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      adj continuing for a long time
      India, China, Japan, Russia, and Europe all seek a prolonged period of stability that would support economic growth.
      Excessive heat for prolonged periods can degenerate the materials in your tires, and, under extreme conditions, can lead to explosive failure.
      A causal link between skin cancer and prolonged exposure to solar UV is now accepted.
      After prolonged use of alcohol, the body must go through a period of adjustment to get used to the absence of this chemical once the alcoholic quits drinking.
      In addition to the prolonged drought, soaring world food prices have exacerbated the suffering.
      n[C] a recognizable sign, design or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others ¶ sth that sb typically has or does
      For the sake of corporate identity trademarks are also being displayed on company buildings.
      A trademark is typically a name, word, phrase, logo, symbol, design, image, or a combination of these elements.
      There is also a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories, such as those based on color, smell, or sound (like jingles).
      A sound trademark is a trademark where sound is used to perform the trademark function of uniquely identifying the commercial origin of products or services: MGM and their lion's roar; Intel and the three-second chord sequence used with the Pentium processor; THX and its "Deep Note" and 20th Century Fox with the very famous fanfare.
      He flashes his trademark smile as people start chanting his name.
      Every designer has a trademark style.
      v[T] resist, stand up to
      Indeed without meat nourishment mankind would be quite unable to withstand the rigors of the Northern climate.
      Perhaps they have very tough skin on their feet that withstands the pressure of the blade.
      Like much of the ancient world, very little has withstood the test of time and often you need to use your imagination to get a sense of how it would once have looked.
      It provides a foundation for withstanding economic downturns and ensuring our future success.
      Notwithstanding (in spite of) the fact that there was severe crisis of political leadership, the situation militarily turned in favor of the liberation fighters within November.
      adj relating to or caused by heat ¶ designed to keep the wearer warm
      n[C] rising current of warm air
      All matter with a temperature greater than absolute zero emits thermal radiation.
      A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator.
      Long underwear, also called long johns or thermal underwear, is a style of two-piece underwear with long legs and long sleeves that is normally worn during cold weather.
      A hot spring is a spring that is produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater from the Earth's crust.
      A vacuum flask (also known as a Dewar flask, Dewar bottle or Thermos) is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings.
      Thermos L.L.C. is the leading manufacturer worldwide of insulated food and beverage containers and other consumer products.
      The word "thermos" is a generalized trademark used as a name for a vacuum flask.
      Invented in 1892 by Sir James Dewar, a scientist at Oxford University, the "vacuum flask" was not manufactured for commercial use until 1904, when two German glass blowers formed Thermos GmbH.
      A thermal column (or thermal) is a column of rising air in the lower altitudes of the Earth's atmosphere.
      I don't have any thermals (thermal clothing) on.
      n[C] a set of stairs inside a building
      A stairway, staircase, stairwell, flight of stairs, or simply stairs is a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps.
      Stair climbing is a simple exercise you can perform anywhere there is a staircase, whether that staircase is in your home or in public.
      Run up and down the staircase as many times as you can. Skip steps in-between if you can.
      In all, there are 132 rooms, 35 bathrooms, 28 fireplaces, 8 staircases, and 3 elevators in the White House.
      People may trip and fall in darkened staircases.
      v[I] wizz, zip ¶ escalate
      n[s] the sound or act
      He zoomed off down the road.
      Click on the sliding bar and slide it to the left to zoom out or the right to zoom in.
      A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length can be varied, as opposed to a fixed focal length lens.
      Zooming in filmmaking and television production refers to the technique of changing the focal length of a zoom lens during a shot – this technique is also called a zoom.
      If a camera zooms in, it makes the person or thing that you are taking a picture of seem bigger and closer.
      It's a very slim camera, with the bare minimum of physical controls, yet it still manages to pack a 10x zoom equivalent to 28-280mm on a 35mm camera. There's a 7.2x digital zoom on top of this if you want to get even closer.
      n[C] a container used to put flowers in
      A vase is an open container, as of glass or porcelain, used for holding flowers or for ornamentation.
      Rachel's not just waitressing, she writes the specials on the specials board, and she takes the dead flowers out of the vase.
      Oh my God, Julio thinks Monica is the empty vase!
      Tulips like to be cold, so if you have a vase of just tulips, add a couple ice cubes every evening to keep them happy.
      Ikebana ("living flowers") is the Japanese art of flower arrangement.
      adj single, alone, or not sociable
      n[U] ~ confinement
      n[C] hermit
      He also provided the assist for his team's solitary goal.
      A solitary figure was coming towards him from the other end of the long, brightly-lit corridor.
      Or you might prefer the quiet of a solitary walk.
      Baby Koala Joeys live with their mothers for 1 year, and after that their solitary life starts.
      There was not a solitary word about respecting human rights.
      Writing is usually a solitary thing and quite personal.
      Solitary confinement is a form of imprisonment in which a prisoner is isolated from any human contact, though often with the exception of members of prison staff.
      Solitaire is a computer game included with Microsoft Windows, based on a card game of the same name.
      n[UC] reasoning from general principles to a particular case ¶ the process of taking away an amount from a total;the amount that is taken away
      In doing that you're not only enhancing your ability to make deductions but you're also increasing your knowledge base.
      Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic or logical deduction or, informally, "top-down" logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
      A landlord cannot make deductions from a security deposit for restoring or repairing costs resulting from normal wear and tear, even if there is a clause saying the opposite in a residential tenancy agreement.
      Your donation will result in a tax deduction in accordance with IRS rules.
      He earns $50,000 a year after tax deductions.
      Compare "deduce" and "deduct".
      n[U] bullets, bombs, grenades, shells etc
      Ammunition (colloquially shortened to ammo) is gunpowder and artillery, or broadly anything that can be used in combat including bombs, missiles, warheads, landmines, naval mines, and anti-personnel mines.
      An ammunition box or cartouche box is a container designed for safe transport and storage of ammunition.
      An ammunition column (long line of vehicles etc) consists of military vehicles carrying artillery and small arms ammunition for the combatant unit to which the column belongs.
      An ammunition depot, ammunition supply point (ASP), ammunition handling area (AHA), ammunition dump, is a military storage facility for live (not yet exploded or lit; ready for use) ammunition and explosives.
      The fact that she was Indian only gave them ammunition.
      As for HTC, it acquired S3 Graphics specifically to provide itself with ammunition against Apple, thanks to patents S3 owns.
      adj rough and uneven ¶ sturdy, tough-looking ¶ strongly built and not likely to break easily ¶ determined
      As we traveled the island we drove through amazing stone house villages built into the rugged coastline that gets battered by Typhoons.
      Tall and lean with the rugged good looks of the Latin lover, he appeared in hundreds of television and movie roles, usually cast as a Mexican peasant or lovable villain.
      A wide smile split the Russian's rugged features.
      If the mountain bike is built from heavy frames, it probably will not last long in rugged off road conditions.
      Her movies portrayed the rugged outdoor beauty of northern Canada with lots of snow, dogsleds, wildlife, and strong female leads - usually played by Nell herself.
      Rugged individualism was the phrase used often by Herbert Hoover during his time as president.
      It refers to the idea that each individual should be able to help themselves out, and that the government does not need to involve itself in people's economic lives nor in national economics in general.
      n[C] a thin, selective barrier, or a biological ~
      Membrane most commonly means a thin, selective barrier, but it is sometimes used for films that function as separators, like biological membranes.
      A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.
      The mucous membranes are involved in absorption and secretion.
      The nasal mucous membrane lines the nasal cavities.
      In human anatomy, the eardrum, or tympanic membrane, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear in humans and other tetrapods.
      A membrane keyboard is a computer keyboard whose "keys" are not separate, moving parts, as with the majority of other keyboards, but rather are pressure pads that have only outlines and symbols printed on a flat, flexible surface.
      v[T] stop sb/sth before they get to their destination
      Harker's phone calls had been intercepted.
      Note that we don't use encryption, so it is technically possible for someone to intercept the messages you send.
      And then Ashotn intercepts the ball.
      Throughout the remainder of 1915 the Zeppelins raided London frequently, and with impunity. They flew too high for most planes, and when they were intercepted by aircraft the ammunition in use at the time had little effect.
      After intercepting the emails, Italian investigators sought help from Swiss authorities.
      v[I] wait somewhere secretly, esp because one is going to do sth bad or illegal ¶ linger without being clearly shown
      What would you do if you did find someone lurking behind the shower curtain?
      A small group of powerful, connected, super rich men lurk in the shadows, pulling the strings on our puppet politicians.
      Paul has a lurking suspicion that his wife is sleeping with her dentist. "I mean, how clean can teeth get?"
      "What's a lurker?" "When you're playing a slot machine and it hasn't paid out, a lurker waits for you to give up and then..."
      If you lurk in a chat room on the Internet, you read what other people are writing to each other, but you do not write any messages yourself.
      In Internet culture, a lurker is typically a member of an online community who observes, but does not actively participate.
      In Internet, a leech is one who benefits, usually deliberately, from others' information or effort but does not offer anything in return, or makes only token offerings in an attempt to avoid being called a leech.
      v[IT] change into vapor, or make sth do this ¶ disappear
      This dry air causes some of the rain falling through it to evaporate, which cools the air.
      Winter-blend gasoline is a mixture that evaporates more quickly than gas sold in summer months.
      Note that all of the energy goes into evaporating the molecule of water.
      These meteors evaporate upon entry into the atmosphere and can be seen as "shooting stars."
      Evaporated milk, also known as dehydrated milk, is a shelf-stable canned milk product with about 60% of the water removed from fresh milk.
      Condensed milk is cow's milk from which water has been removed.
      Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through an intermediate liquid phase.
      Distillation is a process of separating the component substances from a liquid mixture by selective vaporization and condensation.
      And 1.5 years can evaporate very quickly when working on a large system with the government.
      adj willing to use force or strong pressure
      also a noun
      Phoebe, we all know you're an animal rights activist, but aren't you getting a little militant about it?
      He had united disparate militant groups, from Egypt to Chechnya, from Yemen to the Philippines, under the banner of Al Qaeda and his ideal of a borderless brotherhood of radical Islam.
      The killing is a dramatic resumption of Israel's policy of assassinating Palestinian militant leaders.
      America helped create many of these militant outfits back in the 1980s to fight the Soviet Union in Afghanistan.
      A powerful bomb, apparently placed by Islamic militants opposed to the Arab-Israeli peace negotiations, blew up a crowded bus during the morning rush hour in the heart of Tel Aviv, Israel, killing 22 people and wounding 48.
      Compare "militant" and "military".
      v[T] hit sb/sth hard with your hand closed
      v[IT] hit against sth loudly
      v[I] beat strongly
      also a noun
      Thumping the table for emphasis he added: "It's bad for local government, and for central government."
      If I ever see you downtown again, I am going to thump you really bad.
      The door thumped against the wall and rebounded, almost hitting her.
      Phoebe thumped down the stairs, switched off the alarm and thumped back up the stairs to bed.
      His heart was thumping like a drum, but his face, from long habit, was probably expressionless.
      Her body fell to the floor with a thump. "Annie, are you OK?"
      Compare these words: bang, beat, knock, pound, punch, slap, smack, spank, strike, thump, and thud.
      n[U] a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant ¶ sheets, tablecloths etc ¶ underwear
      Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth.
      Today, linen is usually an expensive textile produced in relatively small quantities.
      The collective term "linens" is still often used generically to describe a class of woven and even knitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles traditionally made of linen.
      I really love my bed linen; it makes my room feel more like home.
      Have you got enough chairs, plates, cutlery and table linen?
      He was wearing a cream linen jacket, jeans and old deck shoes, without socks.
      n[C] a small evergreen tree with shiny leaves ¶ wreath of the leaves
      In Greek mythology, Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head.
      In ancient Greece wreaths were awarded to victors, both in athletic competitions and in poetic meets; in Rome they were symbols of martial victory, crowning a successful commander during his triumph.
      In common modern idiomatic usage it refers to a victory.
      The expression "resting on one's laurels" refers to someone relying entirely on long-past successes for continued fame or recognition, where to "look to one's laurels" means to be careful of losing rank to competition.
      The word "Laureate" in 'poet laureate' refers to being signified by the laurel wreath.
      n[C] a substance that pollutes sth
      Commercial cooking sounds like a bad pollutant as far as PM goes, but at least it's not number one.
      CO2 is a plant fertilizer, not a pollutant.
      Power generation is the main source of air pollutant emissions in Hong Kong.
      Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.
      Compare "contaminate" and "pollute".
      n[C] a type of warship ¶ a boat used for pleasure ¶ a police car
      Few cruisers remain operational in the world navies.
      The Kirov-class battlecruiser is a class of nuclear-powered warship of the Russian Navy, the largest and heaviest surface combatant warships (i.e. not an aircraft carrier or amphibious assault ship) currently in active operation in the world.
      Among modern warships, they are second in size only to large aircraft carriers, and of similar size to a World War I-era battleship.
      The official designation of the ship-type is "heavy nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser", but because of their size and general appearance, the ships are often referred to as battlecruisers by western defense commentators.
      In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable warship of long-endurance intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller, powerful, short-range attackers.
      An aircraft carrier is a warship with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft that serves as a seagoing airbase.
      The littoral combat ship (LCS) is a class of relatively small surface vessels intended for operations in the littoral zone (close to shore) by the United States Navy.
      A cabin cruiser is a type of power boat that provides accommodation for its crew and passengers inside the structure of the craft.
      Tom Cruise bought a cruiser.
      Suddenly, a police cruiser pulls up to our group of four, lights flashing.
      The Land Cruiser series is the longest running series in Toyota history.
      v[T] do or be better than
      It will be hard to surpass this very high score.
      I think by number alone Win 8 will surpass iOS because Win8 is going to be all on machines going forward that use Windows.
      A Windows-based tablet that rivals or surpasses the iPad in design would be attractive to professionals because it could connect to the corporate enterprise and have the security of Active Directory.
      Medicaid is now the number one expense item for state budgets. It surpassed K-12 education.
      China's economy is widely anticipated to become the largest in the world - surpassing that of the United States - within the next five to ten years.
      n[U] excessive desire for food, wealth, status, and power
      Greed, also known as avarice, cupidity, or covetousness, is the inordinate desire to possess wealth, goods, or objects of abstract value with the intention to keep it for one's self, far beyond the dictates of basic survival and comfort.
      Never underestimate the greed of the financial players.
      Republican policies and the greed of the wealthy have put the rest of us in this situation.
      Crudely speaking, the financial meltdown was caused by greed and deregulation, not by government intervention, as Tom suggests, but by government's blind faith in the efficient market.
      More soldiers sacrificed on the altar of political vanity and corporate greed (making huge profit by unethical business practices).
      In the currently recognized version, the seven deadly sins are usually given as wrath, avarice, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony.
      v[T] rebuild ¶ form an idea of sth that happened by connecting pieces of information
      Old London Bridge was bought by an American and reconstructed in the US.
      Any newly-constructed road depending on the volume of traffic, within seven, 10 and at most 15 years, should be reconstructed.
      This removes incorrect rows and deleted rows from the data file and reconstructs the index file.
      But how are we to reconstruct the original historical context of a subject from the clues which survive?
      Paleoclimatologists have made several attempts at reconstructing past climates and others have used the data to come up with a spread of likely "sensitivity" to CO2.
      n[U] questioning attitude or doubt
      King expressed skepticism about the circumstances and timing of Petraeus' resignation.
      I see very little scientific evidence to back up that skepticism.
      Bull markets are born on pessimism, grown on skepticism, mature on optimism and die on euphoria.
      Most psychologists view color therapy with skepticism and point out that the supposed effects of color have been exaggerated.