belief, law or behavior within both past and present contexts.
      He was the one who had invited Hussaini to deliver the Friday sermon.
      In modern language, the word "sermon" can also be used pejoratively in secular terms to describe a lengthy or tedious speech delivered with great passion, by any person, to an uninterested audience.
      "Papa Don't Preach" is a song by American singer-songwriter Madonna.
      The word amen ("So be it; truly") is a declaration of affirmation found in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament.
      I fell asleep during the sermon.
      Semen is the whitish liquid containing sperm that is produced by the sex organs of men and male animals.
      No. The X-Men were named for the X in Charles Xavier. Since I am Sheldon Cooper, you will be my C-Men.
      v[I] flow in a thin stream ¶ move somewhere slowly in small groups or amounts
      also a noun
      When the dam breaks, the water doesn't trickle out.
      Overall, it's much better to move into the future with a half-dozen revenue streams - even if some are now just trickles - to stick with only two big-but-slowing ones.
      In front of them on the square was an elegant drinking fountain, with water trickling down into a metal cup.
      As details trickled out after Ride's death on Monday, it became clear that a circle of family, friends and co-workers had long known of the same-sex relationship and embraced it.
      A trickle charger is typically a low-current (5-1,500 mA) battery charger.
      n[U] a vegetable with large dark green leaves
      Spinach is a vegetable with large dark green leaves that you chop up and boil in water before eating.
      Upon swallowing the spinach, Popeye's physical strength immediately becomes almost superhuman.
      The popularity of Popeye helped boost spinach sales.
      Spinach is thought to have originated in ancient Persia (modern Iran and neighboring countries).
      Arab traders carried spinach into India, and then the plant was introduced into ancient China, where it was known as "Persian vegetable".