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      n[C] an insect with a smooth hard back
      v[I] go somewhere quickly, hurry, scurry
      Dung beetles are beetles that feed partly or exclusively on dungs or feces.
      They possess exceptional dung disposal capacity and one dung beetle can bury dung that is 250 times heavier than itself in one night.
      Scarabaeus sacer is a species of dung beetle. Among the coprophagous species of beetles, it is typical of those that collect dung into balls.
      Such a beetle rolls its ball to a suitable location, where it digs an underground chamber in which it hides the ball.
      It then either eats the ball itself, or lays an egg in it, covers the chamber, and departs, repeating the procedure as many times as it can. The larva feeds on the ball of dung after the egg hatches.
      This behavior inspired the Ancient Egyptians to compare Scarabaeus sacer to Khepri, their Sun god. They accordingly held the species to be sacred.
      The longhorn beetles (also known as long-horned beetles or longicorns) are a cosmopolitan family of beetles, typically characterized by extremely long antennae, which are often as long as or longer than the beetle's body.
      Coccinellidae are known colloquially as ladybirds (in Britain, Ireland, the Commonwealth, and some parts of the southern United States), ladybugs (originating in North America) or lady cows, among other names. When they need to use a common name, entomologists widely prefer the names ladybird beetles or lady beetles as these insects are not true bugs.
      The Volkswagen Beetle (also sold as the Volkswagen Coccinelle, Volkswagen Maggiolino, Volkswagen Fusca or Volkswagen The Beetle in some countries) is a compact car manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen introduced in 2011 for the 2012 model year, as the successor to the New Beetle launched in 1997.
      It features a lower profile while retaining an overall shape recalling the original Volkswagen Type 1 Beetle.
      The Beatles were an English rock band that formed in Liverpool, in 1960. With John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, they became widely regarded as the greatest and most influential act of the rock era.
      It felt like it was going to rain soon, so we beetled down to Greg's hut to set ourselves up for the night.
      adj short in supply, rare, not abundant
      adv barely, hardly
      We can no longer afford to consider air and water common property, free to be abused by anyone without regard to the consequences.
      Instead, we should begin now to treat them as scarce resources, which we are no more free to contaminate than we are free to throw garbage into our neighbor's yard.
      Expertise in the new technology is also a scarce resource.
      Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or an artificial restriction of demand.
      Rationing using ration stamps is only one kind of non-price rationing. For example, scarce products can be rationed using queues.
      Oxygen is scarce at these heights.
      If you make yourself scarce, you leave a place, especially in order to avoid an embarrassing, difficult, or unpleasant situation.
      n[C] a bar/beam/rod pivoted at a fixed point, used for lifting/opening sth ¶ a handle used to operate a vehicle or piece of machinery ¶ means of exerting pressure
      v[T] move sth with a ~
      The word comes from the French lever, "to raise".
      The fulcrum is the point on which a lever turns, balances, or is supported in turning or lifting something.
      Archimedes' work on levers caused him to remark: "Give me a place to stand on, and I will move the Earth."
      When you sweep with a broom, use a pencil or spoon, or swing a cricket bat or golf club you use them like a lever to magnify movement and gain a greater reach.
      Renaissance scientists defined six classical simple machines: Lever, Wheel and axle (compare axis), Pulley, Inclined plane, Wedge, and Screw.
      A crowbar, wrecking bar, pry bar, or pinch-bar and more informally a jimmy, jimmy bar, or gooseneck is a tool consisting of a metal bar with a single curved end and flattened points, often with a small fissure on one or both ends for removing nails.
      A mechanical jack is a device which lifts heavy equipment. The most common form is a car jack, floor jack or garage jack which lifts vehicles so that maintenance can be performed.
      In some modern sports cars, the gear lever has been replaced entirely by "paddles", which are a pair of levers, usually operating electrical switches (rather than a mechanical connection to the gearbox), mounted on either side of the steering column, where one increments the gears up, and the other down.
      In some traditional four-wheel drive "off-road" vehicles there can be a second gear lever which engages a low-ratio gearbox, used on tough terrain.
      A gear stick, also known as a gearstick is a metal rod attached to the shift assembly in a manual transmission-equipped automobile and is used to change gear.
      I don't think there's a magic wand or a lever to pull that makes everything OK.
      "She uses sex as a weapon!" "Don't you think weapon is too strong a word? How about lever?"
      I kept digging around the rock to lever it out with the spade.
      If you lay your baby on her tummy, she may amaze you by rolling over to her back. This is because her hip, knee and elbow joint are becoming stronger and more flexible, making it easier for her to lever herself up (move one's body by pushing on sth).
      In finance, leverage (sometimes referred to as gearing in the United Kingdom and Australia) is a general term for any technique to multiply gains and losses.
      v[T] represent
      This painting symbolizes a hope for the future.
      Crime often symbolizes a wider social problem.
      Even though reeds can symbolize frailty, they may also represent the strength found in flexibility.
      This can be symbolized by a simple graph, showing the energy of a system versus the force applied.
      Centered in the square blue canton is a gold representation of the Georgia coat of arms (a unique heraldic design).
      Thirteen white five-pointed stars circle the coat of arms and the wording symbolizing Georgia and the 12 other states that formed the United States of America.
      v[I] form a general principle or opinion ¶ make a general statement
      v[T] apply a theory, idea etc
      You cannot generalize about the effects of the drug from one or two cases.
      Many women have a tendency to generalize from their husbands to all men.
      But in this case I can generalize from the particular to the universal.
      It's unfair to generalize about a whole country based on your experiences with a few people.
      It is hideously wrong to generalize this to all beautiful women who are cosplayers.
      n[C] a space found directly below the pitched roof of a house
      An attic or a loft is a space found directly below the pitched roof of a house or other building (also called garret or sky parlor).
      As attics fill the space between the ceiling of the top floor of a building and the slanted roof, they are known for being awkwardly shaped spaces with exposed rafters and difficult-to-reach corners.
      While some attics are converted into bedrooms or home offices, complete with windows and staircases, most attics remain hard to reach and neglected, and are typically used for storage.
      Attics can also help control temperature in a house by providing a large mass of slowly moving air.
      I've got boxes of old clothes in the attic, which I really should throw out.
      n[UC] an organism such as yeast and mold
      A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
      These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, protists, and bacteria.
      A mushroom (or toadstool) is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
      The terms "mushroom" and "toadstool" go back centuries and were never precisely defined, nor was there consensus on application.
      The term "toadstool" was often, but not exclusively, applied to poisonous mushrooms or to those that have the classic umbrella-like cap-and-stem form.
      The fungi that cause athlete's foot require warmth and moisture to survive and grow.
      I had fungus on my feet for years - until I sprayed a 50/50 mixture of peroxide and water on them (especially the toes) every night and let dry.
      adj existing everywhere
      See, he thinks like that, but that idea is pervasive in police departments across the country.
      A year ago, I wrote about the pervasive disillusionment felt by Obama's supporters.
      You need to know it is much more pervasive than you realize.
      The Internet is pervasive and technology makes connectivity and devices more and more affordable.
      Reforms are being undermined by the all-pervasive corruption in the country.
      Compare "pervasive" and "prevailing".
      adj comfortable or intimate
      The room is cozy, has lot of sunlight, and a queen size bed.
      All the rooms are furnished with cozy handcrafted quilts.
      It's not that the Clinton's don't have a cozy relationship with public relations firms.
      I wanted to share one of my favorite pictures of a cozy evening with my family in Carmel two weekends ago.
      The living room was warm and cosy.
      adv ≠clearly ¶ slightly ¶ in a way that shows you are not paying attention
      "Eddie, do you remember yesterday?" "Uh yes, I think I vaguely recall it."
      I only vaguely remember my GRE experience.
      In addition, the Facebook post is worded vaguely enough to suggest that 75 percent of all the taxes in the health care bill will fall on the middle class.
      I vaguely thought this was odd.
      Feminists (and I am vaguely one) think all men are stupid and this one deserves what he got.
      "Let's get it patented right away." "Patented?" Xu Lang asked vaguely, still thinking about Ann, his wife.
      "Zhou Yang is in Thailand?" he asked vaguely, absorbed in his own thoughts.
      Compare careless, casual, offhand, and vaguely.
      v[T] bear, endure, stand, tolerate
      v[I] conform, comply, obey, observe
      Joey can't abide the thought of having no food and sex.
      Most people are willing to abide by the law, but the law enforcement must be willing to keep the law and promote and enforce the laws they are paid to enforce.
      It is a moderate Islamic party which abides by the rules of law and of human rights (if less so when it comes to Turkey's own Kurds) and which, critically, has won for the country considerable economic success.
      I didn't like most of these changes, but I abided by them, because they weren't changing what Facebook was to me.
      The Foreign Ministry says it has abided by the Constitution in its response which includes a list of items that the government is unable to support.
      Most of us law abiding citizens are very thankful for the excellent job our police department and EMS services perform each day and night.
      n[U] respect and admiration, status
      adj having a high reputation and attracting a lot of respect, luxury
      He sees life entirely in terms of increasing his fortune and social prestige.
      Canada's reputation, all the international prestige and political capital that Canada had accumulated since the post-war years, was squandered within the less than five years that this government has been in power.
      NASA's collaborations with private companies might lack the national prestige of the big-ticket space adventures.
      Engineering has always enjoyed great prestige among university and high valuation in the labor market.
      The Prestige is a 2006 British-American mystery thriller film. Magician Alfred Borden is sentenced to death for the murder of rival Robert Angier by drowning him in a water tank.
      Prestige projects are very popular with politicians who want to make a name for themselves.
      The companies that are increasing their brand value are South Korea's Samsung and Taiwan's Asus. These are becoming prestige brands in parts of Asia, though perhaps not yet in the west.
      Jewelry, luxury watches, gold, fine art, antiques, sculptures and prestige cars are among the many types of assets which firms are willing to lend against.
      n[U] the act of having sex ¶ communication between people or activities that people do together
      Sexual intercourse, or coitus or copulation, is chiefly the insertion and thrusting of a male's penis, usually when erect, into a female's vagina for the purposes of sexual pleasure or reproduction; also known as vaginal intercourse or vaginal sex.
      Other forms of penetrative sexual intercourse include penetration of the anus by the penis (anal sex), penetration of the mouth by the penis or oral penetration of the vulva or vagina (oral sex), sexual penetration by the fingers (fingering), and penetration by use of a strap-on dildo.
      "And you want us out because you're anticipating coitus?" Howard asked.
      "Leonard, there's no reason to feel uncomfortable just because we've seen each other's faces and naked bodies contorted in the sweet agony of coitus," said Leslie.
      Leonard, do you understand that our efforts here will in no way increase the odds of you having sexual congress (intercourse) with Penny?
      Boy, you're wound awfully tight for a man who's just had sexual intercourse.
      One can not engage in reciprocal exchange or social intercourse with someone whose behavior cannot be predicted.
      Snow in cold countries protects the crops from the frost; it makes human intercourse easier (by means of sleighs).
      And it makes intercourse easier by keeping women and men indoor.
      n[U] dependence
      "They're on the internet. They're on their cellphones. And this is the best way to reach them." Research from Native Public Media conducted in 2009 confirmed the reliance on wireless access.
      The ERP Solution shall be implemented to limit a reliance on manual processes to consolidate subsidiary data, limit redundant data processing, increase data validation and help to increase user adoption.
      How did things get so bad so fast? Blame the Icelandic banking system's heavy reliance on external financing.
      Cars have become an integral part of many Australians' lives with an increasing reliance on cars for transportation.
      Shareholders are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking information.
      adj growing or used under the sea
      n[C] a ship that can travel under water
      A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean.
      Modern cables are typically 69 millimeters (2.7 in) in diameter and weigh around 10 kilograms per meter (7 lb/ft), although thinner and lighter cables are used for deep-water sections.
      The Asia-America Gateway (AAG) is a 20,000-kilometre (12,000 mi) long submarine communications cable system, connecting South-East Asia with the USA mainland, across the Pacific Ocean via Guam and Hawaii. The cable is capable of delivering up to 2.88 Tbit/s (US-Hawaii & Hong Kong-South East Asia) and 1.92 Tbit/s (Hawaii-Hong Kong).
      The first submarine communications cables, laid in the 1850s, carried telegraphy traffic.
      The noun submarine evolved as a shortened form of submarine boat (and is often further shortened to sub).
      Submarines were first widely used during World War I (1914–1918), and now figure in many navies large and small.
      U-boat refers to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in World War I and World War II.
      In the film, U-571, a World War II German submarine is boarded in 1942 by disguised United States Navy submariners seeking to capture her Enigma cipher machine.
      The Hunt for Red October is a 1984 novel by Tom Clancy. The story follows the intertwined adventures of Soviet submarine captain Marko Aleksandrovich Ramius and CIA analyst Jack Ryan.
      A submersible is a small vehicle designed to operate underwater. The term submersible is often used to differentiate from other underwater vehicles known as submarines, in that a submarine is a fully autonomous craft, capable of renewing its own power and breathing air, whereas a submersible is usually supported by a surface vessel, platform, shore team or sometimes a larger submarine.
      Jiaolong is a Chinese manned deep-sea research submersible that can dive to a depth of over 7,000 m.
      A submarine sandwich is a sandwich that consists of a long roll of Italian or French bread, split widthwise either into two pieces or opened in a "V" on one side, and filled with a variety of meats, cheeses, vegetables, seasonings, and sauces.
      adj most important, supreme
      School quality in the end is paramount.
      All of this makes China an issue of paramount importance for the presidential debate.
      The visitor experience is paramount to all aspects of our operation.
      A paramount chief is the English language designation for the highest-level political leader in a regional or local polity or country administered politically with a chief-based system.
      The monarchy of Fiji arose in the mid-nineteenth century when native ruler Seru Epenisa Cakobau consolidated control of the Fijian Islands and declared himself King or paramount chief of Fiji.
      Paramount Pictures Corporation (commonly known as Paramount Pictures or simply Paramount) is a film studio, television production company and motion picture distributor, consistently ranked as one of the "Big Six" film studios of Hollywood (Warner Bros, Walt Disney, Universal, Columbia, 20th Century Fox, and Paramount).
      v[T] take sb/sth illegally from one country to another ¶ take, send or bring sb/sth secretly
      If you need to import anything, it has to be smuggled, which means you have to be in cahoots with the regime.
      In 1876, a man named Henry Wickham smuggled seventy thousand rubber tree seeds out of the rainforests of Brazil and delivered them to Victorian England.
      We can smuggle the dog back in and Chandler wouldn't even know.
      We've agreed to look the other way if Dennis want to use up to 20% of the grant money he attracts to smuggle his grandfather out of Pyongyang.
      There's a 7-Eleven here. We smuggle Slurpees, which are essentially ICEEs, in under our coats, after having a pleasant meal either here, here, or here.
      Compare these words: slink, smuggle, snuggle, sneak, and stealth.
      v[T] perceive, notice, or understand
      The ear of love discerns more, and more truly, than the eye of judgment.
      Anyone with eyes to see can discern that the U.S. started going downhill when good manufacturing jobs were sent to regulation free countries that offered abundant slave labor, followed by loose banking regulation that allowed the bankers to replace productivity with financialization and debt.
      The pathway from the outer ear to the inner ear is remarkable in its ability to precisely process sounds from the very softest to the very loudest and to distinguish very small changes in the frequency of sound (pitch). Humans can discern a difference in frequency of just 0.1 percent.
      The first time I discerned this, it thrilled me to no end.
      In the early 1840s, several main trends could easily be discerned in his artistic pursuits - historical, everyday-life and portrait painting.
      Even fools are thought wise if they keep silent, and discerning if they hold their tongues.
      v[T] praise too much or insincerely ¶ suit, or make sb/sth seem more attractive or better
      If A fawns B, sucks up to B, or kisses B's ass, A flatters B because A wants B to like A or give A something.
      Oh, I am really flattered, but I don't feel that way about you.
      You know, honey, as flattered as I am, that you saw me first, I don't think we should be cranking anything up.
      Well, that's very flattering. But it'd be great if you could draw me with some clothes.
      You're looking lovely today. May I say that is a very flattering sleeve length on you.
      These movies are offensive and degrading to women and females. And the lighting's always unflattering.
      n[C] an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production
      Orchards comprise fruit, vegetable, and nut-producing trees which are grown for commercial production.
      Orchards are also sometimes a feature of large gardens, where they serve an aesthetic as well as a productive purpose.
      A fruit garden is generally synonymous with an orchard, although it is set on a smaller non-commercial scale and may emphasize berry shrubs in preference to fruit trees.
      A strawberry field is not a beautiful sight. It lacks the charm and character of a citrus grove, an apple orchard, or even a field of corn.
      You shall do the same with your vineyard, and with your olive orchard.
      v[IT] allow sb to have whatever he likes or wants, satisfy a desire ¶ take part in an activity, esp an illegal one
      On a recent vacation, I happened to notice a bubble machine in a second-story window of a busy square. Watching the bubbles float down to the ground was so peaceful that I decided to buy some the next time I see them at a store. Indulge the kid inside and get a bottle for yourself.
      I decided to treat myself to a pedicure while the child was at the babysitter. I was also planning to indulge in a little shopping.
      I have friends who are happy to indulge in a great pair of shoes, but I've never been able to swallow the cost.
      Rachel's father spoiled her, indulging her every whim.
      People might indulge in crime to meet their basic necessity.
      adj relating to amounts instead of quality
      It is a precise statement of the quantitative relationship among those variables.
      Do you have any quantitative analysis handy to support this claim?
      Quantitative easing (QE) is an unconventional monetary policy used by central banks to stimulate the economy when standard monetary policy has become ineffective.
      Now Ben Bernanke and other top Federal Reserve officials have been dropping hints that more quantitative easing may be necessary.
      Now that the Fed has gotten a taste for quantitative easing it is going to be really hard to stop.
      adj caused by or capable of being communicated by infection ¶ (laughter, feeling etc) likely to spread to others
      Infection is the invasion of a host organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce.
      Contagious is defined as "capable of being transmitted from individual to individual (person to person; animal to animal); communicable."
      A contagious disease is one transmitted by physical contact, whereas an infectious one is transmitted via microorganisms in the air or water.
      Cholera and typhoid are both termed water- and food-borne infectious diseases. They are caused by bacteria and spread through contaminated water and food.
      Cholera is not contagious, but it is an infectious disease.
      In practice, there is little or no difference in meaning between contagious and infectious when applied to disease or its spread.
      In figurative senses, contagious may describe the spread of good things such as laughter and enthusiasm or bad ones such as violence or panic, whereas infectious usually refers to the spread of positive things, such as good humor or optimism.
      Laughter can be infectious.
      Epidemiology is the scientific study of infectious diseases and their causes.
      Emory University Hospital was the first US hospital to care for people exposed to Ebola. It has a specially built isolation unit set up in collaboration with the CDC to treat people exposed to certain serious infectious diseases.
      Because dead bodies are still infectious, some doctors disposed of them in a safe manner, despite local traditional burial rituals.
      Smallpox was an infectious disease unique to humans.
      Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease.
      Leprosy is a very serious infectious disease in which the flesh and nerves are gradually destroyed.
      Conjunctivitis (also called pink eye) is a painful and infectious disease of the eye that makes it red.
      n[CU] a statement that apparently contradicts itself and yet might be true ¶ irony
      "More haste, less speed" is a well-known paradox (Compare proverb/saying).
      "This statement is false" is a paradox.
      The grandfather paradox is described as following: the time traveler went back in time to the time when his grandfather had not married yet. At that time, the time traveler kills his grandfather, and therefore, the time traveler is never born when he was meant to be.
      In common usage, the word "paradox" often refers to statements that are ironic or unexpected.
      However, it is a paradox that investment in human capital is usually lowest when needed most.
      It's a strange paradox that drinking a lot of water can often make you feel thirsty.
      n[CU] a group of people who share the same interests, or a feeling of friendship between them ¶ membership of an academic or professional organization ¶ a job at a university ¶ scholarship
      Alcoholics Anonymous is a worldwide fellowship of persons recovering from alcoholism.
      There is a vague, unspoken, belief that Christian fellowship means we should always be happiest when in the presence of other believers.
      Sheldon was refused clearance for a very prestigious government research fellowship.
      Since the object of the Early Career International Research Fellowships is primarily to promote collaborative research, the Fellows will not be required to undertake any undergraduate teaching, but will be required to deliver at least one paper or lecture.
      The Endeavour Research Fellowships provides financial support up to AUD$23,500 for postgraduate students and postdoctoral fellows from the US and Canada to undertake short-term research (4-6 months) towards a Masters or PhD (which they are enrolled in a participating country) or postdoctoral research in any field of study in Australia.