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      n[C] a very small piece that falls off a dry food ¶ a very small amount of sth
      Monica made a pumpkin pie with chocolate cookie crumb crust.
      Welcome to Monica's. There is not a crumb of dirt anywhere, nor a chair misplaced.
      Don't talk while you have food in your mouth! You're spraying crumbs on me!
      The graphical control element Breadcrumbs or breadcrumb trail is a navigation aid used in user interfaces.
      It allows users to keep track of their locations within programs or documents.
      The term comes from the trail of breadcrumbs left by Hansel and Gretel in the popular fairytale.
      The Crumbs on the Table is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm.
      The only crumb of comfort for the Bank of England is that at least it can revise down its consumer price inflation projections as well as its GDP growth forecasts.
      n[U] great enjoyment ¶ a condiment
      v[T] get ~ from
      When he returned from a trip, he used to bring chocolates. I would get one now and then and I ate it with relish.
      A relish is a cooked, pickled, or chopped vegetable or fruit food item typically used as a condiment in particular to enhance a staple (bread, rice etc).
      Lao Gan Ma (also called Laoganma) is a brand of chili sauces that are made in China.
      I would relish the opportunity to work in a dynamic and challenging environment again, managing a team.
      Run your partner a bath with plenty of yummy bubbles or some special scented bath oils and he or she will relish the chance to relax and unwind.
      If you like working with people and relish the thought of making a difference to someone's life, then nursing has a lot to offer you.
      Compare relish and ravish.
      n[U] in ~ - together
      Try to sing in unison if you can.
      "Yes Sir" we said in unison.
      They started out making $22,500 per episode and ended up making $1,000,000 per episode. All negotiations were done in unison. Kudrow said, "The six of us are far stronger than just one person."
      My wife's total cholesterol dropped from 206 to 173, other readings fell in unison. She also lost 10 lbs. I lost 15 lbs and my total cholesterol fell like a rock - from 217 to 136!
      Now they are launching Windows Phone 8 in unison with Windows 8, and once again lack a killer app.
      adj likely to happen very soon
      He was in imminent danger of dying.
      Still, no U.N. action is imminent.
      3M is in imminent danger of collapse.
      300 nuclear bombs and an imminent threat of war are its current position.
      A whistle from his cellmate alerts him to the imminent arrival of the fierce prison warder.
      Compare "imminent" and "loom".
      n[pl] education, achievements, experience etc that make one suitable to do sth ¶ a letter or certificate that proves one's identity or qualifications
      Who are these people? What are their credentials? How are they qualified? What makes accidentally noticing a hunk of rock traipsing around the solar system for billions of years more noteworthy than any other scientific accomplishment by someone under 30?
      The credentials of the scientists being asked is key.
      Barring a miracle, I doubt those credentials will get him the job.
      If an encrypted drive automatically unlocks on boot with no checking of credentials, is it really encrypted?
      Compare certificate and credentials.
      adj happening/coming soon ¶ given or offered when needed ¶ willing to help, give information etc
      Fortunately, that question is answered in "Bleeding Talent," a brilliant forthcoming book by Tim Kane, chief economist at the Hudson Institute and a former U.S. Air Force intelligence officer.
      I will not be voting for them in forthcoming elections.
      Not only were the soldiers gone, the massive material aid was no longer forthcoming.
      Criminal trials, no matter how efficient the police are, are not sure bets for the prosecution, nor should they be if the evidence is not forthcoming.
      On the phone, Jones was polite and forthcoming.
      n[C] a cover that is fixed or hangs above a bed, seat, throne, etc as a shelter or decoration ¶ sth that spreads above you like a roof
      A canopy is an overhead roof or else a structure over which a fabric or metal covering is attached, able to provide shade or shelter.
      A canopy can also be a tent, generally without a floor.
      A canopy is a type of door which sits on top of a car and lifts up in some way, to provide access for passengers.
      An aircraft canopy is the transparent enclosure over the cockpit of some types of aircraft.
      Inside the rainforest, beneath the dense canopy, humidity stays high and steady compared with the outside world.
      n[UC] a military blockade and assault of a city or fortress, or the surrounding of a building by police etc
      The term 'siege' derives from a Latin word that means 'to sit'.
      During a siege a surrounding army would build earthworks to completely encircle their target, preventing food, water, and other supplies from reaching the besieged city.
      The Iliad relates a part of the last year of the siege of Troy; its sequel, the Odyssey describes Odysseus's journey home.
      The Siege of Constantinople in 626 by the Avars, aided by large numbers of allied Slavs and the Sassanid Persians, ended in a strategic victory for the Byzantines.
      The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. The climax of the First Crusade, the successful siege saw the Crusaders seize the city from the Fatimid Caliphate and laid the foundations for the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
      Kaifeng fell to the Mongols after a siege in 1232.
      The battle consisted of skirmishes, ground assault, and the siege of the twin fortified cities of Fancheng and Xiangyang in modern-day Hubei, China. Lü Wenhuan, commander-in-chief of the Southern Song dynasty, surrendered to Kublai Khan in 1273.
      The conquest of Constantinople followed a seven-week siege that had begun on Friday, 6 April 1453.
      The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade was a prolonged military operation undertaken by the German Army Group North against Leningrad - historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg - in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
      The Siege of Leningrad lasted over 29 months, about half of the duration of the entire Second World War.
      German soldiers laid siege to the city; the city was under siege; Soviet soldiers lifted the siege of the city.
      By the time the siege ended, the citizens were nearly starving.
      The Battle of Stalingrad was a major battle of World War II. Field Marshal Erich von Manstein advised Hitler not to order the 6th Army to break out, stating that he could successfully break through the Soviet lines and relieve the besieged 6th Army.
      The Siege of Changchun was a siege operation launched by the People's Liberation Army during the Chinese Civil War against the city of Changchun, defended by the Nationalist forces.
      The longest siege in recorded history was the siege of Candia (present day Iraklion on Crete). The fortified town was besieged by Ottoman Turks for 22 years, from 1648 to 1669.
      The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare. The siege lasted three times longer than the Siege of Stalingrad and a year longer than the Siege of Leningrad.
      He was killed resisting arrest after a 36-hour police siege of his flat on 22 March.
      Siege mentality is a collective state of mind whereby one believes that one is being constantly attacked, oppressed, or isolated in the face of the negative intentions of the rest of the world.
      n[C] facial hair grown on the upper lip
      The World Beard and Moustache Championships 2007 had six sub-categories for moustaches: Natural, Hungarian, Dalí, English, English, and Freestyle.
      Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marqués de Dalí de Pubol, known as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish Catalan surrealist painter.
      Other types of moustache include: Chevron, Fu Manchu, Pancho Villa, Handlebar, Horseshoe, Pencil, Toothbrush (Adolf Hitler), and Walrus.
      "You go to a costume party? Let me guess, Pancho Villa?" Phoebe asked as soon as she saw Rachel's face.
      José Doroteo Arango Arámbula - better known by his pseudonym Francisco Villa or his nickname Pancho Villa - was one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals.
      Dr. Fu Manchu is a fictional character introduced in a series of novels by British author Sax Rohmer during the first half of the 20th century.
      "I'm thinking of growing a mustache." said Howard. "Dr. Fu Manchu, a handlebar, or pencil?" Leonard asked.
      Chandler enters with his hair full of mousse and a cheesy mustache.
      Richard's shaved off his mustache.
      Shaving with stone razors was technologically possible from Neolithic times, but the oldest portrait showing a shaved man with a moustache is an ancient Iranian (Scythian) horseman from 300 BC.
      Gillette is a brand of men's safety razors, among other personal care products owned by Procter & Gamble (P&G).
      Compare these words: beard, goatee, mustache, and sideburns.
      n[C] a group of people or companies who work together in order to achieve a particular aim
      also a verb
      A syndicate is a self-organizing group of individuals, companies, corporations or entities formed to transact some specific business, to pursue or promote a shared interest. In most cases formed groups aim to scale up their profits.
      Although there are many legal syndicates formed around the world, the usage of the term "the syndicate" in colloquial English often refers to one involved in illegal activities.
      Universal Press Syndicate is the world's largest independent press syndicate. It distributes lifestyle and opinion columns, comic strips and other content.
      Greenberg is also host of the nationally syndicated Peter Greenberg Worldwide Radio show, broadcast each week from a different remote location around the world.
      The live, three-hour weekly radio program and a daily short-form travel feature are syndicated by United Stations and are heard on a combined 400+ stations.
      Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday American comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz, which ran from October 2, 1950, to February 13, 2000, continuing in reruns afterward.
      n[C] a formal agreement
      So what do you say we make a pact? If you and I are both single by the time we're 40, we get married.
      Chandler and Monica have a pact not to have sex again until the wedding.
      On August 23, 1939, representatives from Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union met and signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.
      The pact remained in effect until 22 June 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
      Are you asking permission to break the pact?
      adj likely to happen, to exist or to be true
      If the watch is 20 years old, it's probable that these items were lost or misplaced.
      Of these factors, exposure to loud noise is by far the most probable cause of tinnitus.
      So while it is possible and even probable to have healthy intimate relationships while viewing a large amount of porn there is risk.
      If we continue forward on our current path, catastrophe is not just a possible outcome; it is the most probable outcome.
      Our officers make arrests and lay charges based on reasonable and probable grounds.
      n[C] the central part of sth
      The nucleus is the very dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.
      The nucleus is the solid, central part of a comet, popularly termed a dirty snowball or an icy dirtball.
      An ice nucleus is a particle which acts as the nucleus for the formation of an ice crystal in the atmosphere.
      In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
      Appointed with six others in 1784 to oversee the founding of a state college, he saw his dream come true in 1798 when Franklin College was founded. Modeled after Yale, it became the nucleus of the University of Georgia.
      Compare these words: core, kernel, nucleus, pit, and stone.
      n[U] feeling of worry, disappointment, or sadness
      also a verb
      Joey and Ross accidentally take a nap together and much to their dismay, find that they like it.
      Phoebe and Monica opened the door, and to their dismay, the stripper is an old, short, fat guy who looks exhausted.
      "Can you hear the fire alarm buzzing?" she asks, staring in dismay.
      I shook my head with dismay when I read most comments here.
      In my experience, New Yorkers don't just fall back dismayed when someone tries to take a cab away.
      I was dismayed to discover the full-screen/windowed button in the control bar has been removed.
      adj common, widespread
      It was more prevalent among women than men, and also more prevalent among those who were separated, divorced or widowed compared with their married colleagues.
      This part of the book is very profound and timely for the sexual culture prevalent today.
      The gloomy outlook prevalent in modern science fiction may be undermining the genre's ability to inspire engineers and scientists.
      This same attitude is also prevalent among residents.
      Compare "prevalent" and "pervasive".
      adj belonging naturally ¶ existing within, inherent
      While gold has limited industrial value in electronics (it is a good conductor) and health (tooth fillings, etc., because it resists corrosion and doesn't react with the body), its market value is much higher than its intrinsic value (its value as a useful commodity).
      A teamwork approach is intrinsic to life in the Navy.
      Animals have become an intrinsic part of the disability community. Assistance dogs are welcome.
      Best thing to do is find an intrinsic motivation for doing your work.
      Currency only represents value, it has no intrinsic worth.
      v[T] prevent sth from growing or developing well ¶ make sb nervous or embarrassed so that they are unable to do sth
      These results indicate that anti-CD47 antibodies can dramatically inhibit the growth of human solid tumors.
      It is supposed to have the same properties with regard to taste, texture and appearance as fat, and tolerates frying; it does not contain any calories or cholesterol, but inhibits the absorption of vitamin E.
      Since the growth of the Eastern Church was greatly inhibited by the advances of the Moslems beginning in the Seventh Century, the most remarkable instances of church growth in the early Middle Ages (600-1500) took place in the West.
      There is a fear of risk-taking and it is inhibiting the team from thinking creatively.
      "Just go get yourself a drink or something." "Oh yeah that's what you want- my inhibitions lowered."
      adj inadequate
      But these arguments are insufficient to justify the costs they impose on us.
      Engaging in vigorous workouts alone is insufficient. Another important part to fitness is eating a well-balanced diet.
      In April, federal prosecutors said there was insufficient evidence to pursue charges against a Border Patrol agent in the 2010 shooting death of a 15-year-old Mexican in Texas.
      Wages are abysmal, insufficient for basic food requirements, let alone decent housing.
      Lack of resources, insufficient funds, skills shortage, time constraints, work flow control and waste are key challenges embodied in affordable low cost housing shortages.
      n[C] the rest ¶ quantity left after subtraction or division
      v[T] sell a book cheaply because it has not sold well
      Interestingly, comet-caused panics basically vanished during most of the remainder of the 20th century.
      The remainder is usually borrowed from a financial institution in the form of a mortgage or car loan.
      97 / 2 = 48 and the remainder is 1.
      If you divide 97 by 2, you get 48, with remainder 1.
      Divide 2 into 97, and the answer is 48, with remainder 1.
      I got these books at remaindered prices.
      n[U] unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power
      They suffered years of political oppression.
      The way to happiness is hard to travel when shadowed with the oppression of tyranny.
      Take action against injustice and oppression.
      Mormonism has created an ingenious system of oppression, in which opposition towards men is tantamount to arguing with God.
      It is questionable whether it is even possible for Mormonism to equalize the roles of men and women, because the oppression of women is so integral to the religion.
      n[C] campaign
      v[I] take part in a ~
      The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Latin Roman Catholic Church during the High Middle Ages and Late Middle Ages.
      In 1095 Pope Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to holy places in and near Jerusalem.
      The High Middle Ages (or High Mediaeval Period) was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (c. 1001–1300). The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention end around 1500.
      Our history includes the Crusades, the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide, the Spanish Inquisition, the Trail of Tears, slavery, lynch mobs, and pogroms.
      She has acquired fame internationally for her crusade against domestic violence.
      Within the Cabinet, he stood out for his crusade against corruption.
      He was often called the "greenest CEO in America" as he crusaded to transform his billion-dollar carpet manufacturing company into a sustainable enterprise.
      n[C] a piece of cloth used at the table for wiping the mouth and fingers while eating
      Napkins were used in ancient Roman times to wipe bums.
      A sanitary napkin, sanitary towel, sanitary pad, menstrual pad, maxi pad, or pad is an absorbent item worn by a woman while she is menstruating.
      One of the earliest references to table napkins in English dates to 1384–85.
      Table napkins can be made of tissue paper.
      Conventionally, the napkin is often folded and placed to the left of the place setting, outside the outermost fork.
      Origami techniques can be used (replacing the traditional paper method with the serviette/napkin) to create a 3D design e.g. a crane or swan.
      Table manners are essential when you're attending a luncheon, wedding reception or other formal function.
      Napkins are meant to gently dab your mouth during a meal. They are not actually supposed to get dirty.
      Follow these steps to use a napkin in table etiquette.
      Wait to begin the meal until your host or hostess unfolds their napkin. This is the signal to begin.
      Unfold your napkin. If it's a small napkin, completely open it. If it's a large dinner napkin, keep it folded in half. Place it on your lap.
      Keep the napkin in your lap during the entire meal. Lift it to blot your mouth if needed.
      Place your napkin on your chair if you must get up during the meal. This acts as a signal to the server that you're returning to your place.
      Notice when the host or hostess puts their napkin on the table. This means the meal is over.
      Fold your napkin neatly in half or in quarters. Place it to the right of your plate and rise to leave the table.
      A wet wipe, also known as a wet towel, or a moist towelette, is a small moistened piece of paper or cloth that often comes folded and individually wrapped for convenience.
      v[T] make sth completely clean ¶ make sb/sth morally clean or pure
      These ingredients provide nutrition to the body's detoxification mechanism and cleanse the blood of toxins at the cellular level.
      At this moment John was cleansed from the stain of original sin.
      Stop cleansing my aura; just leave my aura alone, okay?
      Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or religious groups from a given territory with the intent of creating a territory inhabited by people of a homogeneous or pure ethnicity, religion, culture, and history.
      The forces applied may be various forms of forced migration (deportation, population transfer), as well as mass murder, and intimidation.
      Compare these words: cleanse, purge, rinse, and sanctify.
      n[U] the feeling of being grateful
      After the war, George Washington sent a letter of gratitude to Whetten for her service.
      And we remembered them with affection, respect and gratitude.
      Eternity isn't long enough to express my gratitude.
      I found my heart overflowing with gratitude for my mom and dad.
      When I finished, I looked at him and smiled slightly in gratitude.
      n[U] British money
      adj excellent, outstanding
      Sterling silver (a grade of silver) is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by mass of silver and 7.5% by mass of other metals, usually copper.
      The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known simply as the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom and some other countries.
      A number of nations that do not use sterling also have currencies called the pound.
      The full, official name, pound sterling, is used mainly in formal contexts and also when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is normally used.
      The first phone call Barack Obama placed after Mitt Romney had conceded defeat late on Tuesday night was to Bill Clinton, to thank him for his sterling work as a campaigner on the Democratic candidate's behalf.
      I think Peter Pannu's done a sterling job over the past 18 months, under extremely difficult circumstances.
      The 27-year-old gives a sterling performance in his new film The Man Inside.