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      adj having less power or authority, less important
      also a noun and a verb
      He was always friendly to his subordinate officers.
      These aims were subordinate to the main aims of the mission.
      The individual is subordinate to the organization, the minority is subordinate to the majority, the lower level is subordinate to the higher level and the entire Party is subordinate to the national Party Congress and when it is not sitting, to the Central Committee.
      The dignity of the office should require that a former president not return as a subordinate. But in Bill Clinton's case, his enormous popularity could translate into a 'de facto' presidency, hence a threat to Obama and an overshadowing of his leadership.
      Every aspect of our lives is subordinated to the worst excesses of the drive to make profit.
      Like the subordinate male protagonist in countless action movies who disappears halfway through the second reel, I have returned to save the day.
      Why subordinate your wishes to those of your family?
      n[C] the gradation of color
      Most color effects are due to contrasts on three relative attributes that define all colors: lightness (light vs. dark, or white vs. black), saturation (intense vs. dull), and hue (e.g., red, orange, yellow, green, blue or purple).
      Usually, colors with the same hue are distinguished with adjectives referring to their lightness and/or colorfulness, such as with "light blue", "pastel blue", "vivid blue".
      Hue is one of the main properties of a color, defined technically as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow," (the unique hues).
      Orange and violet (purple) are the other hues, for a total of six, as in the rainbow: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet.
      In painting color theory, a hue refers to a pure color - one without tint or shade (added white or black pigment, respectively).
      A tint is the mixture of a color with white, which increases lightness, and a shade is the mixture of a color with black, which reduces lightness.
      Warm colors are often said to be hues from red through yellow, browns and tans included; cool colors are often said to be the hues from blue green through blue violet, most grays included.
      The harvest is basically completed; golden fields of ripened grain; leaves of all hues adorning the trees.
      When I walk the streets and look around I see people of every hue and shade, I hear accents ranging from the Russian Urals to the Hindu Kush.
      v[T] twist or pull sb/sth roughly away from sth ¶ injure by twisting, sprain
      n[C] a sudden twist ¶ spanner ¶ a sad feeling caused by parting
      A hard glare suddenly came into her eyes and she wrenched her wrist free and walked briskly away.
      I think I wrenched my ankle when I fell.
      I wanna be with the woman I love on Valentine's Day! And I want her to love me back! And I want just one moment of relief from the gut-wrenching pain of knowing that that's never gonna happen!
      He pulled the handle off with a wrench.
      A wrench is a tool used to provide grip and mechanical advantage in applying torque to turn objects - usually rotary fasteners, such as nuts and bolts - or keep them from turning.
      The monkey wrench (US) or gas grips (UK) is an adjustable wrench.
      The pipe wrench (US), Stillson wrench or Stillsons (UK) is an adjustable wrench used for turning soft iron pipes and fittings with a rounded surface.
      It's been one long day, one emotional wrench after another.
      If you throw a wrench into a process, you prevent something happening smoothly by deliberately causing a problem.
      That could throw a wrench into plans for a marathon in Edmonton, where 4,000 runners are due on the starting line Sunday morning.
      n[C] a small rodent with a long furry tail
      The family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots (including woodchucks), flying squirrels, and prairie dogs.
      Over the Hedge is a syndicated comic strip. A hyperactive squirrel, Hammy is the least intelligent, though also the most lovable character in the strip.
      The film, Ice Age, begins with a saber-toothed squirrel (known as Scrat) who is trying to find somewhere to store his prized acorn.
      Like the previous Ice Age films, the film opens with the saber-toothed squirrel Scrat (Chris Wedge), who does everything he can to retrieve his precious acorn.
      This time, he falls in love with his female counterpart Scratte. Suddenly, she demonstrates her ability to glide like a flying squirrel, leaving Scrat falling to the ground.
      If you squirrel away something, you keep it in a safe place to use later.
      What if Saddam Hussein actually has a nuclear weapon or two squirreled away?
      adj incompetent ¶ lacking support or protection ¶ unable to control
      Rachel was a spoiled helpless little girl who still used daddy's credit card.
      My sister just went through a health scare and I felt so utterly helpless.
      I feel sad and helpless.
      We are helpless with laughter around the dinner table.
      You are not alone with the feeling of helpless rage.
      By the beginning of last week I got to the point where any setback would make me burst into helpless tears.
      v[IT] reach out ¶ surpass in reach
      also a noun
      We also know that the Statue of Liberty was given to us by Illuminist French Freemasons in 1876. "Towering above the shimmering waters, she holds in her outreached arm and hand a torch of fire and light."
      She had to outreach her opponent to win the fencing match.
      Outreach is an activity of providing services to populations who might not otherwise have access to those services.
      A key component of outreach is that the groups providing it are not stationary, but mobile; in other words they are meeting those in need of outreach services at the locations where those in need are.
      In addition to delivering services, outreach has an educational role, raising the awareness of existing services.
      Outreach is often meant to fill in the gap in the services provided by mainstream (often, governmental) services, and is often carried out by non-profit, nongovernmental organizations.
      This is a major element differentiating outreach from public relations.
      I hadn't ridden a bike since my college days and missed it, until I discovered the Bay Area Outreach and Recreation Program's bike shop in the Berkeley Marina, where you can rent adaptive bikes.
      n[C] a written or printed copy of words that have been spoken ¶ an inventory of the courses taken and grades earned of a student throughout a course
      Joey is sitting on his bed reading Days of our Lives transcript when Rachel walks in.
      Is this the full transcript?
      In United States education, a transcript (Cumulative Record File, CRF, permanent record, or simply record) is a copy of a student's permanent academic record, which usually means all courses taken, all grades received, all honors received and degrees conferred to a student.
      There is official transcripts and transcript which can be made by the student himself which should be verified and attested by an authorized person.
      A transcript of previous college and university work must accompany the application.
      Compare these words: conscript, manuscript, nondescript, postscript, script, superscript, transcript, and typescript.
      adv completely, fundamentally, thoroughly
      As long as Microsoft copies others and doesn't do anything radically different this game will be over.
      In this paper, I will propose a radically different mechanism.
      In 1969, the government began to examine a radically new approach to its Indian policy.
      There's no doubt online mobile education is set to radically alter university architecture.
      Something will have to radically change and soon.
      v[I] be in charge of a formal meeting, ceremony etc
      If you asked me which major party was more likely to preside over a period of high inflation, I would say "Democrats".
      A judge who presides at a pre-trial conference in a proceeding shall not, except with the consent of the parties, preside at the trial or the hearing.
      A committee presided over by Colonel Mahlon Burwell, was appointed to make the selection.
      When the presiding officer decides that a measure is ready to be discussed, the principal author will be recognized for the explanation of the bill.
      Really? I would point out that I am at the top of my profession, while you preside over the kiddy table of yours.
      v[IT] scatter or break up, or make sb/sth do this
      Police in anti-riot gear used tear gas and water cannons to try to disperse the rioters.
      The rioters dispersed in all directions.
      Brown-headed parrot eats and disperses the seed.
      When dawn came, the fleet was broken and dispersed.
      Voldemort secures his grip on power by attacking and dispersing the Potter supporters and taking over the Ministry of Magic.
      adj not stated directly ¶ without any doubts or questions, absolute ¶ forming a central part of sth
      Any praise given to or about another person is an implicit criticism of me.
      The implicit threat and menace; the constant fear of job loss; the deliberate demeaning that goes on.
      There was an implicit assumption that, because there is no rush to buy gold in America, there is no worldwide bubble forming.
      As we talked, the lake lapped the shores, and I came to the conclusion that there would be no war, no matter what people said. Rab, too, has implicit faith in Halifax and Chamberlain and agreed with me that both were linked together by an understanding.
      I've known him for years. I have implicit trust in him.
      Expect more Band-Aid solutions to the US's fiscal woes born of an implicit belief the country can grow its way out of debt.
      South Korea's Constitutional Court ruled that the right to information is implicit in the right to freedom of speech and press.
      adj helping to treat or cure illness ¶ making you feel calm and relaxed
      In 1967, then Governor Ronald Reagan signed into law the California Therapeutic Abortion Act, to reduce back-alley abortions.
      The psychiatrist utilizes this phenomenon as a therapeutic tool to help the patient understand emotional problems and their origins.
      She's building a therapeutic equestrian center in Wyoming.
      I find swimming and cycling very therapeutic.
      Some claim that the herb has therapeutic value for treating pain.
      v[T] make sb suffer sth unpleasant
      In other words, a revolution in Saudi Arabia or a blockade of the Strait of Hormuz could still inflict damage on the US and its allies.
      Can the supposed right to privacy not be abused to inflict harm upon the community?
      If you inflict yourself on someone, you visit or are with them when they do not want you.
      Oh, Penny, you're inflicting yourself on us again.
      It's time to go, before I outstayed my welcome.
      n[UC] the practice of thinking deeply in silence, esp for religious reasons or in order to make your mind calm ¶ serious thoughts about a subject
      In the west, Zen is often set alongside yoga; the two schools of meditation display obvious family resemblances.
      Don't try and test me cause you'll get a reaction; Another drink and I'm ready for action; I don't know who you think you are; But meditation won't get you very far.
      Bodhidharma (达摩)'s teachings and practice centered on meditation and the Lankavatara Sutra (楞伽經).
      This book, a polished, winding meditation on the theory and fractiousness of motorcycles, celebrates both their eccentric history and the wary pleasures of touring.
      Now, after a moment of silent meditation, I'm gonna end with "in Jesus' name," but you two don't feel any obligation to join in.
      Leonard, I'm no expert on meditation, but if you're trying to calm yourself down, I believe the word is Om.
      Raj says he can teach you, what did you call it? I don't know, some Indian meditation crap.
      v[T] be a sign of, mean, indicate, represent ¶ do sth to make your feelings, intentions etc known ¶ be important, matter
      Nobody really knows what the scripts on the Rosetta Stone signify.
      During the wedding ceremony the ring is then turned inward to signify the final devotion of the heart in marriage.
      The stars on the American flag signify the fifty states.
      The red, gold, and blue seams signify the arts, sciences, agriculture, and industry of California.
      The word "gospel" literally signifies good news.
      The symbol used signifies that the capacity is measured in MB.
      Ross signified his agreement by nodding his head.
      She signified her approval with a smile.
      These figures don't really signify in the overall results.
      v[T] show that you remember an important person or event by having a special ceremony, or creating a special object, celebrate
      We commemorate the founding of our nation with a public holiday.
      This memorial commemorates those who died in the war.
      The knitters had gathered to commemorate 1940s home front efforts to supply World War II troops with warm socks and sweaters.
      The author commemorates the death of Martin Luther King and provides insights on his legacy to the nation - the civil rights movement.
      The rally commemorated the 43 rd anniversary of the burning of Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem on August 30.
      No news about commemorating the dead in the major newspapers.
      n[C] sb who has an official position
      adj holding an official position ¶ necessary as part of sb's duty
      In the June elections, Morris easily defeated the incumbent, Tom Smith.
      Obama won by a smaller margin than any incumbent has in the past 60+ years.
      In 1948, supposedly doomed incumbent President Harry Truman went from 17 points down in the polls to a victory margin of 4.5 percentage points on Election Day.
      In the lead up to the last UK election, the incumbent government promised loads of money to projects (loads and loads and loads) when the money blatantly just didn't exist.
      If you have knowledge of voter fraud, it is incumbent on you to bring the facts and evidence to attention.
      Giving to charity is incumbent upon every Muslim.
      n[CU] angry disagreement between people ¶ a strong opinion
      The line has always been a source of contention between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
      The final major area of contention concerned who would oversee the implementation and finances of Agenda 21.
      Who gets what is always the biggest bone of contention in a divorce.
      On the latest point of contention, Americans by 61-35 percent say insurance companies should be required to cover the full cost of birth control for women, including majorities of women and men alike (65 and 57 percent, respectively).
      My contention is that most users want access to information.
      If you are in contention in a contest, you have a chance of winning it.
      The win against India has kept them in contention.
      Injury has put Lee Chong Wei out of contention for the title.
      prep,adj,noun ≠plus
      3 minus 2 is 1.
      Subtract 3 from 2 and the answer is minus 1.
      At night temperatures sometimes fall to minus 20 degrees.
      I got an A minus in the test. An 'A minus' is slightly lower than a 'A', but higher than a 'B+'.
      We got home safely but minus our luggage.
      Before I decide, I need to weigh up all the pluses and minuses.
      There are both pluses and minuses (drawbacks) to living in a big city.
      Having to travel such a long way to work is a definite minus.
      One of the minus points of working at home is not having social contact with colleagues.
      On the minus side, there is no free coffee and tea.
      n[CU] great love, care and support for sb/sth, or strong religious feeling ¶ commitment to a particular activity, dedication
      Bill's devotion to his family was absolute and forever evident in the photo's celebrating his life.
      The architecture of medieval cathedrals was symbolic of their devotion to God.
      The Medal of Military Valor shall be awarded for an act of valor or devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy.
      As a physician, I admire your selfless devotion to this deadly disease.
      Catholic devotions have various forms, ranging from formalized, multi-day prayers to activities which do not involve any prayers.
      n[C] a brace, often L-shaped ¶ punctuation marks used in matched pairs within text ¶ range
      v[T] support with a ~ ¶ put ~ around ¶ categorize
      Ross was supposed to attach a brackety thing to the side things.
      "What's this?" "I would have to say that is an 'L'-shaped bracket."
      Do I get a honorable mention for designing the telescope camera mounting bracket you used?
      ( ) - parentheses, brackets (UK, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia), parens, round brackets, soft brackets, or circle brackets
      [ ] - square brackets, closed brackets, hard brackets, or brackets (US)
      { } - braces (UK and US)
      < > - inequality signs, pointy brackets, or brackets. Sometimes referred to as angle brackets, in such cases as HTML markup
      If you're in, say the 28 percent tax bracket, you get back 28 cents of every dollar you pay in mortgage interest.
      If you shoot a lot of bracketed photos (multiple exposures), then you probably have a ton of hard drive space being taken up by photos that you'll never do anything with.
      This kind of cash programs are bracketed with higher rates of interest.
      I have no idea why China is bracketed with India in terms of future potential.
      n[CU] attitudes or way of thinking ¶ intellectual ability
      "Someone slipped a threatening note under the door." "Sorry about that. Mob mentality or whatever."
      Herd mentality, or mob mentality, describes how people are influenced by their peers to adopt certain behaviors, follow trends, and/or purchase items.
      Crab mentality, sometimes referred to as crabs in the bucket, is a phrase that describes a way of thinking best described by the phrase "if I can't have it, neither can you."
      When people describe a team as having a "winning mentality", they are usually describing a side who wins a lot of games.
      Victim mentality is an acquired (learned) personality trait in which a person tends to regard him or herself as a victim of the negative actions of others.
      Siege mentality is a shared feeling of victimization and defensiveness - a term derived from the actual experience of military defenses of real sieges.
      I have zero faith that congress will even reach the mentality of a four-year-old, they do nothing we pay them for.
      Sheldon thought Penny was a woman of poor mentality.
      v[IT] put your hand to your head as a way of showing respect ¶ express respect and admiration
      also a noun
      Forrest Gump jumped to his feet and saluted Lieutenant Dan.
      Whenever you see an officer, you must salute.
      The officer raised his hand in salute.
      The soldier gave a salute and the officer returned it.
      Full military honors and a 21-gun salute marked General Frank Hummel's funeral on Alcatraz Island.
      We salute you for your courage and determination.
      On behalf of the Brown Birds of America, I salute you.
      Joey waves and does a salute.
      v[T] love/like sb/sth very much
      They guys adored Alan.
      Ross, you know I absolutely adore Rachel; it's just that I thought it might be way awkward for you.
      Cecilia was used to being adored.
      The maid mentioned that she adored the way that Monica arranged the sponges.
      Oh, look, Leonard and Leslie made Mr. and Mrs. Goldfarb. Aren't they adorable?
      She's adorable, Howard. I think you'll like her.
      adv afterwards, subsequently, from then on
      Shortly thereafter, British planners drafted a proposal, code-named ROUNDUP, for an attack across the English Channel into France.
      Shortly thereafter, on July 16, 2012, I received a letter from her attorney containing false allegations and strong threats.
      Though, he smiled at people and thereafter, when they were gone, he said bad things about them.
      The hostess dropped off menus and soon thereafter, our server, Ursula, came to great us.
      You will be accompanied as far as the border; thereafter you must find your own way.