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      af`flu`ent
      'æfluənt
      adj wealthy
      -
      Their houses were 3 car garages, 4000-6000 sq foot new homes, in really affluent areas.
      More affluent people eat out often, get bored easily and are generally more concerned with health, appearance and setting trends.
      Diabetes is no longer a disease of affluent countries; it is affecting people all over the world.
      They find themselves impoverished aliens in this affluent society.
      I am talking about affluent families where both mum and dad are professional, they live in beautiful homes, drive expensive cars, holiday often and their children are attending private schools.
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      ape
      eip
      n[C] an animal that is similar to a monkey but has no tail
      v[T] mimic
      -
      In taxonomy, primates include prosimians and simians. Prosimians include the lemurs of Madagascar, lorisoids, and tarsiers. Simians include monkeys, apes and hominins.
      Bubbles is a common chimpanzee, known for being the one-time pet of American recording artist Michael Jackson, who bought the primate from a Texas research facility in the early 1980s.
      Colloquially, the common chimpanzee is often called the chimpanzee (or "chimp"), though this term can be used to refer to both species in the genus Pan: the common chimpanzee and the closely related bonobo, formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee.
      Chimpanzees are the closest living relatives to humans; they split from the human branch of the family about four to six million years ago.
      Gorillas constitute the eponymous genus Gorilla, the largest extant genus of primates by physical size.
      The orangutans are the two exclusively Asian species of extant great apes.
      Also called the lesser apes, gibbons differ from great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, bonobos and humans) in being smaller, exhibiting low sexual dimorphism, in not making nests, and in certain anatomical details in which they superficially more closely resemble monkeys than great apes do. But like all apes, gibbons evolved to become tailless.
      Compare these words: ape, copy, do, emulate, imitate, impersonate, mime, mock, and simulate.
      While the crowd of nearly 20,000 screamed in approval, PSY and Madonna took turns aping his famous video by crawling through each other's spread legs.
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      au`ton`o`mous
      ɔ:'tɔnəməs
      adj independent
      -
      The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), Tibet or Xizang for short, also called the Xizang Autonomous Region is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
      Xinjiang, officially Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region administered by the People's Republic of China in the northwest of the country.
      Guangxi, officially Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
      The National Autonomous University of Mexico is a public research university in Mexico City, Mexico that is the largest in Latin America and the oldest in the continent.
      Finland was united with Sweden from the early Middle Ages and by the 12th century was largely an autonomous state until 1809 when it became a self-governing Grand Duchy of Russia.
      A grand duchy, sometimes referred to as a grand dukedom, is a territory whose head of state is a monarch, either a grand duke or grand duchess. Today Luxembourg is the only remaining grand duchy.
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      pre`cau`tion
      pri'kɔ:ʃən
      n[C] sth you do in advance to prevent problems or to avoid danger
      -
      As a precaution, school officials pulled the fire alarm, evacuating the building.
      The Forth Bridge is expected to close after 3pm as a precaution against the high winds.
      Returning to camp, I got the boys to make an especially strong fence and light plenty of fires, at the same time giving them instructions to keep a sharp look-out, which was a wise precaution, as lions were prowling round the camp the whole night.
      We were careful, we took precautions. And still, a baby was created.
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      cap`sule
      'kæpsəl
      n[C] seed-case of a plant that opens when the seeds are ripe ¶ a small plastic container with a substance or liquid inside ¶ detachable compartment for men or instruments in a spacecraft
      -
      In botany a capsule is a type of simple, dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants (compare pod).
      Since their inception, capsules have been viewed by consumers as the most efficient method of taking medication.
      A space capsule is an often manned spacecraft which has a simple shape for the main section, without any wings or other features to create lift during atmospheric reentry.
      A time capsule is a historic cache of goods or information, usually intended as a method of communication with future people and to help future archaeologists, anthropologists or historians.
      A capsule hotel is a type of hotel developed in Japan that features a large number of extremely small "rooms" (capsules) intended to provide cheap, basic overnight accommodation for guests who do not require the services offered by more conventional hotels.
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      with`hold
      wið'həuld
      v[IT] refuse to give sb sth ¶ deduct
      -
      For example, agencies may withhold information properly classified in the interest of national defense or foreign policy and criminal investigatory files.
      What information did the CIA decide to withhold from the Warren Commission?
      Therefore, Petersen continued, the FBI's investigation of Lennon had a legitimate law enforcement purpose, and the withholding of confidential source information was required under the FOIA.
      You will have federal income tax withheld from wages, pensions, annuities, gambling winnings, or other income.
      Your agency withholds the cost of the Basic Benefit and Social Security from your pay as payroll deductions.
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      set`back
      'setbæk
      n[C] a difficulty or problem that delays or prevents progress, or makes things worse
      -
      You know, Monica, you had a minor setback in your relationship with Chandler. Big deal! It's only Chandler.
      All right, it's ok. One little setback is ok, but just don't let it happen again, all right?
      The recall is the latest setback for the struggling startup California automaker.
      Tourism in Israel has suffered from many setbacks in the past due to terror and security problems.
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      se`cre`cy
      'si:krəsi
      n[U] the act of keeping sth secret, or the state of being kept secret
      -
      A federal judge in Manhattan, weighing the secrecy of the grand jury process against the interests of public accountability, refused on Tuesday to unseal the grand jury testimony of a critical witness in the Rosenberg atomic espionage case.
      The meetings at Quebec were held in secrecy.
      Girls have traditionally faced huge mountains in their way when trying to get an education in Afghanistan. But even during the dark days of the Taliban, girls sneaked into illegal schools under veils of secrecy.
      Hey, what is with the secrecy Phoebe? Huh? And what about this Denise, she cute?
      I'd love to tell you about it, but Monica and Chandler have sworn me to secrecy.
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      de`lete
      di'li:t
      v[T] remove sth that has been written or printed, cross out
      -
      Not only can it restore files you have deleted from your computer, but it can also help you bring back files that were deleted from your digital camera, flash card or an MP3 Player.
      Because of this, it has been suggested that the Corncrake be deleted from the list of globally threatened species.
      I can get around this issue by deleting the app and downloading it again or by refusing the upgrade.
      Formatting is the process of deleting the operating system software, all application software installed and all user files.
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      o`ver`ride
      əuvə'raid
      v[IT] overrule ¶ be more important than ¶ stop a machine doing sth and do it yourself
      -
      Obama will have the power to override the U.S. Constitution.
      Reagan vetoed them. Congress overrode the veto.
      A mother's instinct to save her child, in most cases, would override any thoughts of herself.
      Had the lioness adopted the oryx as her own? What powerful drive overrode all her instincts to kill?
      I overrode my font to be Times New Roman.
      A governor's veto can be overridden by a two-thirds vote in both houses.
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      fric`tion
      'frikʃən
      n[UC] rubbing of one surface or thing against another or the force ¶ tension
      -
      Friction is the most commonly used primitive method for making fire.
      Ancient techniques for starting friction fires include the hand drill, the bow drill, the fire plow and the pump drill.
      A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion and reduces friction between moving parts to only the desired motion.
      The classic rules of sliding friction were discovered by Leonardo da Vinci, but remained unpublished in his notebooks.
      The coefficient of friction (COF), often symbolized by the Greek letter µ, is a dimensionless scalar value which describes the ratio of the force of friction between two bodies and the force pressing them together.
      Look, question two: "When are roadways most slippery?" Now, okay, there are three answers, none of which are correct. The correct answer is, "When covered by a film of liquids sufficient to reduce the coefficient to static friction between the tire and the road to precision zero. But not so deep as to introduce a new source of friction."
      If you were to continue to put pressure on the gas pedal the water would cause more friction against the tires and the car itself, causing you to steer out of control.
      Using two condoms will increase the friction between them and may cause both to break.
      Satellites in low Earth orbit are subject to friction with the sparse outer fringes of the atmosphere.
      In social life friction between people does occur in every society, and differences arising from religion, culture, and tradition.
      Chandler and Joey give Monica a pack of ribbed condoms for her pleasure.
      Penny and Leonard are suffering emotional chafing.
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      di`ver`si`fy
      di'və:sifai
      v[IT] give variety to ¶ develop a wider range of products, interests, skills etc
      -
      The Brunei (文莱) Government aims to diversify the economy away from heavy dependence on oil and gas by promoting private non-energy sector development and attracting more non-oil and gas related investment.
      Thus, the only sensible solution is to quietly and slowly diversify away from their holdings of US dollars so as not to disturb the market prices unduly.
      It can diversify your portfolio and reduce risk.
      A Kendallville auto supplier plans to invest $1.4 million in new equipment and create 12 jobs as it diversifies its product line, a city official said Friday.
      We use a diversified range of both traditional and alternative asset classes when creating portfolios for our clients.
      ZMS is currently in the process of diversifying its business.
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      lay`out
      'leiaut
      n[C] the way that sth is arranged
      -
      The case studies are effective and the layout of the book is easy to follow.
      I use the layout and style features of Word.
      There are many options available to tune the page layout, the number of copies, the printer that you want to print to if you have more than one available, paper size, one-side or double-sided printing if your printer supports this feature, margins and so on.
      I don't know the layout of the museum, but maybe you walk through and then go down the elevator at the end.
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      li`zard
      'lizəd
      n[C] a reptile with four legs and a long tail
      -
      Chameleons are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of lizards.
      Iguana is a genus of herbivorous lizards native to tropical areas of Mexico, Central America, several islands in Polynesia such as Fiji and Tonga, and the Caribbean.
      Charles Darwin described the Galapagos land iguana as "ugly animals, of a yellowish orange beneath, and of a brownish-red color above: from their low facial angle they have a singularly stupid appearance."
      Aruba, this time of year; big lizards.
      Aruba is an island in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about 1,600 kilometers west of the Lesser Antilles and 29 kilometers north of the coast of Venezuela.
      Scissors cuts paper, paper covers rock, rock crushes lizard, lizard poisons Spock, Spock smashes scissors, scissors decapitates lizard, lizard eats paper, paper disproves Spock, Spock vaporizes rock, and as it always has, rock crushes scissors.
      Liz is Ms. Frizzle's pet lizard. She is seen in a lot of the episodes and has sometimes been the focus of one.
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      cyn`i`cal
      'sinikəl
      adj believing that people always act selfishly ¶ negative or pessimistic, as from world-weariness ¶ selfishly or callously calculating
      -
      Cynicism is an attitude or state of mind characterized by a general distrust of others' motives believing that humans are selfish by nature, ruled by emotion, and heavily influenced by the same primitive, barbaric instincts that helped humans survive in the wild before agriculture and civilization became established.
      It is a form of jaded prudence, and other times, realistic criticism or skepticism.
      The term originally derives from the ancient Greek philosophers, the Cynics, who rejected all conventions, whether of religion, manners, housing, dress, or decency, instead advocating the pursuit of virtue in accordance with a simple and idealistic way of life.
      I'm old and cynical, so I do have to say that I suspect that true love doesn't always win out.
      Sure, that's a cynical way to look at things. But coldly practical.
      What more proof do my dentists need? Or is it the ongoing treatment costs they want? Cynical view of the dental profession, I know, but it does make you wonder.
      This, we believe, is a cynical attempt to deflect attention away from the fraud inflicted on injured workers by his government.
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      broc`co`li
      'brɔkəli
      n[U] an edible green plant in the cabbage family
      -
      Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family, whose large flowering head is used as a vegetable.
      Broccoli is high in vitamin C and dietary fiber. It also contains multiple nutrients with potent anti-cancer properties.
      Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole-3-carbinol, a chemical which boosts DNA repair in cells and appears to block the growth of cancer cells.
      Boiling broccoli reduces the levels of suspected anti-carcinogenic compounds, such as sulforaphane, with losses of 20–30% after five minutes, 40–50% after ten minutes, and 77% after thirty minutes.
      However, other preparation methods such as steaming, microwaving, and stir frying had no significant effect on the compounds.
      Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds.
      White cauliflower is the most common color of cauliflower.
      Cauliflower is low in fat, low in carbohydrates but high in dietary fiber, folate, water, and vitamin C, possessing a high nutritional density.
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      drone
      drəun
      n[C] a male honeybee, wasp, or ant ¶ a low continuous sound
      v[I] make the sound
      -
      Drones develop from eggs that have not been fertilized, and they cannot sting, since the worker bee's stinger is a modified ovipositor (an egg laying organ).
      Drone bees are characterized by their larger eyes, larger bodies (though the queen is usually even bigger), and stouter abdomens.
      An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is commonly known as a drone.
      An unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) is also known as a combat drone or drone.
      I would rather live near a railway line than a highway where you can hear a constant drone of traffic noise, modern trains are far more quiet.
      Huddling in a seat alongside the general as their aircraft droned over the Mediterranean, the president dwelt on the teeming difficulties that awaited Eisenhower in London.
      Mrs. Odorous settled into the chair by the heater and began a discussion on the structures of government and even though we tried our best to follow her, we didn't understand much of what she said at all. She droned on and on and some grade fives just stared out the window.
      Obama droned on about how America is recovering slowly but surely doing things his way and how it needs to continue.
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      gra`cious
      'greiʃəs
      adj merciful ¶ kind, polite and generous, esp to sb of a lower social position ¶ describing the comfortable way of life of rich people
      -
      Our God is a gracious God. His mercies and loving-kindness are new every day, and will not run out.
      In 1896, the Council "received the permission of Her Most Gracious Majesty (Queen Victoria) for the Society to add the prefix Royal to its former title."
      Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis was known for her gracious manner with every person who was in her employ.
      "I fought and strove energetically for that pot of gold at the end of the rainbow - the money that would buy happiness and all the good things of gracious living," said Jack Donaghy.
      Compare "gracious" and "graceful".
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      bump`er
      'bʌmpə
      n[C] a bar of metal or plastic fixed to the front or back of a vehicle to reduce the effect if it hits anything
      adj unusually large
      -
      In automobiles, a bumper is usually a metal bar or beam, attached the vehicle's front-most and rear-most ends, designed to absorb impact in a collision.
      A bumper sticker is an adhesive label or sticker with a message, intended to be attached to the bumper of an automobile and to be read by the occupants of other vehicles—although they are often stuck onto other objects.
      Bumper cars is the generic name for a type of flat ride consisting of several small electric cars which draw power from the floor and/or ceiling, and which are turned on and off remotely by an operator. They are also known as bumping cars, dashing cars, dodgem cars, or simply dodgems, the last name being the usual term in British English.
      Bumper-to-bumper traffic is very close together and moving slowly.
      The 2013 Official Guide would be a bumper issue with 258 pages, the spokesman said.
      In agriculture, a bumper crop refers to a particularly productive harvest yielded for a particular crop.
      With all the rain we've had over the last few months, we are expecting a bumper crop this year.
      More than 90 percent of farm produce in the district is sold unprocessed. Farmers therefore are not in the position to store or process their produce in order to add value. They therefore sell produce at lower prices during bumper harvest.
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      ac`claim
      ə'kleim
      v[T] praise publicly
      also a noun
      -
      Instantly acclaimed by critics, and loved by audiences of all ages, the cartoons detailed the average American lives of a family based in the fictional community of Springfield.
      Acclaimed by David Starkey as the author of the best academic biography of Anne Boleyn, Prof. Ives had the gift of writing both accessible and deeply scholarly works.
      Kudos is acclaim or praise for exceptional achievement.
      More than a porn star, Prof. Aoi has garnered international acclaim as a calligrapher.
      The original album was received with great acclaim and was voted one of the best folk albums of 2008.
      The critical and popular acclaim that followed the release of his Young-Adult novel The Boy in the Striped Pajamas, left Irish writer John Boyne feeling both amazed and apprehensive.
      As an actor, Joey Tribbiani received critical and public acclaim for his leading role in the play "FREUD!".
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      prag`ma`tic
      præg'mætik
      adj realistic, practical
      -
      The Academic Writing Program takes a pragmatic approach to rhetoric and composition instruction.
      Instead of a rule-based or prescriptive approach that emphasizes universal rules and "correctness," we take a pragmatic approach to writing instruction that asks not whether an element of a text (a comma, semicolon, a paragraph, sentence, etc.) is "right" or "wrong," not whether it conforms to a fixed rule, but rather is it effective and appropriate in a particular rhetorical situation.
      I am keenly interested in social issues and their pragmatic solutions.
      The Treaty of Jaffa of 1229 was drawn up for pragmatic reasons and represented the minimum consensus for both sides.
      I have a pragmatic view on it.
      It is a pragmatic way of relating directly with the people to the people.
      Dogma is a principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true.
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      di`sas`trous
      di'zæstrəs
      adj very bad or unsuccessful, catastrophic
      -
      But in the long run this can prove disastrous.
      And he's created power-vaccums in Libya and Egypt with disastrous consequences.
      It would be disastrous for the U.S. economy.
      Gossip can be disastrous to friendships, careers and other people's lives.
      The world has faced such monetary collapse before: in the 1930s, with disastrous results, and less catastrophically in the 1970s.
      This can easily lead to disastrous effects on children.
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      prose
      prəuz
      n[U] writing in its usual form, as opposed to poetry
      -
      Prose is a form of language that exhibits a grammatical structure and a natural flow of speech rather than a rhythmic structure (as in traditional poetry).
      It is commonly used, for example, in literature, newspapers, magazines, encyclopedias, broadcasting, film, history, philosophy, law and many other forms of communication.
      Prose lacks the more formal metrical structure of verse that is almost always found in traditional poetry.
      A prose poem is a composition in prose that has some of the qualities of a poem.
      The prose is lucid and strong.
      With your desktop or laptop at home along with the right software, you can type pages of prose and documentation, with spell check and grammar check keeping an eye on your work and pointing out errors.
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      ra`zor
      'reizə
      n[C] a bladed tool primarily used in the removal of unwanted body hair through the act of shaving
      -
      Kinds of razors include straight razors, disposable razors and electric razors.
      In 1901, the American inventor King Camp Gillette, with the assistance of William Nickerson, invented a safety razor with disposable blades.
      The electric razor (also known as the electric dry shaver) has a rotating or oscillating blade. The razor usually does not require the use of shaving cream, soap, or water.
      The razor may be powered by a small DC motor, which is either powered by batteries or mains electricity. Many modern ones are powered using rechargeable batteries.
      Hair clippers are specialized implements used to cut human head hair.
      Bonnie said you gave her the razor!
      Rachel found your razor in our bathroom and I didn't know what to say, so I said it was mine and that I was playing a woman in a play.
      Toothbrush, toothpaste, razor, mouthwash, deodorant, dental floss, Band-Aids, shaving cream, aftershave, and I feel like I am forgetting something. Is there anything else you have that I haven't asked for already?
      Her health still balances on a razor's edge due to the effect her condition has on her immune system.
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      lay`off
      'leiɔf
      n[C] temporary suspension or permanent termination of employment
      -
      Layoff (in British and American English), also called redundancy in the UK, is the temporary suspension or permanent termination of employment of an employee or (more commonly) a group of employees for business reasons, such as when certain positions are no longer necessary or when a business slow-down occurs.
      The term "layoff" originally meant a temporary interruption in work (and usually pay).
      The term became a euphemism for permanent termination of employment and now usually means that, requiring the addition of "temporary" to refer to the original meaning.
      "Mass layoff" is defined by the United States Department of Labor as 50 or more workers laid off from the same company around the same time.
      Pink slip refers to the American practice, by a personnel department, of including a discharge notice in an employee's pay envelope to notify the worker of his or her termination of employment or layoff.
      In the UK and Ireland the equivalent of a pink slip is a P45; in Belgium the equivalent is known as a C4; in China the equivalent phrase is "stir-fried squid"(炒鱿鱼).
      Hiring freezes, layoffs, downsizing and rightsizing abound in these lean times; even the most qualified and experienced professionals are finding themselves unexpectedly out of work.
      There are rumors of layoffs.
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