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      n[C] a special chair used by a king or queen at ceremonies ¶ royal authority or power
      A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary, especially the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions; or the seat occupied by a pope or bishop on ceremonial occasions.
      In 1913, George V was on the throne.
      Elizabeth II ascended to the throne when her father died.
      Queen Elizabeth II succeeded to the throne in 1952.
      Charles is next in line to the throne.
      Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558.
      Queen Victoria remained on the throne for over sixty years.
      The marriage failed to produce an heir to the throne.
      Compare these words: crown, thorn, and throne.
      v[IT] join together ¶ merge ¶ melt, stop working because a ~ melts, or make sth do this
      n[C] an object in electrical equipment that makes it stop working when the flow of electricity is too strong ¶ a long piece of string which is lit to make a bomb or a firework explode
      Some bones begin to fuse together after the body stops growing.
      The core thus begins to fuse helium into carbon to make enough energy to maintain its balance with the crushing force of gravity.
      The infectious beat fuses elements of house, dancehall and rhythmic dance music topped with seductive vocals.
      It takes a traditional percussive beat and fuses it with various European, American and Caribbean flavors.
      It all somehow fused together into an exotic brew of adventure and romance that still held a lot of attraction for him.
      Tin fuses at quite a low temperature.
      The lights have fused; Penny has fused the lights again.
      In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial device to provide overcurrent protection, of either the load or source circuit.
      Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows through it, interrupting the circuit that it connects.
      Short circuits, overloading, mismatched loads, or device failure are the prime reasons for excessive current.
      Fuses are an alternative to circuit breakers.
      A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit.
      The fuse blew as I pressed the button. Do you know how to change a fuse?
      In an explosive, pyrotechnic device or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function.
      James Bond set the fuse to three minutes.
      If someone has a short fuse, they get angry very easily.
      If someone blows a fuse, they become extremely angry quickly or suddenly.
      v[I] stop oneself from doing sth
      n[C] a remark or idea that is often repeated ¶ chorus
      The "Check Before You Light" program requests residents to refrain from using their fireplaces or wood stoves on designated poor air quality days.
      It is indeed impossible for governments to refrain from doing so, claiming that the coastal properties in fact belong to the sea.
      I'll refrain from making an actual prediction.
      I'm just asking if you will please refrain from the name calling of the ladies that work here.
      The episode gave a flagrant wink to the long-running sitcom, with the familiar refrain of 'the Simpsons already did it' after nearly every suggested plot point in South Park.
      The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company.
      "Simpsons Already Did It" is the seventh episode of the sixth season of the American animated television series South Park, and the 86th episode of the series overall.
      South Park is an American adult animated sitcom created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone for the Comedy Central television network.
      The poem begins with the refrain which is repeated twice, each time after a longer verse.
      adj meant to be kept secret ¶ trusting or be trusted
      This app protects your confidential information and helps locate a lost or stolen BlackBerry smartphone.
      E-mails can not necessarily be treated as privileged or confidential.
       I understand why you wish to do this in a confidential manner.
      She paused and then spoke in a mysterious, confidential tone.
      Apart from their official duties as secretaries, confidential secretaries may also be involved in a manager's calendar control, payroll issues and other classified matters in a company.
      She was the Ghana embassy's confidential secretary.
      v[T] continually annoy or trouble ¶ make repeated attacks
      He has complained of being harassed by the police.
      She claims she has been sexually harassed at work.
      But when Kelley reported that she was being harassed by email, and the FBI investigated her claims, they discovered that she was exchanging a high number of suspect emails with another U.S. military officer, Marine Corps General John Allen.
      He has used these powers to harass the independent media and potential opponents.
      From the west and north, in Ukrainian territory, they were relentlessly harassed and shelled by separatist fighters, while they were shelled with rockets, mortars and artillery from across the Russian border to their east and south.
      adj appropriate, suitable ¶ liable ¶ good at learning
      The analogy of the province of British Columbia as Canada's front door to Asia may be an apt description.
      WeKnowYourHouse.com is a recently launched website with an apt name.
      The new OS which in a way is more apt for tablets sure has a lot to be acquainted with.
      If someone is apt to do something, they often do it and so it is likely that they will do it again.
      If you see one deer, there are apt to be more.
      We are apt to prefer our own credit, ease, and safety, before truth, holiness, and duty.
      Dennis Kim was an apt pupil, a bright student who liked school, did well and was told he had a promising future.
      n[UC] decoration, adornment ¶ sth used for decoration
      v[T] adorn
      Christmas ornaments are decorations (usually made of glass, metal, wood, or ceramics) that are used to festoon a Christmas tree.
      A hood/bonnet ornament, radiator cap, motor mascot or car mascot is a specially crafted model which symbolizes a car company like a badge, located on the front center portion of the hood.
      A Garden ornament is an item used for garden, landscape, and park enhancement and decoration.
      "I go back there with lawn ornaments, he's going to laugh in my face," said Ross.
      Oh look at that! The ornamental bird cage!
      He had a blue cloth conical cap upon his head, ornamented with a deer's tail dyed blue, and several cock's feathers.
      n[UC] rebellion
      v[I] rebel
      v[T] make sb feel horror or disgust
      The Buddhists were in revolt over the repressive regime of President Diem.
      The army has put down the revolt.
      Liberals and the youth groups who led the revolt against Mubarak, however, are skeptical, accusing the Brotherhood of abandoning the revolution the past year to pursue their own quest to rule.
      The army has suppressed the revolt.
      The people revolted against the military dictatorship.
      Ross was revolted by the dirt and mess in Cheryl's apartment.
      It revolts me to know that the world spends so much money on arms when millions are dying of hunger.
      v[IT] treat sb without respect and make them lose respect for themselves ¶ make sth become worse ¶ change or make sth change to a simpler chemical form
      I felt degraded by having to ask for money.
      Why does Islam degrade women by keeping them behind the veil?
      You can degrade yourself further by posting more abuses; however they will only go on to show your true nature.
      In doing so, by further degrading the environment, they will weaken agriculture and tourism.
      There is a general belief that plastic doesn't degenerate. However, there are no actual studies to prove this because certain plastic products like plastic bags may actually take 500 years, or even more, to degenerate.
      Compare these words: decompose, degenerate, degrade, and descend.
      n[C] a generic term for any body acting judicially
      A tribunal in the general sense is any person or institution with the authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes - whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title.
      Employment tribunals are tribunal public bodies in England and Wales and Scotland which have statutory jurisdiction to hear many kinds of disputes between employers and employees.
      Employment tribunals were created as industrial tribunals by the Industrial Training Act 1964.
      Industrial tribunals were judicial bodies consisting of a lawyer, who was the chairman, an individual nominated by an employer association, and another by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) or TUC-affiliated union.
      The Employment Appeal Tribunal is a tribunal public body in England and Wales and Scotland, and is a superior court of record.
      Its primary role is to hear appeals from Employment Tribunals in England, Scotland and Wales.
      adj examining or tending to examine things very carefully
      Phoebe's boyfriend, Roger, was a little analytical.
      Leonard's using the analytical, rather than emotional side of the brain, suggesting that he has no personal relationship with the caller.
      Analytical skill is the ability to visualize, articulate, and solve both complex and uncomplicated problems and concepts and make decisions that are sensible and based on available information.
      Analytic thinking is the abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations.
      v[IT] stuff ¶ learn a lot of things in a short time
      Tons of people crammed into a small place when a hockey game is on.
      You have to spend hours waiting for planes, being crammed into a tiny seat, being harassed by security checkpoints and border guards, traveling to and from airports, and eating high priced food with absolutely no taste (except preservatives).
      That's all most people know, that is what has been crammed down our throats from "experts" for years.
      Friday morning when we woke up, our hotel lobby was crammed full of people, like a refugee camp, all clamoring for space to fire up their laptops, charge their phones, get word to loved ones that they were OK.
      Don't tempt me. I have to cram for my exam. I take it on Friday.
      v[T] reduce the bad effects of sth
      also a noun
      Because our teeth are constantly bathed by saliva, which helps buffer the effects of acids from foods and drinks, the effect on tooth enamel is greatly reduced.
      By absorbing all of this additional CO2 the oceans have buffered the effects of atmospheric climate change.
      Data buffering is the temporary collection and storage of data awaiting further processing in physical storage devices, allowing a computer and its peripheral devices to operate at different speeds.
      A buffer is a part of the buffers-and-chain coupling system used on the railway systems of many countries, among them most of those in Europe, for attaching railway vehicles to one another.
      A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.
      A buffer zone is generally a zonal area that lies between two or more other areas (often, but not necessarily, countries), but depending on the type of buffer zone, the reason for it may be to segregate regions or to conjoin them.
      In computer science, a data buffer (or just buffer) is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another.
      v[IT] be unsteady and fall ¶ overthrow
      I don't know how many times I have leaned on the unattached pier up on the top floor and nearly toppled over, so today I filled it with concrete and mounted the mounting plates.
      These strong winds could topple you and your bike.
      If any of our large banks toppled over, depositors would be in exactly the same position.
      He was the mastermind behind the CIA sponsored coup which toppled the government of Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran in 1953.
      Concerned about growing Soviet influence in Iran during the Cold War, the U.S. toppled the regime of Iran's elected prime minister Mohammed Mossadeq, who intended to nationalize the Iranian oil industry.
      v[I] (horse/ride a horse) move at a speed that is faster than a walk and slower than a canter ¶ walk quickly or run slowly
      also a noun
      The gaits in order are: walk, trot, canter, and gallop. A walk is a slow, smooth, 4-beat gait. A trot is a quick, bouncy, 2-beat gait. A canter is a faster, smooth, 3-beat gait, and a gallop is basically a run, it's a fast, 4-beat gait.
      The trot has a wide variation in possible speeds, but averages about 8 miles per hour (13 km/h). A very slow trot is sometimes referred to as a jog.
      An extremely fast trot has no special name, but in harness racing, the trot of a Standardbred is faster than the gallop of the average non-racehorse, and has been clocked at over 30 miles per hour (48 km/h).
      From the standpoint of the balance of the horse, the trot is a very stable gait and does not require the horse to make major balancing motions with its head and neck.
      The foxtrot is a smooth, progressive dance characterized by long, continuous flowing movements across the dance floor.
      "When we exit should we walk, or run, or prance, or stroll..." "Stop it, stop it! He talks slow but he might pee fast! Ok, let's go!"
      Plus, what are you planning on doing with the baby while you're trotting out to the garbage ten times a day?
      Raj trots into the bathroom.
      "Oh, hey, Chandler I wanna hug you too!" "Hey!" he trots over.
      Trot is a genre of Korean pop music, and is recognized as the oldest form of Korean pop music.
      "Gangnam Style" is the 18th K-pop single by the South Korean musician Psy.
      Tea gives Phoebe the trots (diarrhea).
      I am pretty fit and strong but I certainly cannot do 70 push-ups on the trot (one directly following another =in a row).
      Rachel's new job keeps her on the trot (very busy =on the go).
      Every opponent of gold always trots out (repeat something in a way that is not new; compare cliché) the "since 1980..." line.
      In January 1980 gold hit a record 850 US dollars an ounce. After reaching those dizzy heights it then plummeted down and remained steady in the 300-400 dollar range.
      n[U] family and relatives
      Next-of-kin is a person's closest living blood relative or relatives.
      The husband would be listed as next of kin.
      Catalans' personal networks contain more friends and neighbors than they do kin. By contrast, North American networks are typically evenly balanced between kin and non-kin.
      Marriage between close kin is prohibited.
      Cassie is Ross and Monica's distant kin.
      n[C] a recreational boat or ship
      v[I] sail, cruise, or race in a ~
      Yacht lengths generally range from 12 meters (39 ft) up to dozens of meters (hundreds of feet).
      A luxury craft smaller than 12 meters (39 ft) is more commonly called a cabin cruiser or simply a cruiser.
      A superyacht generally refers to any yacht (sail or power) above 24 m (79 ft) and a megayacht generally refers to any yacht over 50 meters (164 ft).
      A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are a part of the experience, as well as the different destinations along the way.
      Yachting refers to using water vessels, called yachts, for sporting purposes. If the vessels are sailboats, it's known as sailing, and if the vessels are motorboats, it's known as powerboating.
      Travelers can try their hand at water rafting, bungee jumping, yachting, hiking, golf, climbing, skiing, tobogganing, skating, swimming, cycling, wind surfing and so much more!
      n[C] place for hiding food, treasure or weapons
      also a verb
      A bear cache is a place designed to store food outdoors and prevent bears and other animals from accessing it.
      Geocaching is an outdoor recreational activity, in which participants use a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver or mobile device and other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers, called "geocaches" or "caches", anywhere in the world.
      Hoarding or caching in animal behavior is the storage of food in locations hidden from the sight of both conspecifics (animals of the same or closely related species) and members of other species.
      In computing, a cache is a component that transparently stores data so that future requests for that data can be served faster.
      If requested data is contained in the cache (cache hit), this request can be served by simply reading the cache, which is comparatively faster.
      Otherwise (cache miss), the data has to be recomputed or fetched from its original storage location, which is comparatively slower.
      In computer storage, disk buffer (often ambiguously called disk cache or cache buffer) is the embedded memory in a hard drive acting as a buffer between the rest of the computer and the physical hard disk platter that is used for storage.
      n[UC] very strong sexual desire ¶ passion, enthusiasm
      also a verb
      The way Monica looked at Doug, pure lust.
      "What should we do for the theme?" "Lusts of the flesh."
      Chandler is getting ready to direct a bunch of strippers, Monica, Rachel, and Phoebe on what to do in the upcoming orgy of lesbian lust.
      Not Joey. I was just lusting after Chandler.
      The lust for power has been the downfall of many.
      A lust for life is a strong determination to enjoy life as much as possible.
      Lust for Life is a biographical novel written by Irving Stone based on the life of the famous Dutch painter, Vincent van Gogh, and his hardships.
      Bloodlust or bloodthirstiness refers to a desire to see blood being shed; it usually refers to a desire to see blood being shed in combat.
      n[U] a strong feeling of wanting sb/sth
      Their happiness was so pure that it evoked in me a longing for the contemplative life of a nun.
      The romantic appeal of city life and the longing for the metropolitan pulse have always been attractive for people.
      Whatever you've had a longing to learn can be found in the many how-to books on the market today.
      When this series hit the air, I didn't own a VCR at the time and have been longing to see it again since the first showing.
      n[C] sth needing skill, strength or courage
      A man ran 42.2km in 2 hrs and 3 minutes - an amazing feat.
      Bringing down a moose is an impressive feat of arms.
      Over the past three years, Dawson Creek has seen over $72 million dollars worth of growth, a remarkable feat for a community of 12,500.
      It is courageous enough a feat that our Black ancestors survived the indignities of slavery to bring us here today, but it is so very uplifting to read of a character who doesn't merely survive it, but makes it her life's work to change the condition for all slaves.
      Dragging the fully laden boat across the sand dunes was no mean feat.
      That's not an easy feat and yet you make it seem effortless.
      Sennheiser's MM 450 Travel Bluetooth headphone (around $US450) is a feat of engineering.
      adj allowed to ignore a rule etc
      v[T] excuse sb/sth from a duty etc
      Property left to a surviving spouse, however, is exempt from state estate tax, just as it is exempt from federal estate tax.
      Only Pennsylvania does not tax IRA earnings of taxpayers age 59 years or older, since earnings are treated like pension income, which is tax exempt.
      Thanks to an energy bill passed by Congress back in 2005 that exempts the natural gas drilling industry from having to comply with the US Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), fracking operations are free to pollute as much as they please.
      Currently, wages over a certain yearly total ($106,800 this year) are exempted from Social Security payroll taxes.
      Visitors have to sign a waiver, exempting the tour operator from all responsibility in the event that they later suffer radiation-related health problems.
      n[U] the leaves of a plant
      Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves collectively.
      The dense foliage overhead almost blocked out the sun.
      A perennial herb with yellowish-green foliage and smooth, upright stems, it grows and flowers under the hottest conditions.
      Use a cloth rag to wipe away any dust that may collect on the foliage.
      Autumn is particularly spectacular in New York, with colorful foliage that begins turning in late September through mid-October, and sunny days and moderate temperatures in the sixties and seventies.
      n[C] opponent
      First, the world is different. Our primary adversary then was a comparably armed super power, bristling with millions of troops, tens of thousands of tanks, and thousands of advanced combat aircraft - not to mention a vast arsenal of nuclear weapons - that was poised to overrun Western Europe and could directly threaten our allies and interests around the globe.
      The recognition that China is unlikely to be an ally of the U.S. should not be used to justify a policy that brands it an adversary.
      Common law courts usually use an adversarial system (or adversary system), in which two sides present their cases to a neutral judge. In contrast, civil law systems usually use an inquisitorial system.
      An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in investigating the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is primarily that of an impartial referee between the prosecution and the defense.
      In the common law system, law is interpreted and, thus, "written" by judges hearing the cases. Their decisions become the 'rule of law' for all future cases that are factually similar.
      The civil or codified law is law that is written into statute or code books and are strictly interpreted by the courts of that country.
      Compare "adversary" and "anniversary".
      v[T] cause an emotion or attitude ¶ excite
      It should arouse the interest of the reader or listener, and be short.
      The influx of adventurers aroused hostility from the Irish.
      Ross is aroused by Rachel's tattoo.
      Is it wrong that I was totally aroused by that?
      If a man has an erection, his penis is stiff, swollen, and sticking up because he is sexually aroused.
      Compare "arise" and "arouse".