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      v[IT] start to burn, or make sth do this, kindle
      How long would a laser have to stay focused on a missile to ignite the chemical explosives in the warhead?
      The Olympic flame is a practice continued from the ancient Olympic Games. In Olympia (Greece), a flame was ignited by the sun and then kept burning until the closing of the Olympic Games.
      Sparks from the generator made contact with chemicals used to make the shoes and ignited the blaze.
      That really ignites the fire in me and encouraged me to pursue music as a career.
      The raging controversies over vote counting in Florida and the victory of President George W. Bush in 2000 has ignited a debate over the legitimacy of our constitutional process for selecting presidents.
      n[C] a long story about what happens to a group of characters over many years
      Sagas are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, about migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families.
      "Saga" is a word originating from Old Norse or Icelandic language ("Saga" is also the modern Icelandic and Swedish word for "story").
      The Twilight Saga is a series of five romance fantasy films from Summit Entertainment based on the four novels by the American author Stephenie Meyer.
      Jack Donaghy's life is the saga of a man who rose from humble beginnings to achieve worldwide greatness.
      Compare these words: epic, legend, saga, and tale.
      n[UC] the act of taking sth or taking control of sth, esp by force or power ¶ a sudden attack of an illness
      The United Nations Security Council condemned the forcible seizure of power and urged the coup leaders to restore the constitution.
      The mass of peasants supported the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks as a means of obtaining land.
      Most historians believe that the annexation of Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia and Poland was only a beginning, to be followed by the seizure of the rest of Czechoslovakia and Poland and by the conquest and permanent occupation of Russia as far east as the Ural Mountains.
      The Argentine government argues that the seizure of the ship represents an infringement of sovereign rights, the Law of the Sea and the Vienna Convention.
      But later that evening, back in Tehran, the minister heard on the radio that Imam Khomeini had issued a statement supporting the seizure and calling it "the second revolution", and the embassy an "American spy den in Tehran".
      Epileptic seizures (colloquially a fit) are brief episodes of "abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain".
      Occupy Wall Street (OWS) is the name given to a protest movement that began on September 17, 2011, in Zuccotti Park, located in New York City's Wall Street financial district, receiving global attention and spawning the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.
      adj done or occurring at exactly the right time
      John, your article is timely and well written.
      And as I mentioned, this is a timely reminder, so thanks again!
      Employers are responsible for calculating and withholding federal income tax and for sending the money to the Internal Revenue Service in a timely manner.
      The Court would not hear objections not made in a timely fashion.
      We were notified of the untimely death of that great and good man, Don Geiss, which created much sadness throughout the Church.
      n[C] a large group of soldiers ¶ a large number of people or things
      v[T] organize and control people in a strict way
      The size of a regiment varies markedly, depending on the country and the arm of service.
      Historically, in the 17th century, a full-strength regiment was hypothetically a thousand men commanded by a colonel.
      Today, there is no set size for a unit calling itself a "regiment", which may be: less than a battalion-equivalent, a battalion-equivalent, a number of battalions, or an entire arm of service.
      A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements. It is roughly equivalent to an enlarged or reinforced regiment. Three or more brigades constitute a division.
      The Madras Engineer Group is a regiment of the Corps of Engineers of the Indian Army.
      Forrest did well in the army as he followed orders well without distraction; for example, he set a new company record for assembling his M14 rifle.
      "We have to find the rest of the platoon!" "Forget the platoon! The platoon is gone!"
      Compare these words: squad, squadron, and squat.
      Sheldon's moving his infantry division augmented by battalion of orcs from Lord of The Rings.
      After you got your new car, you have put through a regiment of washing and waxing on weekly basis just to keep it glittering.
      The job of the individual was to fit into this tightly regimented work environment and perform predictably and efficiently.
      Chandler relied on a carefully regimented program of denial and wetting the bed when his parents divorced.
      Wow, Monica runs a pretty tight ship around here doesn't she.
      n[U] ≠integration
      Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, included the segregation or "hypersegregation" of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.
      Hypersegregation is a form of racial segregation that consists of the geographical grouping of racial groups. Most often, this occurs in cities where the residents of the inner city are African Americans and the suburbs surrounding this inner core are often white European American residents.
      Racial segregation most often refers to the legally or socially enforced separation of African Americans from other races, but also applies to the general discrimination against people of color by white communities.
      De jure (true or right because of a law) segregation, sanctioned or enforced by force of law, was stopped in the United States by federal enforcement of a series of Supreme Court decisions after Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. Its elimination lasted through much of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, while civil rights demonstrations resulted in public opinion turning against enforced segregation.
      De facto segregation - segregation "in fact", without sanction of law - persists in varying degrees to the present day.
      On December 5, 1955, five days after Montgomery civil rights activist Rosa Parks refused to obey the city's rules mandating segregation on buses, black residents launched a bus boycott.
      Little Rock Nine were a group of African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas. They then attended after the intervention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
      Apartheid was a system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through legislation by the National Party governments, the ruling party from 1948 to 1994, under which the rights, associations, and movements of the majority black inhabitants were curtailed and Afrikaner minority rule was maintained.
      n[U] luggage ¶ the beliefs and attitudes that sb has as a result of their past experiences
      The "Dawn-Mobile", the first suitcase on wheels, was invented in 1908 by James Cole. Rolling suitcases were reinvented in 1970, when Bernard D. Sadow applied for a patent that was granted in 1972 as United States patent 3,653,474 for "Rolling Luggage". Sadow's four-wheeled suitcases, pulled using a loose strap, were later surpassed in popularity by rollaboards, suitcases that feature two wheels and are pulled in an upright position using a long handle, and were invented in 1987 by US pilot Robert Plath.
      Some vehicles have an area specifically for luggage to be held, called the automobile "trunk" in the United States. Items stored in the hold are known as hold luggage. If travelling by coach passengers will often be expected to place their own luggage in the hold, before boarding. Aeroplanes in contrast are loaded by professional baggage handlers.
      Passengers are allowed to carry a limited number of smaller bags with them in the vehicle, these are known as hand luggage (more commonly referred to as carry-on in North America), and contain valuables and items needed during the journey.
      Chandler grabs his carry-on and starts rummaging through it.
      There is normally storage space provided for hand luggage, either under seating, or in overhead lockers. Trains often have luggage racks at the ends of the carriage near the doors, or above the seats if there are compartments.
      In airport terminals, a baggage claim or reclaim area is an area where arriving passengers claim checked-in baggage after disembarking from an airline flight.
      Chandler met Janice at baggage claim.
      At most airports and many train stations, baggage is delivered to the traveler on a baggage carousel.
      Left luggage, also luggage storage or bag storage, is a place where one can temporarily store one's luggage so as to not have to carry it.
      Where do we check in our baggage?
      Check your baggage in at the desk.
      How many pieces of baggage do you have?
      Excess baggage is baggage that is larger or weighs more than your ticket allows, so that you have to pay extra to take it on board.
      Never leave your baggage unattended.
      Let's claim our baggage first.
      David left his baggage on a cab.
      But Mona, what relationship is not complicated? I mean we all have our baggage! You must too! Why else would you still be single?
      In essence, India still holds psychological baggage from its colonial history.
      n[C] coin-like objects used instead of coins ¶ gift certificate, coupon, voucher ¶ sign, symbol or evidence of sth
      adj done as an indication or a pledge ¶ merely symbolic
      Casino tokens (also known as casino or gaming chips, checks, or cheques) are small discs used in lieu of currency in casinos.
      The gift token idea is good because it does leave it to people to choose what to spend it on.
      Wedding favors are small gifts given as a gesture of appreciation or gratitude to guests from the bride and groom during a wedding ceremony or a wedding reception.
      Wedding favors are a little token of appreciation to show your wedding guests a little gratitude in them sharing in your special day.
      There are many reasons why people give gifts: as a token of respect, a sign of gratitude, a gesture of kindness, or perhaps, as a simple way to say: "I was thinking about you".
      By the same token (similarly), a horse can use body language in a way that invites another horse to come closer for friendship or play.
      Parents received a token payment for their daughters who were taken to the capital for "job training" prior to their overseas assignment.
      Do you feel Nestlé’s Fairtrade certification for Kit Kat is a token gesture since the vast majority of their confectionary products are not Fairtrade certified?
      Fairtrade certification is a product certification system claiming that products with its brand meet certain environmental, labor, and developmental standards.
      In tokenism theory, a token is a person who is part of a skewed or minority group, making up less than 15% of the total workplace population.
      Tokenism is the policy or practice of making a perfunctory gesture toward the inclusion of members of minority groups.
      This token effort is usually intended to create an appearance of inclusiveness and deflect accusations of discrimination.
      v[IT] do sth without preparing it first ¶ compose or play music, speak or act without previous preparation ¶ make sth from whatever is available
      There isn't much equipment. We're going to have to improvise.
      Ross forgot to bring his notes so he had to improvise.
      It was crazy, we had to improvise the fight and we really got a bit bruised and battered.
      That night on the street was so spontaneous, as the DJ was playing some funk and hip-hop we were just improvising, doing what we like to do, wherever we want to do it.
      Rachel bumps into someone and she drops the pie in a guy's hood that's seated at the table. She improvises by using the plate as a saucer for the coffee.
      Compare these words: ad-lib, improvise, and vamp.
      n[U] broken stone of irregular size, shape and texture
      Some Roman roads were paved roads using deep roadbeds of tamped rubble as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from between the stones and fragments of rubble, instead of becoming mud in clay soils.
      Emergency crews announced they had suspended their search for people trapped in the rubble of the Algo Centre Mall.
      Rescuers last observed signs of life from the rubble of a partially collapsed mall.
      Most of the homes were reduced to rubble (completely destroyed).
      Stalingrad was reduced to rubble, but soon the Nazi advance was mired in urban warfare which was the source of much of the casualties.
      During the San Francisco earthquake at the beginning of the 20th century, many buildings were reduced to nothing more but a pile of rubble.
      Compare these words: rouble, rubble, and ruble.
      adj unable to pay what you owe, insolvent ¶ completely lacking a particular good quality
      n[C] sb who has officially admitted that they cannot pay their debts
      v[T] make a person, business, or country ~, ruin
      Maggie Seaver's parents nearly went bankrupt.
      As soon as the debtor is declared bankrupt, creditors can no longer launch or continue legal proceedings against the debtor without the Court's permission.
      You can become bankrupt voluntarily or you can be made bankrupt on the actions of a creditor.
      Why must I be forced by the government into a bankrupt and corrupt retirement system?
      They are some of the most corrupt and morally bankrupt people on the planet.
      Once you have been declared a bankrupt the official assignee would notify all banks of your status and upon which your banking accounts would be frozen with immediate effect.
      They bankrupted Fannie May and Freddie Mac, now nationalized.
      When the debts bankrupted fruit-seller Petrakis, he committed suicide.
      2 Broke Girls is an American television sitcom created for Warner Bros.
      v[IT] ≠connect
      Hi sweetie? Sorry, we got disconnected.
      Please reattach the fire alarm; it's against the law to disconnect them.
      Joey found that the water had been disconnected.
      If you don't pay your bills they'll disconnect your gas.
      You will be given three months to pay before you are disconnected.
      Never try to mend a broken machine without disconnecting it from the electricity/power supply.
      Divorced men can too easily become disconnected from their children.
      Dissociation is an act of disconnecting, locking the memory or pain in a 'suitcase' and storing the 'suitcase' in the back of the brain.
      v[IT] reduce
      With each subsequent session, the pain would continue to lessen.
      If you are using a rear-facing seat for your child, make sure to never place the seat face forward. This can lessen the seat's stability and security.
      If you're not an adventurous investor, lessen your risks by investing in an index fund, like the S&P 500, which historically has yielded a 10 percent return.
      It seems insurance companies of all sorts find ways to lessen their responsibilities which lead consumers to feel they are not being treated fairly.
      You can greatly lessen the impact of a severe storm by taking the time to prepare in advance.
      To help lessen the chance of a fatality or injury, come up with escape plans for home intrusions, fire or dangerous weather.
      To lessen the effect, the receiving antenna must be as high as possible and oriented so it discriminates against the reflected signal.
      Doing it this way will lessen the possibility of you getting side effects and give your body a chance to get used to it.
      That's because if the simple truths about diseases and their causes were known, health would be more readily available to everyday people, and that would lessen the importance of physicians and medical researchers.
      n[C] two or more notes played together ¶ a straight line joining two points on a curve
      A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of three or more notes that is heard as if sounding simultaneously.
      The English word chord derives from Middle English cord, a shortening of accord in the original sense of agreement and later, harmonious sound.
      A guitar chord is a set of notes that is played on a guitar.
      Phoebe didn't know the actual names of the chords, but she played a few chords.
      Stephanie knows all of the chords.
      If something strikes a chord with you, it makes you feel sympathy or enthusiasm.
      Selling the general public complex economic charts, theories, and equations will basically put them to sleep and get you nowhere fast. But if you can put it in terms of a household, doing budgeting for savings and investment, it will more than likely strike a chord with them.
      In music, harmony is the use of simultaneous pitches (tones, notes), or chords.
      In physics, resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate with greater amplitude at some frequencies than at others.
      A chord of a circle is a geometric line segment whose endpoints both lie on the circle.
      Compare these words: arc, chord, circumference, diameter, radius, sector, segment, and tangent.
      There are two main "slices" of a circle: the "pizza" slice is called a sector, and the slice made by a chord is called a segment.
      adj naked
      n[C] a painting or other work of art showing sb who is ~
      Oh my God, there's an unattractive nude man playing the cello.
      You wanna come poke a nude guy?
      Playboy is an American men's magazine that features photographs of nude women as well as journalism and fiction.
      Did Jeffery show you the photos of the nude wedding he did?
      A lot of major actors do nude scenes.
      David didn't take the nude photos of his wife off his cell phone before he tried to take nude photos of Penny.
      Nude swimming or skinny dipping is the practice of swimming naked, originally in natural bodies of water, but more recently in swimming pools or hot tubs.
      Less than 3 percent of the artists represented in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art are women, but women represent 83 percent of the nudes.
      v[T] cover or protect sth with a material that stops electricity, sound, heat etc from getting in or out ¶ shield
      Make sure when you pack your bags, the content of bags are insulated against water.
      The connections to the solar collector were made using sections of garden hose, insulated from heat loss to the wind by plastic bottles.
      Debtors lose money (pay more in interest) and creditors are insulated against the inflation rise by increased interest income.
      Some economists believe that Asia is largely insulated from the ongoing economic crisis in Europe and North America.
      The rest of us are not insulated from the ill effects of the Obama administration.
      adj extremely worried and frightened ¶ hurried and excited but disorganized, hectic
      The Emergency Room, Ross and Chandler hurtle in. Little Marcel, wrapped in a fluffy towel, is cradled in Ross's arms. They dash up to the admissions desk. Ross is frantic.
      She's a rider with a good overview. In a competition she doesn't become frantic or nervous.
      There's still no sign of Teddy the next day, and Swan becomes frantic with concern.
      We've enjoyed a few frantic days of sightseeing, visiting various pre-Inca sites of the Moche and Chimu period (which was roughly from the birth of Christ to 1470).
      He might pull me under in a frantic effort to stay above water.
      In his frantic attempt to locate Emily, Ross had called several friends, neighbors and relatives.
      The game was played at a frantic pace that I haven't experienced before.
      Try to relax and cut down on the late nights and frantic activity until your body clock is back on track.
      v[I] plunge
      If an amount, rate, or price plummets, it decreases quickly by a large amount.
      If someone or something plummets, they fall very fast towards the ground, usually from a great height.
      Ultimately banks and businesses would collapse and governments would run out of cash, while the stock market would take an almighty plummet.
      Below the surface, the seabed plummets to depths of up to 60 m between narrow gorges.
      In addition, Canadians are eating less beef - consumption has plummeted from 17.4 kilograms per person per year in the mid-1980s to about 12 kilograms in the past few years, according to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
      Rainstorm after rainstorm over millions of years has sent water plummeting down the hard rock, wearing it away to form grooves.
      v[IT] yell ¶ make a loud deep sound that a bull and some other large animals make
      n[C] the sound
      The bull bellowed angrily.
      As the market plummeted, a trader at Citigroup sarcastically bellowed, "Thank you, Obama."
      "He's a damn fool, damn fool!" Claude bellowed.
      Monica gave a bellow of rage and laid about Ross.
      The effect was hilarious! A shout of fright changed to a bellow of laughter.
      Compare these words: baa, bellow, bleat, and moo.
      adj having many small parts or details that all work or fit together
      The court noted that many of the steps in the claims were "likely to require intricate and complex computer programming" and therefore required an extensive computer interface that is eligible for patent protection under Section 101.
      Skilled artisans have hand painted each ornament with intricate details.
      The Islamic architecture in Spain is elaborate and decorative with intricate designs.
      As much as I enjoy knitting intricate patterns, sometimes I also knit something very practical and simple.
      What we are dealing with here is an intricate web of multiple relations between different groups who are interacting with one another in different ways and through changing relationships.
      Before the advent of motorized transport, the city's intricate network of waterways formed the backbone of its goods and commuter transport.
      Compare "delicate" and "intricate".
      n[U] a situation when a plant, an animal, a way of life etc no longer exists
      Ross is watching a show about the extinction of the dinosaurs.
      A quarter of the world's mammal species are at significant risk of extinction.
      Due to widespread use of pesticides they were close to extinction.
      If 1 in 10 members of a nation are fluent, their language can be saved from extinction.
      At the end you say Earth will enter the 6th mass extinction, but many biologists say that the 6th extinction is well underway.
      The area may shrink and many flora and fauna species may face extinction.
      adj knowing a lot, well-informed
      Because general education teachers are the ones who are most knowledgeable about the curriculum they use in their classrooms, they should participate actively in IEP meetings and not be afraid to express their opinions.
      For a guy who thinks of himself as pretty knowledgeable about wine and many wine regions across the world, I must confess that I still get overwhelmed when trying to find values from Bordeaux.
      It makes him appear more knowledgeable and less likely to be questioned.
      Dr. Cooper is extremely professional and knowledgeable in this field.
      Cindy, the tourist guide, and the driver were excellent and very knowledgeable of the place.
      adj ≠patient ¶ anxious
      People are often too impatient to wait until Apple has approval from Chinese authorities for products to be used on Chinese networks, as well as wanting the lower prices.
      I grew cranky and impatient.
      Last year, California, impatient with the EPA's indecision, set its own standard.
      My laptop lags like hell once I start getting impatient.
      The kids were impatient to get down to the beach.
      Unlike Daniels, Roosevelt was impatient to see the US get into the First World War.
      v[IT] flow over the sides, flood, spread ¶ have a lot of, be very full of
      also a noun
      The bathtub is overflowing.
      Rivers and streams have overflowed their banks in countless places.
      The meeting overflowed into the streets.
      Hospitals were reported to be overflowing with dead and wounded.
      Sheldon was overflowing with good ideas.
      My heart was overflowing with gratitude.
      An overflow pipe could be leaking as a result of the ballcock not properly shutting off the valve to the main water tank.
      In Canada, where the overflow of PhD degree holders is not as severe, 80% of postdoctoral research fellows end up earning less than or equal to the average construction worker (roughly $38,000 a year).
      n[C] the part of a theater or concert hall where the audience sits ¶ a large building or room used for concerts or public meetings
      An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres.
      For movie theatres, the number of auditoriums is expressed as the number of screens.
      The Auditorium Building in Chicago was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1975, and was designated a Chicago Landmark on September 15, 1976.
      Chandler pulled up Susie's skirt and the entire auditorium saw her underpants.
      How about four hours in a freezing museum auditorium listening to Professor Pitstains and he's "Hey everybody! Remember that thing that's been dead for a gazillion years. Well there's this little bone we didn't know it had!"
      Compare these words: aquarium, atrium, auditorium, crematorium, planetarium, and sanitarium.