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      v[IT] try to mislead sb by pretending to be stronger etc
      also a noun
      In the card game of poker, a bluff is a bet or raise made with a hand which is not thought to be the best hand.
      To bluff is to make such a bet. The objective of a bluff is to induce a fold by at least one opponent who holds a better hand.
      The size and frequency of a bluff determines its profitability to the bluffer.
      By extension, the term, "bluff", is often used outside the context of poker to describe the act of making threats one cannot execute.
      "What is bluffing? Is it not another word for lying?" Phoebe asked.
      "I hit Tony Randall with my car." "Really?" "No! That's bluffing."
      "The Wuxi finger hold!" "Oh, you know this hold?" "You're bluffing. You're bluffing! Shifu didn't teach you that." "Nope. I figured it out."
      Hackers can also try to bluff their way into your account. In one recent high-profile attack, a hacker tricked Apple's help desk into granting him access to the account of US technology journalist Mat Honan.
      She thought she could bluff us into thinking that she was innocent.
      A double bluff is an attempt to deceive someone by telling them the truth, hoping that they will think you are lying.
      All evening we had had to play a game of bluff and double bluff with the clowns who wanted us to buy their expensive house.
      If you call someone's bluff, you tell them to do what they have been threatening to do, because you are sure that they will not really do it.
      Someone who is bluff has a very direct manner that might offend some people, but is friendly and happy and does not intend to upset anyone.
      A bluff is a cliff with a broad face.
      v[T] feel angry or upset about sth, esp because you feel it is unfair
      Bernadette resents her mother for smoking while pregnant.
      "I'm sure Leslie resents my talent, education, independence - none of which she has," said Sheldon.
      The Greek resent having to come out from behind the bar and lose the pleasant flow of daydreams.
      At the same time, many voters in Germany resent sending money to the Greeks.
      "Monica, why? Why would I ever want to take away from your night?" "I don't know! Maybe you're feeling a little resentful?"
      "I only have twenty minutes until Ethan, so..." "Oh, do I sense a little bit of resentment?"
      Such bitterness. (to Phoebe and Mike) Best to keep Chandler in the seats.
      Who's the bitterest man in the living room? Hi, Ross.
      Sandy had no hard feelings toward Rachel and Ross.
      v[T] put or hold sth in a position
      also a noun
      Sherlock kept his pipe clamped between his teeth.
      Vehicle steering locks are not strong enough to hold the steering of a towed vehicle "straight ahead" if its front wheels are on the ground. Instead a purpose built device must be used to clamp the steering wheel in this position.
      I guess Google is trying hard to clamp down (take firm action to stop) on spam.
      The police are clamping down on drink-driving offenders.
      A clamp is a fastening device to hold or secure objects tightly together to prevent movement or separation through the application of inward pressure. In the United Kingdom and Australia, the term cramp is often used instead when the tool is for temporary use for positioning components during construction and woodworking.
      A wheel clamp, also known as wheel boot, parking boot, or Denver boot, is a device that is designed to prevent vehicles from being moved.
      Compare these words: (paper) clamp/clip, forceps, grip, pliers, tongs, tweezers, and vise (vice).
      v[IT] wind or twist into a series of rings, or make sth do this
      also a noun
      Most days, he is up at 6.15 am, already a coiled spring, monitoring the news, writing a blog and preparing for the Today program.
      The stomach empties into the tubular structure called the duodenum (about 25 cm long) which goes on to become the small intestine. This is 4.5 - 9 meters in length and is coiled up to fit into the abdominal cavity (tummy).
      It's kind of like a coiled snake that's behind you, and it just waits for an opportunity to bite.
      She's a dark skinned woman with tightly coiled hair.
      A simple DC motor has a coil of wire that can rotate in a magnetic field.
      He's standing on the top of a ridge with a coil of rope in his hand, looking like he's from the Victorian days.
      An intrauterine device (IUD or coil) is a small contraceptive device, often 'T'-shaped, often containing either copper or levonorgestrel, which is inserted into the uterus.
      If you uncoil something, or if it uncoils, it stretches out straight after being wound around in a circle.
      If something makes you recoil, you move your body quickly away from it because it frightens, offends, or hurts you.
      v[T] escape, avoid, or elude
      We were in hiding as he tried to evade the police.
      Now do not evade the issue, but please answer the question.
      They will never evade their responsibilities and will speak out when everyone else is silenced; they will never stop advancing when everyone else halts in hesitation.
      The Dutch had always tried to evade tax.
      I had absolutely no intention of evading the fare.
      The logic of this evades me.
      n[C] a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns ¶ an annoying person or thing
      In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity.
      In the past, the term, pest might have been used for detrimental animals only, thus for example, causing confusion where the generic term 'pesticide' meant 'insecticide' to some people.
      It is any living organism which is invasive or prolific, detrimental, troublesome, noxious, destructive, a nuisance to either plants or animals, human or human concerns, livestock, human structures, wild ecosystems etc.
      It is a loosely defined term, often overlapping with the related terms vermin, weed, plant and animal parasites and pathogens.
      These are among the most common pests that you may encounter in your dorm room.
      The Scavo kids are absolute pests.
      n[C] a path that surrounds a two-dimensional shape, or its length ¶ boundary of an area
      The perimeter of a wheel (its circumference) describes how far it will roll in one revolution.
      The perimeter and the area are the main two measures of geometric figures.
      Proclus (5th century) reported that Greek peasants "fairly" parted fields relying on their perimeters.
      But a field's production is proportional to its area, not to its perimeter: many naive peasants may have got fields with long perimeters but low areas (thus, low crops).
      There are cameras on the street, in lobbies, parking lots and watching the perimeter of buildings.
      v[IT] go, or put sth, onto a ship/plane
      We embarked for Calais at midday.
      28 August 1775: with other vessels, embarked 1000 troops for capture of St Johns, Montreal, and Quebec.
      If you're recruiting a team to embark on a series of challenges, they don't all have to have the passion of the explorer.
      We are about to embark on the most ambitious project in CTA history.
      In case there is an epidemic in the port of embarkation the embarking passengers must possess valid proof of effective Vaccination against the epidemic disease, if available.
      n[U] the quality of behaving in a sensible way like an adult ¶ the state of being fully grown or developed ¶ the time when money you have invested is ready to be paid
      Monica and Ross didn't show great maturity in their behavior.
      At maturity, larvae reach 13-14 mm in length.
      Other rabbits in the same family, however, usually reach sexual maturity at around 8 months of age.
      As time passes and things change, people may come to spiritual maturity.
      10 days after the first rainfall the coffee bushes bring out the flowers and over the coming months the small green cherry grow to full maturity and are ready for picking between May and August.
      In finance, maturity or maturity date refers to the final payment date of a loan or other financial instrument, at which point the principal (and all remaining interest) is due to be paid.
      n[CU] a dark shape seen against a light background, or a drawing showing this ¶ the shape of a person's body or of an object
      also a verb
      A silhouette is the image of a person, animal, object or scene represented as a solid shape of a single color, usually black, its edges matching the outline of the subject.
      The interior of a silhouette is featureless, and the whole is typically presented on a light background, usually white, or none at all.
      The silhouette differs from an outline which depicts the edge of an object in a linear form, while a silhouette appears as a solid shape.
      Recreating a silhouette image does not take any major photography skills.
      In fact, as long as there is a controllable light source, you can create a silhouette picture whenever you want.
      Turn off all the lights in the room, if you are indoors.
      If you are taking the picture outside, make sure it is evening or later.
      Position a light source behind the content you want a silhouette of.
      If you are outside, you can use a lamp post as the light source.
      Make sure no light is striking the front content you want a silhouette of. This ruins the effect of the image. You want all the light to behind the subject matter.
      Focus your camera onto the subject matter. This gives the subject a clear outline, while still not revealing any features.
      Take the picture with the flash off.
      Fitted clothes often give the neatest silhouettes.
      Papercutting is the art of cutting paper designs. The art has evolved uniquely all over the world to adapt to different cultural styles.
      Silhouetted by the dimming light of the late afternoon, her slender build gleamed like a bronze.
      n[UC] a difference between things that should be the same, inconsistency
      The tiny differences between the observed and predicted values were a minor but nagging problem for many decades. It was thought that another planet might exist in an orbit near Mercury's to account for the discrepancy.
      And yet, despite this discrepancy, your brain can still perceive the order of flashes and beeps that are only 20 milliseconds apart.
      Think about the discrepancy between how many days per year American children spend in school (180) versus Asian students (280), and how many more social expectaitons Asian students are borne into.
      It was almost impossible to reconcile the discrepancy in the different accounts.
      The Rashomon effect is contradictory interpretations of the same event by different people. The phrase derives from the movie Rashomon, where four witnesses' accounts of a rape and murder are all different.
      n[U] the state of being perfect, or the act of making sth perfect
      You know, on second thought, gum would be perfection.
      She thinks herself the perfection of existence.
      She always seeks perfection in her boyfriends.
      She strives for perfection in everything.
      Fix your aims on a state of perfection.
      Don't settle for mediocrity, but don't slave away for perfection.
      adj with no people in it, abandoned
      The old mine now stands completely deserted.
      If you were stuck on a deserted island, what book would you like most with you and why this one?
      Heading towards the hurricane, the road was deserted.
      It was not until November 1988 that a fully adult male was found on a deserted beach north of Lima.
      Cast Away is a 2000 American adventure drama film starring Tom Hanks as a FedEx employee stranded on a deserted island after his plane crashes in the South Pacific.
      adj unreal
      The mechanical axis of the lower limb is an imaginary line through which the weight of the body passes.
      The Antarctic Circle is an imaginary line that runs around the earth at 66 33' 44'' South.
      Chandler used to have an imaginary friend.
      A troll is an imaginary creature in stories that looks like an ugly person.
      Leonard's imaginary girlfriend broke up with him.
      Action figures are toy models of people or imaginary beings.
      v[T] go beyond the usual limits of sth
      The project will attempt to transcend human limits that have existed for more than 50 years and smash four world records: The highest manned balloon flight; the highest freefall; the longest freefall time; the first time in history, breaking the sound barrier with the human body.
      It's a book that transcends the genre of war fiction. Actually, it transcends the genre of fiction in general. Although labeled "a work of fiction" on the title page, the book really combines aspects of memoir, novel, and short story collection.
      A number of Shakespeare's plays seem to have transcended even the category of brilliance, becoming so influential as to affect profoundly the course of Western literature and culture ever after.
      In a railroad to the Pacific we have a great national work, transcending, in its magnitude, and in its results, anything yet attempted by man.
      She far transcends the others in beauty and intelligence.
      Transcend Information, Inc. (創見資訊股份有限公司) is a Taiwanese company headquartered in Taipei, Taiwan that manufactures and distributes memory products.
      v[T] change food into substances that the body can use ¶ fully understand information
      n[C] a short piece of writing containing the most important facts of a longer one
      We swallow and digest millions of flaked-off cells from the linings of our own mouths every day.
      Remember that scene when Forrest Gump finds out about his son, digests the news, then worries that the boy is just as stupid as he is?
      The heart and the digestive system are also made of muscle but a different kind, and their movements are not under voluntary control. When your heart beats or a meal is digested, it all happens automatically.
      I'm still digesting it, so I can't summarize it very well.
      Reader's Digest is an American general interest family magazine founded in 1922.
      If you ingest a substance, you take it into your body by eating or absorbing it.
      n[CU] break ¶ a part of a wall that is set further back than the rest of the wall, forming a space, hollow space inside sth
      v[IT] take a ~ ¶ put sth in a ~
      Recess is a general term for a period of time in which a group of people is temporarily dismissed from its duties.
      In parliamentary procedure, a recess is initiated by a motion to recess.
      In some jurisdictions it is a legal requirement that all children who attend school must have this break or recess.
      In education, recess is the American term for a daily period, typically ten to thirty minutes; in elementary school where students are allowed to leave the school's interior to enter its adjacent outdoor playground.
      Many middle schools also offer recess in an effort to provide students with a sufficient opportunity to consume quick snacks, communicate with their peers, visit the restroom, study, and/or other various activities.
      In parliamentary procedure, "recess" refers to legislative bodies - such as parliaments, assemblies, juries - that are released to reassemble at a later time.
      The Supreme Court was in summer recess.
      Both the House and Senate recessed in mid-September so that members could go home and campaign before the November elections.
      Alcove is an architectural term for a recess in a room.
      For lower ceiling heights, recessed direct/indirect fixtures, which provide a mixture of direct and indirect illumination, can be considered.
      n[C] a small piece of metal, cloth, plastic etc, with words or symbols on it, that shows one's membership of a group, support for an organization or belief etc
      Larry looks around and flashes Phoebe his badge and she laughs.
      Phoebe found Gary's police badge.
      Ross thought the policeman tarnished his badge.
      Joey and Rachel walk to a table with many badges on it.
      A name tag is a badge or sticker worn on the outermost clothing as a means of displaying the wearer's name for others to view.
      An access badge is a credential used to gain entry to an area having automated access control entry points.
      Access badges use various technologies to identify the holder of the badge to an access control system. The most common technologies are magnetic stripe, proximity, barcode, smart cards and various biometric devices.
      A proximity card is a smart card which can be read without inserting it into a reader device, as required by earlier magnetic stripe cards such as credit cards.
      Owen had a badge in using a compass.
      Scout badges are worn on the uniforms of members of Scouting organizations across the world in order to signify membership and achievements.
      "The war wound is a time-honored badge of masculinity," said Sheldon.
      The yellow badge (or yellow patch), also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a cloth patch that Jews were ordered to sew on their outer garments to mark them as Jews in public at certain times in certain countries.
      A campaign button is a pin used during an election as political advertising for (or against) a candidate or political party, or to proclaim the issues that are part of the political platform.
      A charity badge is a widget used on websites, blogs, social networks or e-mail for promotion of some humanitarian initiative, mainly gathering donations for charity projects.
      Compare these words: anthem, badge, badger, emblem, insignia, logo, and symbol.
      n[C] a creature in Greek mythology ¶ a loud acoustic alarm used to alert people to emergencies
      In Greek mythology, the Sirens were dangerous yet beautiful creatures, portrayed as femme fatales who lured nearby sailors with their enchanting music and voices to shipwreck on the rocky coast of their island.
      Sirens are used on emergency service vehicles such as ambulances, police cars and fire trucks.
      A civil defense siren (also colloquially referred to as an air raid or tornado siren) is a siren used to provide emergency population warning of approaching danger and sometimes to indicate when the danger has passed.
      "So am I!" said Gary, reaching into the car and slams his siren/beacon on the roof.
      The light bars mounted on the police cars are LED-based.
      This light bar has a clear dome under which two rotating lights can be seen in this view.
      The police car on the right is a slick-top or "stealth" vehicle, lacking the roof-mounted light bar seen on the traditionally equipped car on the left.
      In Miami you hear police sirens all the time.
      In the pre-dawn light, other ships in the area sounded their sirens in warning but she was soon grounded.
      The fire truck sped off with its siren wailing.
      The explosions ceased, the bells stopped ringing, the shriek of the siren died down from tone to tone into silence.
      n[C] an official order, decision, or judgment
      also a verb
      A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution). It has the force of law.
      The Jewish Bible's Ketuvim ends in Second Chronicles with the decree of Cyrus, which returned the exiles to the Promised Land from Babylon along with a commission to rebuild the temple.
      Confucius said, "At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven."
      "But if Fate has decreed that Aladdin always wins, what can I do?" wailed Jafar.
      The Supreme Court decreed in 1992 that Irish women whose lives are in danger have a right to an abortion.
      A decree nisi (from Latin, meaning "unless") is a court order that does not have any force until such time that a particular condition is met, such as a subsequent petition to the court or the passage of a specified period of time. Once the condition is met, the ruling becomes decree absolute and is binding. Typically, the condition is that no new evidence or further petitions with a bearing on the case are introduced to the court.
      The marriage will be dissolved unless sufficient cause be shown to the court why this decree should not be made absolute within six weeks of the making hereof.
      adj not being filled, occupied, or used, empty ¶ blank
      Monica helped Rachel over to a vacant seat.
      Sheldon quickly takes the now vacant spot.
      It was a little later when she entered the theatre, the play had begun and the house seemed to her to be packed. But there were vacant seats here and there, and into one of them she was ushered.
      We were fully aware of the vacant lot (empty land) on 4921 and have anticipated a home being built there in the range of 3,500 square feet.
      The position of Governor of the Bank of England fell vacant when he retired in June 2013.
      Situations (an old word meaning jobs) vacant included: "An attendant with some knowledge of nursing wanted to attend an elderly Gentleman and assist with light household duties; personal character necessary. Mrs. Gotlee, Wokingham".
      The vacant expression on the man's face had been there ever since he'd been admitted a month ago.
      He hardly ever leaved the ward. He sat around with that vacant look on his face.
      I'll have the hopeless, vacant stare of many African children and adults burned into my memory forever.
      n[UC] competition or fighting
      Sibling rivalry is a type of competition or animosity among siblings, whether blood related or not.
      But the two girls, who had engaged in an intense rivalry since Beijing, were both to be admired for the grace they showed during the emotional occasion.
      There is a friendly rivalry between Toronto and Vancouver.
      Caught in the crosshairs of political rivalries, David finds himself compelled to make a life-changing decision.
      A longstanding, bitter rivalry between the two main political parties in Bangladesh has led to widespread unrest, leaving a country typically perceived as a moderate Muslim democracy in a state of chaos.
      Compare these words: cavalry, chivalry, and rivalry.
      n[U] heavy oil used as fuel instead of petrol in a ~ engine
      The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition engine) is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition and burn the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber.
      This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine or gas engine, which use a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture.
      Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines.
      The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted.
      To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called petrodiesel.
      Diesel S.p.A. is an Italian clothing company. It sells high-priced denim jeans and other clothing and accessories aimed at a young adult market.
      v[T] prove that sth is true or correct, confirm, substantiate ¶ state that sth is of an appropriate standard ¶ make sth legally valid, ratify
      As more and more user generated content makes its way into main stream consumption, it will often require established media houses to validate and ensure authenticity of the content.
      I don't need you to validate me.
      Islamic law requires two witnesses to testify to and validate a marriage.
      This method validates the input data for the field and returns true if the data validates, false if otherwise.
      History has shown that politically free societies demand free markets, and vice versa: each validates and reinforces the other.
      Compare "validate" and "verify".
      adj relating to a pole
      In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a fixed point and an angle from a fixed direction. The fixed point is called the pole, and the ray from the pole in the fixed direction is the polar axis.
      The polar regions of Earth are the regions of Earth surrounding its geographical poles (the North and South Poles). These regions are dominated by Earth's polar ice caps, the northern resting on the Arctic Ocean and the southern on the continent of Antarctica.
      Regions with a polar climate are characterized by a lack of warm summers.
      The polar bear is a carnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.
      An electric charge can have either positive or negative polarity.
      A magnet has a polarity, in that it has two poles described as "north" and "south" pole.
      Sheldon's the polar opposite of Penny in every way.